Prof. Shi-Hai Dong
Department of Physics, School of Physics and Mathematics, National Polytechnic Institute Building 9, Unit Professional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, A. P. 07738, Mexico D. F., Mexico.

ISBN 978-93-91595-41-8 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91595-49-4 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v14

This book covers key areas of physical science research. The contributions by the authors include dark energy, dark matter, PLANCK time, age of the universe, cosmic information, thermodynamics, astrophysics, cosmogony, cosmology, mathematical continuum, axiomatics, dielectric permeability, Van-der-Waals equation, Berthelot equation, generalized Van-der-Waals-Berthelot equation, evaporation curve, ratios of the phase-space areas and their invariance, planets and satellites, Bohr-Sommerfeld atomic theory, molecular absorption spectra, interference of absorption bands, middle and near-IR spectral region, the HITRAN2006 database, absorption bands, cluster radioactivity, neutron halo, neutrinos, gauge force, dark energy, elementary particles, aspin bubbles, anharmonic waves, positon, selfpropelled tons, electric forces, gravity, miniature mass spectrometers, harsh environment MS, microfabrication, gas analysis, environmental monitoring, diffusion, conversion, mechanical investigation. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical science research.


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Study Highlighting Calculation of Dark Energy and Dark Matter

Friedhelm M. Jöge

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 14, 10 August 2021, Page 1-8

The rudiments of a theory of dark energy. The theoretical result is confronted with the numerical value calculated from the available data. Excellent matching of numerical values resulting in three independent paths makes the approach plausible. The work at hand is analogous to KEPLER's laws of planetary orbits. Only ISAAC NEWTON put KEPLER's laws on a theoretical basis, which is provided here by THOMAS GÖRNITZ [1]. The empirical BALMER formula for the frequencies of the spectral lines in the arc spectrum of hydrogen was also theoretically justified by NIELS BOHR, who calculated the energy levels of the hydrogen atom and the frequencies of spectral lines.

Summary: The derivation of a formula for calculation dark energy is described. The result is tested on the basis of the available data from the MAX PLANCK Institute for Radio Astronomy. Further formulas are deducted. The dark matter of the cosmos is calculated. A balance sheet is drawn up. Conclusions are drawn.

The concept of immanence as a physical quantity is introduced and applied, allowing for a more comprehensive understanding of effect. The complimentary co-factors of information and immanence are presented as the source and result of the thermodynamic effect, respectively, in mathematical formulations. As a result, the notion of immanence aids in the clarification of the relationship between the concepts of information and reality, and leads to the derivative of the principle of immanence development, which may be applied to astrophysics difficulties, such as the information paradox (i.e., the question of information loss regarding black holes).

Mathematical Cosmogony and Axiomatics of Cosmology

Besud Chu. Erdeni

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 14, 10 August 2021, Page 23-29

In this paper, Mathematical Cosmogony and Axiomatics of Cosmology are discussed briefly. The Universe is the bifurcation of the mathematical continuum. There is no hardware, but only soft ware we restore now on paper. On this the evolution of matter ends up either in the Solar system of planets or in the entire Cosmos.

In the present paper we consider application of equation of state for model gases to the description of experimental dependencies of dielectric permeability on pressure and temperature for nonpolar gases. The case of argon is regarded as an example. It is demonstrated that the generalized Van-der-Waals-Berthelot equation describes the dependence of dielectric permeability on pressure and temperature with good accuracy. It is shown that the measurement of dielectric permeability using the isotherms with small temperature increments provides a means to obtain the exact tabulated equation of state. This result can be used in other areas of investigation.

“The Generalized Van-der-Waals-Bertlo Equation” (Part I): Description of the Gas Evaporation Line

Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Sobko

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 14, 10 August 2021, Page 42-54

In the present paper, only the Van-der-Waals and the Berthelot equations and their generalizations are considered. The evaporation curve is calculated for the Van-der-Waals and Berthelot gases. It was shown that the evaporation curve of real gases resides between those of Van-der-Waals and Berthelot gases. The generalized Van-der-Waals-Berthelot equation is proposed, which characterises evaporation curves of actual gases qualitatively and quantitatively. It was further demonstrated that the generalized Van-der-Waals and Berthelot equation accurately describes other real-world properties.

The generalised Van-der-Waals-Berthelot equation is demonstrated to accurately represent the evaporation curves (saturation curves) for alkali metals in this paper. This analysis is based on the author's estimates for the thermodynamic parameters of saturation curves defined by the generalised Van-der-Waals-Berthelot equation. The results demonstrate that the generalized Van-der-Waals-Berthelot equation describes the evaporation curves for alkali metals with good accuracy (about several percent).

Energy-time and momentum-position phase spaces defined by the electron orbits in the hydrogen-like atom exhibit special properties of equivalence. It is demonstrated that equivalence of the same kind can be obtained for the phase-space areas defined by the orbit pairs of planets, or satellites, which compose the solar system. In the choice of the examined areas it is useful to be guided by the Bohr-Sommerfeld atomic theory.

The interference of the absorption bands of H2O, CO2, and several gaseous biomarkers was analyzed in the middle and near-IR spectral region using the HITRAN2006 database. One of the objectives of the study was to demonstrate an algorithm of the selection of the best spectral regions for laser based analysis of molecular gases in the case of strong interference of molecular absorption bands. It was demonstrated that the problem of the vibration-rotation band interference for detected and interfering gases is aggravated in the near-IR spectral region. This aggravation is caused not only by the decrease in the absolute band intensity for overtones and combination bands of the molecular vibrations but also by the relative increase in the absorption in H2O lines and high density of CO2 lines in the near-IR spectral region.

Study on the Formation of 1 and 2 Neutron Halo Nuclei via Decay of Elements in Super-heavy Region

K. Prathapan, K. P. Anjali, R. K. Biju

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 14, 10 August 2021, Page 84-98

The decay characteristics of 1- and 2-neutron halo nuclei from 270-316116, 272-318118 and 278-320120 even-even nuclei is studied within the frame work of the Coulomb and Proximity Potential Model (CPPM). Halo structure in neutron rich nuclei is identified by calculating the neutron separation energies and on the basis of potential energy considerations. A comparison of the decay half-life is made by considering the halo nuclei as spherical cluster and as deformed nuclei with a rms radius. Further, neutron shell closure at neutron numbers 150, 164 and 184 is identified form the plot of log10T1/2 verses the neutron number of parents.

U (1) Axial as a Force between Neturinos

Barry D. O. Adams

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 14, 10 August 2021, Page 99-137

We show that when left and right handed neutrinos a have majorana mass matrix, local guage invariance produces a fifth force acting between chiral charges on neutrinos and quarks. The force is a carried by a massless (or low mass) 1-spin guage boson, we call an axiphoton. The force is caused by a U(1) axial guage symmetry in the way as the electromagnetic force. We expect from renormalisation that the force constant, \(\alpha\)a is about 1/60 of the electromagnetic force constant \(\alpha\). We show that this force can explain dark energy. Our model predicts decaying right handed neutrinos in the eV - MeV range, and explain the heating of the solar corona. Finally we show that the Tajmar [1] experiment detecting a force due to a rotating superconductor, may be detection of our force.

Study on "Aspin Bubbles" and the Force of Gravity

Yoël Lana-Renault

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 14, 10 August 2021, Page 138-146

Aspin Bubbles" is a theory that unifies all known forces (electrical, magnetic, gravity, nuclear, Casimir, ...) based on a single mechanical interaction between waves and particles that make up our matter. The particles are pulsating spheres that generate spherical waves asymmetric in amplitude and produce contractions and dilations in the surrounding ether that propagate at the speed of light. The particles propel themselves in this sea of waves and reproduce all the forces of nature.

The theory also builds and describes the internal structure of the atom as well as its fundamental and other known particles, relying on Quantum Mechanics and current knowledge.

The most surprising thing is that it obtains the force of gravity as the sum of all the electrical forces existing between two neutral materials.

In addition, it obtains a force not yet detected, called Yannoe, which explains phenomena such as the levitation of clouds, dark matter, dark energy and the possibility of defying gravity.

The objective of this study is only to demonstrate algebraically that the force of gravity between two neutral matters is always the residual of the electrical forces that intervene between their elementary particles.

Miniature and Micro Mass Spectrometry for Nanoscale Sensing Applications: An Overview

S. Taylor, N. France

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 14, 10 August 2021, Page 147-153

The utilisation of miniature and/or microscale versions of more common mass spectrometers has been realised in recent years. As a result, portable analytical instruments have been developed for a variety of 'in the field' sensing applications in aerospace, environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, and process control. The ideas that govern the development of miniature quadrupole mass spectrometers are analyzed in this chapter. In the range of 1-100 Da, two alternative microfabrication processes are compared to a traditional QMS utilised for residual gas analysis. The underlying principles of QMS operation are presented and two fabrication methods for miniature QMS realisation are described.

The present study has been conducted in order to obtain titanium carbide layer using a conversion treatment consisting of two main steps. In the first step a thin pure titanium layer was deposited onto 120C4 carbon steel by PVD. In a second step, a vacuum annealing treatment is conducted in order to diffuse the carbon atoms from the substrate toward the titanium coating. As a result, the pure titanium coating is transformed into titanium carbide. However, depending on the annealing temperature, partial or complete conversion into TiC is obtained. Due to that the hardness of the layer depends on the annealing temperature. By a systematic study of the hardness-load variation, the process of the phase transformation of the layer is then confirmed.