Editor(s)

Dr. Rajkumar Venkatesh Raikar
Department of Civil Engineering, KLE Dr. M. S. Sheshgiri College of Engineering and Technology, Karnataka, India.

ISBN 978-93-91473-54-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91473-55-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/naer/v7

This book covers key areas of engineering research. The contributions by the authors include  DIY safety kit, making COVID-19 safety kit at home, Biodegradable bag for making safety kit, horizontal irregularity, earthquake load, storey shear, maximum storey displacement, storey drift, Lab VIEW platform, mathematical model, defect density, absorber layer thickness, carrier concentration, tin based perovskite solar cell, parallel sigma delta converters, resolution, sampling, interleaving techniques, D-S modulators, quantizing errors, green building practices, energy efficiency, sustainable construction, electron beam welding, equipment for EBW, numerical control, layered Double Hydroxide, intercalation, UV-visible spectroscopy, drug release kinetics, phosphate buffer solution, compliant mechanism, topology optimisation, clutch fork, optimal design, reverse engineering, discharge efficiency, sampling interval, sensor node, wireless sensor networks, aerobic brickbat grit sand, NMR-relaxation, structure-dynamical parameters, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry, signal and transmits, RF transmission, wifi environment, wireless charging, radio frequency,  ransomware, spyware. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering research.

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### Chapters

##### Economic and Easy Do it yourself (DIY) Safety Kit: An Advance Study

Yukta Chauhan

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 1-4
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/9955D

Safety kit proposed in this work is going to be completely biodegradable, reusable, cheap, skin friendly and breathable and it will contain an overall gown, a mask, a cap, gloves, organic non-alcoholic sanitizer and paper soap. The main objective of this paper is to present a cost effective and efficient safety kit in order to help fulfill the scarcity of PPE kits during COVID-19 pandemic. These days it is quite essential to wear safety gears like masks, gloves, face shields etc. resulting in shortage of these items at some places and the second problem is that certain sections of people cannot afford to purchase these items. This paper presents methods to create cheap yet effective safety kits at home. The kit will require easily available material like cloth bag, biodegradable trash bag, polythene bag etc. and items like gown, cap, masks, and gloves can be made using these materials.

##### Studies on Behaviour of Regular and Irregular Tall Structures Subjected to Earthquake Loading

G. M. Naveen, . Chaya

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 5-13
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/2903F

Multi storey buildings are constructed by Reinforced concrete are subjected to earthquake forces are affected dangerously, they get failure during earthquake. The main reason for this failure is that the irregularity in building structures. In this paper study is made to find the response of regular and irregular building structures having plan irregularity located in seismic zone V. In this present study Analysis has been made by taking 10 storey building by Response Spectrum Method using ETABS 2015 and code IS 1893:2002 (part 1). Analysis is carried out for Regular and Irregular buildings at a height of 35.5 m in zone V. Behavior of structures are comparing the responses in the form of maximum storey displacement, storey drift, storey stiffness, periods and frequencies of modes during earthquake. Presently there are four models. One is Regular structure and remaining are Irregular structural models, all models have different shape but having same area. An attempt is made to study the Response of building structures with respect to the loads and their combinations. The results comparison is made by taking maximum load combinations considering the primary loads (LL, DL, WL, and EQL). Totally four Configuration models are considered for the analysis.

##### Development of LabVIEW Based Model of Switched Reluctance Motor Using PI Controller

Padmashree V. Kulkarni, Jyoti Koujalagi, S. Babitha

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 14-24
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/9174D

Using the Lab VIEW platform, this study proposes a unique and creative technique to developing a mathematical model of SRM and controller. A SRM has very good and promising features like simplicity, ruggedness, high torque to inertia ratio and cost effectiveness. This paper shows how to use a PI Controller on the Lab VIEW Platform to reduce settling time and torque ripple for various combinations of Kp and Ki values. All simulations are fully documented with their block diagram and Lab VIEW Subsystem. PI controller vi subsystem is developed in the Lab VIEW platform, which helps in reducing torque ripple and settling time.

##### Study on the Role of Absorption Defect Density, Layer Thickness and Transport Layer Doping Concentration on the Performance of Lead Free Perovskite Solar Cell

Priyanka Roy, Ayush Khare

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 25-32
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/11091D

The perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are the fastest-growing PV technology to date. Just within a decade, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been increased from 3.8% to 25.5%. The efficient PSCs ate toxic in nature due to incorporation of Lead (Pb). In this work, we study about less toxic Pb free MASnI3 based PSCs. The highest PCE obtained by Pb based PSC is 25.5% whereas Sn based PSC is much less 13%. In this work, we simulate and analyze MASnI3 based PSC and obtained PCE comparable to the leading Pb based PSC of 23.4%. We estimated the appropriate doping density concentration required for both electron transport layer (ETL) and hole transport layer (HTL). The ideal absorber thickness required of the proposed device configuration along with the permissible range of absorber layer defect density is studied.

##### Effective Elimination of Analog Impairments Error in Parallel Interleaving Sigma Delta A/D Converters: A Recent Study

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 33-39
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/3143F

Oversampling sigma delta modulators that produce one bit samples of input signals can be utilized to make AD converters that can produce multi bit samples with high resolution but low sampling frequency, or poor resolution samples with high sampling frequency. Using numerous converters running in parallel in a time interleaved manner is one approach of overcoming this limitation.  The resolution of the converter's digital output can be greatly increased in this manner, reducing the quantising error value. However, parallel converters' analogue flaws induce modulation of the output samples, which can significantly deteriorate the converter's capabilities. Many articles detailing different architectures of $$\Sigma-\Delta$$ AD converters limit their analysis to the frequency domain, ignoring the fact that $$\Sigma-\Delta$$ modulators are synchronous voltage to frequency converters. This paper shows how, by understanding the time domain properties of $$\Sigma-\Delta$$ modulators, the problem of analogue converter impairments can be overcome, resulting in a better design of high resolution $$\Sigma-\Delta$$ AD converters.

##### Delta-Sigma A/D Converters in the Applications of Metrological Versus Acoustic Systems

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 40-48
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/3144F

Delta-Sigma A/D converters are now widely used to record sounds and music in digital acoustic systems. In measurement systems, such converters can be used to convert analogue voltage signals to digital signals. The quality requirements of converters used in measurement systems (accuracy) and acoustic systems (S/N ratio) are, however, clearly different. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the differences in requirements for both types of applications.

##### Awareness, Attitudes and Perception of Green Building Practices and Principles in the Zambian Construction Industry: A Qualitative Descriptive Cross Sectional Study

Mutinta Sichali, Luke John Banda

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 49-58
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/3092F

If building industry professionals wish to help reduce the negative effects of construction on the environment, they must be aware of green building technology. Green building demonstration projects have been used to disseminate this knowledge to both practitioners and communities.

##### Review of Achievements of E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute in Development of Equipment for Electron Beam Welding

V. M. Nesterenkov, K. S. Khrypko

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 59-75
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/10897D

Over the past twenty years the Electric Welding Institute named after E.O. Paton has developed and manufactured great number of “general-purpose” machines for EBW, used for welding of various products made of various materials. All these machines may be roughly divided into several types according to the welding chamber volume and therefore the possible sizes of welded products: “small”, “medium”, “large” and “extra large”. They specificity is reviewed briefly in the article. The machines are equipped with an up-to-date 60 kV welding power source of 6 … 60 kW power, depending upon the specific welded materials and their thicknesses. Typically, all machines are completed with the system of secondary-emission electron visualization “RASTR-6”, inseparably integrated into the welding power source. It interacts with an up-to-date control system. The part of equipment, which is exerting influence on the welding process, is under continuous program control. The concept of high-level software control, in which the user interacts with the equipment exclusively via the Windows-oriented graphical user interface, is used. Two basic configurations of the system of numerical control for EBW machines are used. The first uses of a complete industrial system Sinumerik 840Dsl, and the second one uses “short-cut” industrial system Synamics S120. In both cases the interaction of the control programs with executive equipment is carried out using two industrial buses CAN and ProfiBUS.

##### Study of Controlled Release of Ibuprofen Using Mg Al LDH Nano Carrier

Sudip Dasgupta

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 76-86
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/10222D

In the present study, NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as ibuprofen in anionic form was intercalated in-situ into the interlayer space of Mg Al LDH nanoparticles during co-precipitation of hydroxides. The structure of LDHs is comprised of positive charge compensating and exchangeable anion and water molecule. LDH nanohybrids were characterized using XRD, FTIR and UV spectroscopy. Mg1-xAlx(NO3)x(OH)2.nH2O nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation method from an aqueous solution of Mg(NO3)2.6H2O and Al(NO3)3.9H2O. Ibuprofen was intercalated in inter layer space of Mg-Al LDH during coprecipitation of drug LDH conjugate in nitrogen atmosphere. The synthesized nanopowders were in the size range between 25 to 90 nm with an average particle size of 55 nm. XRD analysis proved that there was an increase in d003 spacing from 7.89 Å for pristine LDH to 14.71 Å for ibuprofen intercalated LDH due to the intercalation of bigger ibuprofen molecule in the interlayer space of LDH. FTIR analysis showed hydroxyl and carbonyl stretching of ibuprofen in LDH-IBU sample confirming the intercalation of ibuprofen in the interlayer structure of LDH. Study on drug release kinetic in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 using UV-Vis spectroscopy demonstrated that 50 % drug molecules were released within 15 hours and more than 85 % release was achieved after 36 hours of incubation.

##### Study on the Investigation on Design and Finite Element Analysis of a Compliant Clutch Fork Using Topology Optimization

G. Arunkumar, S. Yuvaraja

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 87-95
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/11122D

Compliant mechanisms and its systems are the focus of the active research. It describes a single elastic continuum used to transfer the motion and force mechanically. Their flexibility and stabilities are significant. The main objective of the study is to explore the development of Compliant Mechanism concept on automotive compliant design with the help of topology optimization. Topology optimization Method is taken for designing the compliant mechanisms. It is a Material distribution approach for finding the optimum size and shape of the structure. The Author focused mainly on automotive application of Compliant Mechanism. I.e Design and implement of compliant clutch fork using topology optimization. Dimensional data is gathered in order to model the actual clutch fork. Compliant clutch fork designs are developed by reducing the weights compare to actual clutch fork with the help of topology optimization to get optimal compliant design. Experiments are directed to confirm the functionality of compliant clutch fork.

##### An Investigative Approach to Enhance the Sensor Node Life by Mitigating the Recovery Effect of the Battery

Satyanarayana Chanagala, Z. J. Khan

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 96-109
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/3103F

Recent advances in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have resulted in a wide range of applications in diversified fields and it is not an exaggeration to say that no field is untouched by the sensors. To name a few are agriculture, defense, medical, disaster and relief management, monitoring of vehicular traffic, wildlife monitoring in forests, monitoring of pollution levels in the atmosphere. The idea of micro-sensing along with wireless communication of these nodes ensures many new domains. The applications of wireless sensor networks can be broadly categorized into the environment, health, space exploration, chemical processing, and disaster relief, etc. Finally, sensor networks will provide the updated information to the end-user. It can be envisioned that in the future, wireless sensor networks will be an integral part of our lives. Nodes are usually run on non-rechargeable batteries. Therefore the energy is a chief concern. Especially when the sensor fields are enemy zones, impenetrable areas like forests and hilly terrains, and other hazardous environments, the only way to deploy them is random. In such conditions, it is difficult to replace exhausted batteries. Further many times the sensor nodes are abandoned for the very important reason that their batteries are drained out. However, the rest of the subsystems of the node are in perfect health condition. Therefore the important bottleneck is to ensure lower power consumption in challenging environments of the sensor field where sensor nodes are to be deployed. Hence past and present research work has been focused on the development of protocols for power conservation. These protocols, in general, provide trade-offs to the end-user to prolong the network lifetime.

The main objective of this paper focuses on the impact of the sampling interval, which is one of the sensor node parameters, on the battery life of the sensor node. An improper selection of sampling interval will lead to a pronounced recovery effect which leads to the premature death of the battery of the sensor node. This would in turn result in the premature death of the wireless sensor network. The suggested approach used in this paper has achieved an 18% life improvement of the battery of the sensor node and hence the lifetime of the wireless sensor network.

##### Aerobic Brickbat Grit Sand (ABGS) Purifier: The New Technology for Treatment of Wastewater in Rural India

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 110-121
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/7835D

Rural wastewater treatment is mostly ignored in developing and undeveloped countries. The most important barrier for addressing to this problem is cost of treatment and simplified technology. Aerobic Brickbat Grit Sand (ABGS) purifier consists of four stages. Wastewater flows gravitationally through partition walls in zigzag pattern with brick bats filter; Pebble sand filter and charcoal and grit filter which facilitate removal of contaminants from domestic wastewater. In the present study, experimental model for domestic wastewater treatment was setup in the Environmental Engineering laboratory at Government College of Engineering Aurangabad, Maharashtra. Physiochemical analysis was done in August and September of 2016 the percentage removal of contaminants results shows Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) 92% - 87%, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 93 - 89%, Total Suspended Solids( TSS) 80 - 78% and Turbidity 95 - 85%. After successful examination of experiment model pilot model was established in the same campus for the treatment of boys hostel grey water .ABGS purifier pilot plant model for grey water treatment show high efficiency in removal of BOD (89%), COD(90%), TSS (86%), Total Phosphorus (77%), Nitrate (93%), Ammonia((90%), Sulphate (67%), Oil and grease(82%).ABGS purifer is eco-friendly and easy to install technology for domestic wastewater treatment with use of locally available material. ABGS purifier is decentralized approach of domestic wastewater treatment. Hence ABGS as an alternative solution to tackle over the problem of rural wastewater treatment.

##### Study of Paraffins in Petroleum Oils by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry

O. V. Kozelkov, R. S. Kashaev, B. R. Safiullin

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 122-131
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/2354F

Using method of pulse nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry (NMRR) were studied paraffins in Romashkino deposit oils (Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation) and oils of BaCH-Ho deposit (Vietnam). As a studied samples was used Romashkino oils, in which paraffin was dissolved. Was used isoparaffin i-C22H46 (docozan). For NMR-relaxation structure-dynamical parameters measurements: spin-lattice T1i, spin-spin T2i relaxation times, their proton phases P1i and P2i, was used NMR relaxometer NMR-NP2 on resonance frequency Vo = 18,45 MHz. Dependences of spin-lattice T1A(ms) and spin-spin T2A,B (ms) relaxation times from inverse temperature 103/T  K and time t (min) of cooling were received. They are described by equations with regression coefficient R2 = 0.94 and demonstrate spasmotic T1A,B,C and T2A,B,C decrease with temperature rise with jumps of their values, reaching ± 20%. So was revealed the processes of structure-dynamical (SD) ordering, which can be considered as a long time hardening phase transition with activation energies EAi through many stage exo/endothermic local phase transitions with formation/melting  of temporary ordered state.  Obviously it is connected with ordering of paraffins. After super high frequency (SHF) irradiation at frequency n = 2.45 GHz, with power P = 180W, 2 minutes, the relaxation times increased. This is the evidence of the viscosity reduction of all proton phases. At temperature dependences of relaxation times T2i for isoparaffin several temperature ranges with different behavior of T2i were elucidated. They are the following:

i) Range of monotone T2A and T2B decrease with the activation energies EAA2 = 12.35 kJ/mol, EAB2 = 13.6 kJ/mol (left part of the curves 1 and 2) at the paraffin melting. The end of this range correspond to the temperature 43oC of allotrope transformation;

ii) Below this temperature range T2B of B proton phase has an uneven behavior with oscillations We suppose they are caused by structure-dynamical processes of temporal ordering of paraffin molecules before the final crystallization, at which T2B falls to value T2B = 6.3 ms.

iii) For relaxation times T2A of paraffine proton phase the decrease of T2A with three clear extremes (minimums) of T2A were observed. Probably they related to three-stage process of pre crystallization ordering of –CH2-CH3- groups. Then was observed oscillations T2A which ended with the full crystallization of phase A and sharp fall of T2A. State of paraffin in this range may be named as “rigid lattice” state.

iiii) In the melt state of paraffine proton phase A population has value P2A = 65%. At the temperature of the full cooling its value reach value P2A = 98%, which is the evidence that at low temperatures main contribution in relaxation descend from the end –CH3 chains. Molecular fragments of B phase have already reached the solid crystallized (ordered) state.

We connected this peculiarities in T2i behavior with SD phase transitions, which appear as a result of temporary (dynamical) formation and following melting of the clusters of supermolecular structures on the paraffin base. In our case they are accompanied by the structure ordering with decreasing of inter atomic distances Rij in structure units. This process is exo/endothermic, the last resulting to the negative local EACA and is the manifestation of open dissipative systems aspiration to the minimum of the free energy and entropy with more sufficient decrease of the enthalpy H contributing in EASD, than entropy S decrease ($$\Delta$$H < 0, $$\Delta$$S < 0, |$$\Delta$$H} > |$$\Delta$$S|), which  gives negative EASD = $$\Delta$$H - T$$\Delta$$S < 0.

##### Studies on RF Energy Harvesting for Low Power Devices

N. Rashmi, R. Hamsavahini, K. R. Mamatha

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 132-140
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/2736F

Recent studies display that wi-fi charging is feasible the use of RF (radio frequency) sign and transmits the strength thru the air to rate the digital devices. Wireless charging is the first-rate and opportunity manner to the traditional charging system.

From last few years we absorbed the inductive wireless charging but now is the time to go one step towards Wireless charging using RF (radio frequency) signal that is discussed in this chapter. The analysis seeks to use the RF received by its antenna to recharge mobile devices. The frequency of the RF signal is selected on the basis of Environment where exactly our application is going to be implemented (Eg. Wifi environment, GSM environment etc) and the selection of the antenna is based on the power density and directionality. The multistage boosting circuit is used to harvest 3.7V DC output from RF signals which is the required voltage to charge mobile and others micro devices. In this chapter we will be discussing fundamentals of RF transmission along with the detail review on different researches conducted.

##### Study on Advanced Mechanisms for Detection of Malware Family Attacks in Computer Networks

G. Sunil Santhosh Kumar, M. Neelakantappa, Vijaykumar Mantri, K. V. Rameswara Reddy

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 7, 8 July 2021, Page 141-148
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v7/11127D

Computer Networks are one of the fastest growing areas of research in this era. Security is an indispensable need for all the type of networks i.e wired and wireless network communications. There are a wide variety of malware and attacks that target the weakness of network. In this paper we have focused on malware which is most vulnerable and is prone to attacks. We tried to address some malware detection methods.