Dr. Ahmed Medhat Mohamed Al-Naggar
Professor of Plant Breeding,
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

ISBN 978-93-91215-94-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91215-05-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/ecafs/v1

This book covers key areas of agriculture and food science. The contributions by the authors include hygiene, dairy, disinfection, disinfectant, microorganisms, food contamination, foodborne diseases, microbiology, hygienic safety, serpentine soil, heavy metal, citric acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid food security, liquid concentration, progressive freeze concentration, coconut water, partial ice melting, melons seeds, proximate compositions, fermentation, flavouring, fermentation, microbial load, nutritional food, under-nutrition, junk food, food supply, oyster, mussel, mineral concentration, noroviruses, chicken pepsin, proventriculus, coagulant activity, vacuum drying, conservation, organic compound, beer production, hydrous solution. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of agriculture and food science.


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An Assessment of the Hygiene Level in the Dairy Processing Plant: Recent Development

Katarína Veszelits Lakticova, Mária Vargova, F. Zigo, Nad'a Sasáková

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 1, 9 August 2021, Page 1-9

Hygiene and sanitation has decisive position in dairy industry; because their level greatly affects food quality and safety. The food industry in the territory of the Slovak Republic applies the HACCP system; which is mandatory for all producers and persons who handle food or place food on the market. HACCP is generally an organizational system that ensures the production of health-friendly food through the analysis and subsequent control of chemical; biological and physical hazards that are able to endanger the health safety of food throughout the production process. In addition; requirements for cleaning and disinfection of the plant are an important part of it Milk; as the main raw material in the dairy plant in the production of drinking milk and dairy products; is an excellent substrate for the growth and multiplication of a wide range of microorganisms. Multiplied microorganisms often cause food contamination and the development of foodborne illness in the consumer. The effectiveness of disinfection affects not only the resistance of microorganisms but also the choice and method of use of disinfectant as well as the external environment in which the disinfection process takes place. The correct choice of disinfectant application plays a key role in achieving the desired goal. In this work we focused on the hygienic level and efficiency of sanitation; using microbiological swabs taken from various surfaces and technological equipment in the monitored parts of the dairy operation and personal hygiene in selected employees. We also used the fingerprint method to monitor the level of personal hygiene; which is an important element in the production of safe food. Hygiene level of food establishments is monitored through the application of the HACCP system which; based on the legal requirements of each operation; must be developed and observed by the respective team. The results obtained indicate a satisfactory level of hygiene in the various stages of production; sufficiently efficient sanitation of premises and technological equipment; with the exception of the working table in section of cottage cheese production; where we detected 40 CFU of total count of microorganisms and 2 CFU of coliform bacteria. The assessment of the personal hygiene of the employees' hands in dairy processing plant was satisfactory; except for one employee who was working in section of cottage cheese production. On his right hand we detected 50 CFU of total count of microorganisms and 1 CFU of coliform bacteria after disinfection. In case non-respect of hygienic principles of surfaces in production sections; and of employee´s hands in dairy processing plant; food contamination can occur and consequently endanger the health of the consumer.

Evaluation of Sanitation as a Preventive Measure of Foodborne Diseases in the Bakery Operation: Recent Development

Vargová Mária, Veszelits Lakticová Katarína, Nad'a Sasáková, František Zigo

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 1, 9 August 2021, Page 10-15

Every step from production through consumption can influence the microbiology of food products. Unsanitary equipment and insufficient hygienic level in food industry lead to increased populations of microorganisms and can compromise quality and safety. Proper use of disinfectants can complement an effective sanitation program. Sanitation is an important part of the HACCP system, as its application significantly eliminates microorganisms in the production process. Sanitation is the process of providing conditions that will ensure safe and wholesome products for human consumption. The system is an auxiliary control body for monitoring compliance with hygiene procedures. As a result of non-compliance with sanitation procedures, food products are contaminated and undesirable foodborne illnesses of the consumer occur. The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is rapidly changing as newly recognized pathogens emerge and well recognized pathogens increase in prevalence or become associated with new food vehicles.  In this work, we focused on cleaning and disinfection of surfaces that significantly affect the hygienic safety of the resulting products. The purpose of sampling was to assess the effectiveness of disinfection in a bakery in order to prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases. For disinfection, a 3% concentration of Savo disinfectant was used. Surface hygiene control was performed using microbiological swabs before the start of production, during production and after disinfection. Samples were taken from work surfaces floor, wall, table, tray and mixer. Disinfectant Savo was effective on floor, wall, tray and mixer where were detected significant decrease of colony forming units of total count of bacteria, coliform bacteria and moulds after disinfection. On these monitored surfaces no bacteria after disinfection was detected. On the table were detected 3colony forming units of total count of bacteria after disinfection which represent decrease of microorganisms, in compare with numbers of microorganisms before production. The results from the microbiological swabs shows that disinfectant Savo was able to decrease the number of colonies forming units after disinfection.

Impacts of Banditry on Food Security in Katsina State Nigeria: A Recent Study

Suleiman Iguda Ladan, Bilkisu Usman Matawalli

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 1, 9 August 2021, Page 16-27

Banditry is one of the major forms of insecurity that has affected the North West geopolitical zone for the past decade presently. Banditry has affected all facets of human life among which is food security in the States affected including Katsina State. The objectives of the article are to explain the impacts of banditry on food security and highlight the recent efforts of the Government in tackling banditry to improve food security among others. The methodology adopted to generate data for the study is through the use of focus group discussion involving two groups of five persons each from the LGAs that are affected by banditry which are sampled for the study namely Jibia, Batsari, Safana, Faskari and Dandume. The results have shown that banditry has negatively affected food security in Katsina State. The negative impacts include killing and kidnapping of farmers, chasing of farmers out of their farmlands, seizing of farmlands, rustling of cattle, burning and raiding of grain silos, and blocking of local trade routes. The Federal and State Governments are making efforts towards tackling banditry and improving food security among others. These efforts are still on-going and have not achieved the desired objectives. It is therefore recommended that decisive measures should be adopted to tackle banditry for improved food security.

Analysis and Toxicity of Some Heavy Metals and Organic Acids in Ficus carica (Common Fig) in Sulaimani / Kurdistan-Iraq

Othman Abdulrahman Mohammed, Mohammed Rawf Hussain, Osama Hamid Shareef, Abdullah Ahmed Hama, Sardar Mohammed Weli, Fatimah Mohammed Ali, Sabiha Sharif Salih

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 1, 9 August 2021, Page 28-40

Serpentine soil refers to soil having magnesium-rich minerals such as chrysotile, lizardite, and antigorite. Fig (Ficus carica) is a plant of major importance in the world. It is a nourishing food and is used in industrial productions. This study analyzes the distribution of heavy metal contents such as Nickel, Cobalt, Zinc, and Manganese in different parts of this plant, such as its leaves, stems, and fruits. Furthermore, the organic acid content, including citric acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, and oxalic acid were estimated. The studied area is known as Kunjirin which is a village located in the northwestern extension of the Zagros-fold-thrust belt in Mawat town, North-East of Sulaimani Province, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The results show that there are significant differences in heavy metal contents among the plant organs except for zinc. The lowest level of heavy metals is in the fruits, while the highest amount of the heavy metal content is in the leaves. Moreover, the organic acids were unequally distributed in the plant organs. However, the lower level of organic acid has been found in the stem, while the highest concentration of the organic acids was found in the fruit part of the plant. The present study concludes that the level of heavy metals in the fruit part is within the legally admitted limits. This indicates that it is normal for human beings and animals to consume such fruits.

Progressive Freeze Concentration of Coconut Water and use of Partial Ice Melting Method for Yield Improvement: A Recent Study

J. A. E. C. Jayawardena, M. P. G. Vanniarachchi, M. A. J. Wansapala

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 1, 9 August 2021, Page 41-55

Coconut water is a highly nutritious liquid food that is a by-product of the desiccated coconut industry. Freeze concentration is the most suitable concentration method for coconut water since the low-temperature operation for concentration does not deteriorate the original quality of coconut water. Suspension Freeze-Concentration (SFC) and Progressive Freeze-Concentration (PFC) are the available FC methods and SFC is a complex and expensive method compared to PFC. PFC is a novel freeze concentration technique to concentrate liquid food by using a simple system. The limitation of PFC is the lower product yield than SFC, and to overcome the problem, the partial ice-melting technique can be used. A simple cylindrical apparatus was used for PFC which consists of a sample vessel, agitator system, and a cooling bath (at -23°C ± 2°C temperature). The final concentration of the liquid product was directly affected by the apparatus agitator speed and sample vessel dipping speed. PFC agitator speed of 290 rpm and dipping speed of 1.3cmh-1 were reported as the optimum operating conditions to achieve the highest concentration for the PFC apparatus used in this study. Using optimized agitation speed and dipping speed coconut water was concentrated up to Brix 8.5° from the initial concentration of Brix 3.5°. PFC coconut water achieved 73.56 % of total yield, 2.42 of concentration ratio, 0.7° of ice phase concentration, and 0.08 of effective partition coefficient. The partial melting technique was successfully explored by recovering initial ice fractions with high solute concentrations and the total yield was improved up to 80%. PFC is the most suitable method to concentrate coconut water without deteriorating its original quality using a simple system that requires low cost than SFC.

Comparative evaluation of proximate composition of five melon seed varieties (Citrullus vulgaris (CV), Citrullus lanatus (CL), Colocynthis citrullus (CC), Cucurbita pepo (CP), and Cucumeropsis edulis (CE) boiled and fermented is presented. Five undehulled melon seed varieties were sorted, cleaned, washed and boiled respectively in deep water for 3h, cooled and hand dehulled. The cotyledons were wrapped with blanched banana leaves (Musa sapientum), tied and pierced in three places with fork, boiled again for 2h, drained/cooled and allowed to undergo chance fermentation at room temperature for 96h. The fermented seeds were pounded to paste, wrapped with ofoala leave (Icecina trichantha) and left near a fire place for another 144h for a second fermentation. Thereafter, proximate compositions were analysed for the boiled   and fermented pulp samples of the melon seed varieties as well as microbial load.  Data obtained were analysed statistically at p<0.05 using SAS and WINDOW 7 for ANOVA and mean separation. Boiling slightly reduced the protein content of the melon seeds from the lowest 19.63% (CP) to highest (CE) 26.73%, when compared with raw melon seed samples; which were further reduced during first stage of fermentation (13.26-17.22%).However, an increase (17.22-22.86%) was observed during second stage of fermentation. Ash, crude fibre, carbohydrate and fat were slightly affected during boiling and fermentation respectively. A total of six (6) bacteria species were isolated in first stage of fermentation namely Bacillus sp., Enterococcus sp, Staphylococcus sp Micrococcus sp, Corynebacterium sp and Serratia sp in all the melon seed varieties. The results obtained in this research showed that these alternative melon seeds could also be used in the preparation of food flavourings.

What better is the Culmination of Food than Nutrition?

Ajit Kumar Jaiswal, Harsh Chaurasia, Labhita Das, . Aditi

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 1, 9 August 2021, Page 75-79

The nutrition from the food is preeminent as the food itself. And with the absence of adequate nutritional value in the food, in the long run, food consumption even turns futile, leading to a double burden of malnutrition. To ensure a continuous flow of food, especially in high malnutrition regions via food deficit, and in a country as big as India, a food supply channel or chain needs establishing. Thus the flip side of malnutrition, extending beyond undernutrition and causing diseases like obesity and diabetes, needs redresser as well. A somewhat out of the box approach is needed to ensure nutritional intake over the section suffering from such issues. In the absence of a nutritional diet, the likelihood of under-nutrition and over-nutrition, with its short-term and long-term consequences increases. The consequences of prolonged malnutrition, mostly resulting from over-nutrition caused by consumption of unhealthy and junk foods, render long-lasting effects such as diabetes, thyroid, hepatomegaly, etc. Optimum nutritional deficit crucially impacting sustainable development depends upon the sustainable dependency over the food consumed. Thus a modern approach is needed to regulate and optimize and tackle the modern world's nutritional problems.

Study on Annual Component Analysis of Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

Y. Yoshiki, C. Mizukoshi, M. Uno

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 1, 9 August 2021, Page 80-89

To study the change in components of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) over a year, their annual obesity ratio, umami components (glutamic acid and glycogen), functional components (Zn, Mn, Cu, and vitamin B12), and Cd and noroviruses (NoVs) contents were quantified.

In oysters, the obesity ratio, and chemical components showed seasonal changes depending on the spawning season. Glutamic acid content increased from November to March. In contrast, glycogen content peaked in May and November. Mineral content markedly increased during spawning. From the comparison of NoVs GI and GII strains, oyster predominately infected by the GI. A remarkable difference in NoVs contents was observed depending on the oyster farms.

In mussels, glutamic acid, Zn and Cu contents were stable throughout the year. Mussels Cd content was one-fifths that in oysters. Although the NoVs strain was affected by the collection area, mussels from both areas showed decreased NoVs contents in summer, corresponding with the consumption season of mussels in Japan.

Our comparative study on the seasonal variability in the chemical components and NoVs contents in pacific oysters (C. gigas) and mussels (M. galloprovincialis) clearly showed an association of physiological with reproduction and environmental factors on farms.

Study on the effect of Sodium Chloride and Incision on the Chicken Pepsin Coagulant Activity Extracted from Proventriculus, Dried under Partial Vacuum

Benyahia-Krid Férial Aziza, Aissaoui-Zitoun Ouarda, Zidoune Mohammed Nasereddine

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 1, 9 August 2021, Page 90-96

Rennet covers only 30% of the world's cheese production because the availability of calf stomach becomes limited (FAO, 2016). This lack has suggested the search for animal, vegetable or microbial enzyme substitutes. Among the alternative animal enzymes, chicken pepsin. In order to study the chicken pepsin stability over time, chicken proventriculus, whole or incised into four parts or incised into slices, without or with salt addition distributed into six (6) different lots, were dried under partial vacuum (47°C, 800 mbar). The effects of the incision or not, as well as the addition or not of salt, and storage time of dried proventriculus, on the coagulant activity of pepsin extracts (expressed in equivalents Rennet Units) were studied. The six batches pepsin residual activities determined immediately after drying operation expressed the relative yield in the fresh state before storage. They were between 50% for proventriculus cut into four parts without salt addition and 18% for proventriculus with salt addition.

After this part of practice, the question that arises : What is the batch of proventriculi that would give a satisfactory coagualnte activity after storage ?

After 54 days of storage, the residual activity was relatively distinct for proventriculus cut into four parts without salt addition: 35.5% and for the proventriculus incised into slices with salt addition of 4.7%. Salt seemed to have caused a great loss of activity during salting. In addition, the incision effect combined to salt addition showed a remarkable loss of activity. During the storage period, the pepsin residual coagulant activity showed better stability of partially vacuum-dried proventriculus cut into four parts and unsalted.

Chemistry of Organic Compounds in the Beer Production: Second Edition

Topwe Milongwe Mwene-Mbeja

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 1, 9 August 2021, Page 97-109

Beer can be considered as a hydrous solution of ethanol, in which several organic substances are dissolved. These organic substances are subject to a variety of reactions, which occur during fermentation, storage, and eventually these kinds of chemical reactions determine the characteristic aging of the beer, and its quality as well.