Dr. Abd Elmoneim Osman Elkhalifa
Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


ISBN 978-93-5547-300-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-308-0 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/ctas/v5


This book covers key areas of Agricultural Sciences. The contributions by the authors include total anthocyanin, pigments, SARS-CoV-2, Pulse crops, black gram, green gram, procurement policy, technology index, B: C ratio, tomato cultivation, seed Testing, seed germination, Pest manipulation, apple varieties, ultra-low oxygen cold storage, intercropping system, Artificial neural network, mean squared error, productivity, harvesting, sprouting, Value added product, distillery spent wash and molasses, Info Crop model, wheat cultivars, irrigation, water use efficiency. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Agricultural Sciences.


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Total Anthocyanin Pigments in Thai Herb Vegetable

Theeranat Suwanaruang

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5, 28 December 2021, Page 1-4

One of the most popular North-East of Thai herbs vegetables is Teaw (Cratoxylum formosum). Teaw is an impressive Thai vegetable, mostly grown in the North-East of Thailand., When compared to many species of indigenous Thai plants, the leaf extract was found to have strong antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. The goal of this study was to look at total anthocyanin pigments in Cratoxylum formosum. The means were evaluated in different exaction solutions (water, acetone, ethanol, and methanol) and at different times (0 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes). Chemically weighed samples of 5 g with modification exaction solutions and difference times afterward absorbance samples at 535 nm by spectrophotometer were examined. At 0 minutes, the results in different exaction solutions (water, acetone, ethanol, and methanol) were909.136±75.010, 737.743±734.871, 704.216±2.313and 825.006±14.226 mg/L respectively. At 30 minutes in diversity exaction solutions (water, acetone, ethanol, and methanol), the concentrations were 873.886±8.626,788.503±17.094, 720.98±30.786 and 758.686±37.772 mg/L respectively. At 60 minutes in diverse exaction solutions (water, acetone, ethanol, and methanol), the concentrations were 903.96±75, 764.53±49.984, 735.236±45.783 and 824.38±14.718 mg/L respectively. The highest anthocyanin in Cratoxylum formosumwas exaction with water at 0 minutes (909.136±75.010 mg/L). Cratoxylum formosum is a Thai vegetable that is commonly grown in the north-east of Thailand.

This study analyzes the persuasive strategies of instruction used by Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia. This is intended to emphasize the given instructions and advice provided by the Saudi Ministry of Health. Rapid information dissemination of disclosure is a priority for virus attack prevention.  Twenty-four texts (STC SMS) on Coronavirus are randomly selected and analyzed to identify the major persuasive strategies exploration used as baseline.  To measure the nature and relevance of the persuasive strategies, textual content analysis is used. It is concluded that MoH has used a variety of persuasive techniques and tones. It is revealed that the MoH uses the strategies of persuasion in isolation or combined with each other. These strategies involve the use of logos, pathos, and ethos. It is also found that in every persuasive strategy there are different techniques that can be specified and pointed out, affirming that multiple techniques may apply in one strategy or another. Moreover, the most recurrent types of persuasive strategy used in text exploration are ethos and logos, while in persuasive techniques; simple and direct language, emergency information language and personal pronoun are predominantly used based on the content analysis. In addition, purposeful and reasonable tones are highly emphasized in the text exploration.

Case Studies on Promotion of Pulses through Seed Production among Farming Community

Noorjehan A. K. A. Hanif, V. Dhanushkodi, G. Amuthaselvi, V. Alex Albert, N. Tamilselvan

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5, 28 December 2021, Page 21-30

In a notion to enhance pulses production and per capita consumption of pulses among the farmers of India, the central government implemented under NFSM “Creation of seed hubs for increasing indigenous production of pulses in India” during 2016-17. Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) at Sirugamani, Tiruchirappalli district is a pioneer knowledge resource centre imparting latest technologies from seed to market in agricultural crops, horticultural crops and in allied sectors to farming community of Tiruchirappalli district. As a seed hub centre, through technical backstopping and interventions of KVK, Tiruchirappalli promoted new varieties like VBN 6 and VBN 8 in black gram, CO 8 in green gram and CO (Rg) 7 in red gram among the farmers of Tiruchirappalli and nearby districts. Focus group discussions, group meetings, field visits, off campus trainings and cluster frontline demonstrations were conducted to motivate the farmers for pure pulse crops cultivation from 2016 onwards. During 2017 and 2018, 72 farmers of Tiruchirappalli, Karur, Cuddalore, Perambalur and Pudukkottai districts were registered for seed production under various categories of Foundation stage I, Foundation stage II and Certified stage. The farmers got higher yield as sole crop than rice fallow pulse crop and average net returns of Rs.75000/- per hectare. In 2019-20, 95 farmers were registered for black gram VBN 8 seed production which showed an increasing trend in area with increasing production. Same year 832 kg per acre production in black gram was witnessed by a young enthusiastic farmer. Horizontal spread of black gram seed production took a fast drive in triggering the interests of wide categories of farmers. Many successful farmers obtained higher yields than local varieties. Through farmer participatory mode till date produced 548 quintals of black gram, 0.23 quintals of green gram and 4.81 quintals of red gram. Through mass media, newspapers, All India Radio and Doordharshan, TNAU agricultural magazine- Uzhavarin Valarum Velanmai, exhibitions, campaigns and trainings promoted the importance of cultivation of pulses as pure crop and increased the area of adoption. Documented two successful cases of farmers in black gram for achieving higher yields than local varieties. Satisfactory feedback was received from the farmers on the new varieties and under this scheme through buy back procurement policy. At present MOU is made for the supply of seeds to Department of Agriculture throughout Tamil Nadu under this scheme.

Determining the Effect of Front Line Demonstrations on Trellis Method of Cultivation in Tomato (Solanum lycopercicum Mill.) in Khammam District of Telangana, India

V. Chaitanya, J. Hemantha Kumar, B. R. Madhushekar, P. Jagan Mohan Rao, P. Sri Ranjitha, K. Ravi Kumar, Y. G. Prasad

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5, 28 December 2021, Page 31-38

The present study was conducted in Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Wyra adopted  villages  in Khammam District of Telangana. Tomato is an important vegetable crop in the district but the yields are not up to expectations due to poor quality, early decay, pests and disease incidence.  An effort was made by KVK, Wyra to address the problem of reducing pests and disease incidence and improving the fruit quality by introduction of technology Trellis method of cultivation in tomato. This was tested on small scale for 3 years with the help of On-farm trials with limited number of farmers. It was proved to be profitable hence this technology was up-scaled and disseminated on large scale with the help of front line demonstrations as the main thrust areas of KVKs are refinement and demonstration of novel technologies, training of farmers and extension functionaries. The front line demonstrations  on trellising in tomato crop were conducted  by Krishi  Vigyan Kendra, Wyra, Khammam  in its adopted villages from 2016-17 to 2018-19 with an objective of improving  the yield and quality of tomato by adopting  the technology  trellising  on tomato  along  with  drip  and  mulching,  use  of indeterminate hybrid varieties, balanced  use of fertilizers and integrated  pest and disease management.  Though trellising has been developed long back the knowledge and adoption rate was low with the tomato farmers of the district. The data from the study like cost of cultivation, production, productivity, gross returns and net returns were collected as per schedule and analyzed.  The results from the study revealed  that average  highest  yield recorded  was 622.58 q/ha in demonstration  plot compared  to control plot yield 431.55 q/ha, an additional  yield of 191.03  q/ha was recorded,  44.33 percent  of average yield increase was recorded over control plot. The extension gap and technology gap enumerated  from  the  study  ranged  from  183.45  q/ha  to  201.80  q/ha  and  11.40  to  41.25  q/ha respectively, with the technology index of 4.21 percent during the demonstration  years. Besides this, the demonstrated  plots  gave  higher  gross  return,  net  return  with  higher  benefit  cost  ratio  when compared to farmer’s practice. In present study efforts were also made to study the impact of FLD on horizontal spread which has increased by 160.36 percent. The study results showed   that   higher average   yield  was  obtained  in demonstration plots over the years compared   to   farmer’s practice  due to high knowledge  and adoption  of full package of practices i.e. use of trellis method of training  to tomato  plants,  application  of farm yard manure, recommended dose of fertilizers, fertigation, mulching etc. Further the study was undertaken to do a formative and  summative (outcome and impact) evaluation of the frontline demonstrations on trellising in Tomato.

Determining the Effect of Storage, Moisture and Temperature on Vigour and Viability of Rapeseed and Mustard

Priyanka Sharma, Monish Roy, Bidhan Roy

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5, 28 December 2021, Page 39-51

Primary objective of cultivating rape and mustard is for achieving higher oil content in addition to considerable amount of protein content. Rapeseed and mustard are considerably regarded as a highly potential source of providing edible oil thereby making it available all the year round by enhancing crop productivity mediated by scientific technological intervention and extension strategies. But due to the lack of awareness particularly in terms of adoption of technological interventions is one of the major constraints in realizing the potential productivity of the crop. In addition, failure to adopt proper harvesting and post harvest operations can lead to substantial losses. Therefore, during post harvest operations particularly threshing and storage of the crop are to be primarily emphasised for increasing the storage life of seeds. Seed vigor and viability plays a fundamental role in achieving good germination percent and hence its maintenance for an effective storage is an essential factor right from harvesting, curing, drying, cleaning, grading, transporting, storage and sowing. Relatively, seed moisture content and storage temperature are the two most important factors influencing seed longevity. In terms of pest infestations particularly occurring in mustard, management of pests at the right time and stage of oilseed crop is very important. Pest manipulation can be reduced or eliminated by proper drying of oilseeds particularly mustard to minimum moisture limit fixed by the guidelines approved by International Seed Testing Association (ISTA).

Study on Apple Storage in Ultra-Low Oxygen Cold Store

Ahmad Khasrow Afif

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5, 28 December 2021, Page 52-58

The present study highlights the issue and as of need for apple storing improvements in our society. For storage of apple we can use different kind of storing methods but storage with Ultra-low oxygen (ULO) cold store had shown significant increase in holding shelf life of apple varieties. Apple storage under lower concentration of oxygen (1.0-1.3% in some cases lower than 1%) in controlled atmosphere cold stores is described as apple storage in ultra-low oxygen cold store. Ultra-low oxygen store room is an airtight gas cold room and its atmosphere is composed of lower rate of oxygen and higher amount of CO2. It has been Investigated and recorded that ultra-low oxygen cold store extends storage life of apple varieties (Royal Gala, Red Delicious, Idared, Jonagold and Golden delicious) from 3 to 6 months under common cold stores to 7-11 months with preserving its nutritional, sensorial and biological parameters and characteristics after harvest. For storage of apples in Afghanistan, mostly simple and cold storerooms are applied but inadequately and with local methods and facilities, due to application of ultra-low oxygen cold storage both can benefit farmers, customers and economic growth of the country.

Castor Based Intercropping System for Sustainable Income under Rainfed Ecosystem

V. Dhanushkodi, V. Alex Albert, S. Nithila, G. Anand, N. Tamilselvan

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5, 28 December 2021, Page 59-67

Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an important industrial oilseed crop that augurs to rainfed and areas under limited irrigation. In Tamil Nadu castor is cultivated mainly as intercrop, mixed crop for the sustainable income under rainfed and irrigated systems. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to study farmers’ attitudes on the castor intercropping system and farmers’ income under rainfed ecosystem in Tiruchirappalli district in Tamil Nadu.  A sample comprising of 100 castor growers (Farmers who cultivated castor as a primary crop) were selected through a purposive random sampling technique. The samples thus collected were subjected to investigation through well-structured interview schedule comprising of closed and open-end type questions keeping the objectives of study in view. The entire study was confined to Tiruchirappalli district of Tamil Nadu for administrative convinience. The results indicated that adoption of vegetable as inter-crop in castor cultivation is a graded process in which a farmer has to pass through different stages like awareness, interest, evaluation, training and adoption. A High extent of adoption of intercropping system in castor with groundnut (38%), redgram (25%) and cotton (21%) was observed among castor growers. On other hand, it was noticed that, only a meager portion of the respondents (16%) followed to adopt mono-cropping of castor with a cropping intensity of 100%. The data revealed that the castor yield was more in the mono-cropping system (22.7 q/ha) than in inter-cropping (13.6 q/ha). Among the inter-crops, cotton, groundnut followed by redgram fetched higher yield to the tune of 22.2 t/ha, 19.1 t/ha and 11.7 t/ha respectively. The promising outcome of inter-cropping in castor were, 1) Effective utilization of farm resources during rainy season 90%, 2) Reduction in input cost (85%), 3 Enhanced farm income and returns (80%) and 4) Food & Nutritional security to the tune of 79%. The study results also revealed that, the castor growers preferred highly market-driven inter-crop like groundnut and cotton while adopting inter-cropping in castor, few farmers preferred redgram for their domestic consumption besides local market. Adoption of a suitable inter-cropping system is an effective tool to obtain additional income per unit area. At the same time growing of multiple crops in the same field is a way to attain food security in the minimum available land.

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) is an important food legume that can be grown under rainfed conditions with least inputs. Pigeonpea is rich in starch, protein, calcium, manganese, crude fiber, fat, trace elements and minerals. High domestic consumption and significant losses due to major insect-pests are become the important issue to have timely forecast of productivity and pod damage caused by major insect-pests in pigeonpea. In this study, we presented here the developed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for forecasting productivity (Kg/ha.) and percent pod damage by two major insect-pests that are Helicoverpa armigera and Melanagromyza obtusa of medium maturing pigeonpea in Central Zone (CZ) of India. The performance of the model was assessed by values of the mean squared error and was found to be suitable for the problem under study.

Assessment of Postharvest Management of Frafra Potato (Solenostemon rotundifolius (Poir.) J. K. Morton)

Issah Sugri, Francis Kusi, Julius Yirzagla, Mutari Abubakari, Salim Lamini, Peter Anabire Asungre, Mukhtaru Zakaria, Patrick Attamah, John Mburi Azasiba, Emmanuel A. Aziiba, Roger A. L. Kanton, Stephen K. Nutsugah, Samuel S. J. Buah

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5, 28 December 2021, Page 79-101

Frafra potato (Solenostemon rotundifolius (Poir.) J.K. Morton) is an underutilized tuber crop cultivated in the interior Savanna areas of Ghana, Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Burkina Faso and Mali. The crop derives its importance from agronomic advantages in poor soils, and yield advantage with limited production inputs compared to other tuber crops. The study highlights salient integrated crop production and postharvest management practices of the crop. Emphasis was put on current and future areas to improve postharvest quality and shelf-life; an area which remains pretty new. Similar to other root and tubers, the tubers suffer much postharvest losses (PHL) due to their high moisture content, susceptibility to physical damage, and high metabolic activity. In general, PHL emanate from primary physio-chemical deterioration (such as weight loss, respiration, compositional changes and sprouting), and decay caused by microbial invasion and physiological disorders. Consequences of PHL losses include reduction in quantity and quality as well as price discounts. There is scanty information on crop-specific postharvest management technologies, and the extent of PHL in Frafra potato.  However, PHL may fall within the worldwide estimate of 30 to 60% across root and tuber crops. To reduce PHL, integrated crop management practices including choice of variety, quality of planting materials, soil fertility management, field pests and diseases management, good harvesting and handling practices, appropriate storage, and use of postharvest treatments, require critical consideration. This chapter provides preliminary information and minimum technologies on good postharvest management of Frafra potato. Certainly, access to improved storage and processing technologies can propel production to economic proportions. Such pieces of information can be updated as more research information and recommendations are generated in future studies.

India is the major producer and consumer of sugar in the world. Molasses based distillery along with their product (alcohol) generate wastewater called as spent wash. It is acidic nature characterized by high BOD, COD value. The Value Added Product from sugar industry is generated by incineration of spent wash results in ash powder which is found to be rich in potassium. Potassium protects the plant from both biotic and abiotic stress like diseases, pests, drought, salinity, water logging, frost, etc. Consequently, a study was conducted to compare the effect of applying Value Added Product (VAP) as a potassic source on maize hybrid COHM(8) with that grown on Muriate of Potash (MOP) as a fertilizer source using a Randomized Complete Block recommendation) -K through VAP (T2), 75% STCR-K through VAP (T3), 100% STCR-K through VAP (T4), 125% STCR-K through VAP (T5), 50% STCR-K through VAP + 50% STCR-K through inorganic fertilizers (T6) (MOP) and 100% STCR-K through inorganic fertilizer (MOP) (T7). The results showed that, 125% STCR-K as VAP produced better growth and yield characteristic, it was similar with 100 percent STCR-K as VAP and followed by 75 percent STCR-K as VAP when compared to control (T1). It is concluded that application of VAP from distillery spent wash (DSW) can be used as a substitute for inorganic potash fertilizer in maize crop cultivation to get higher yield and sustain soil health.


Study on the Biomass Production Assessment of Wheat Varieties under Semi-arid Conditions of Rajasthan through Using Info Crop Model

Arjun Lal Prajapat, Rani Saxena, Sonu Jain, Mahesh Sharma, Bhuwanesh Didal

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5, 28 December 2021, Page 112-122

The present experiment was conducted using double split plot design with three replications consisting thirty-six treatment combinations, namely, main plots: irrigation levels (0.6 Etc, 0.8 Etc, 1.0 ETc and 1.2 ETc), sub plots: varieties (Raj 4120, Raj 4079 and Raj 4238) and sub-sub plots: Dates of sowing (15th Nov., 30th Nov. and 15th Dec.) treatments. The Results revealed that Info Crop model was calibrated and validated with experimental data of three wheat cultivars (Raj 4120, Raj 4079 and Raj 4238) under different dates of sowing and irrigation scheduling. The model performance was evaluated using average error (Bias), root mean square error (RMSE) Normalized RMSE (nRMSE) and index of agreement (d) and it was observed that there is a good agreement between simulated and measured durations. Based on these results it can be concluded that the model was very accurate in predicting the growth parameters like leaf area index, biomass production and yield and captured the temporal patterns of yield variability reasonably well when compared to observed field data with good accuracy (error % between 10-20).

Late Season Sugarcane Genotype as Affected by Irrigation Water Deficit at the Yield Formation Stage in Ferké, North-Eastern Ivory Coast

Crépin B. Péné, Marco H. Ouattara, Sylvain G. Koulibaly

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5, 28 December 2021, Page 123-133

A field trial was carried out in Ferké 2 Sugar mill plantations located in northeastern Ivory Coast, in order to study sugarcane growth and yield response to irrigation water deficit imposed over the yield formation stage. A non-flowering late-season sugarcane variety (Co957) was used as first ratoon crop. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 4 water deficit treatments in 3 replicates. It came out that the optimum water deficit was 20% of normal watering treatment. That treatment gave a water use efficiency of 7.9 kg cane/m3 corresponding to 0.98 kg sugar/m3. Lower crop growth rates (0.2-0.4 cm/day) and cane yields (24.5-78.4 t/ha) were obtained due to a persistent dry season which occurred over the yield formation stage. In line of prevailing climatic conditions, cane juice quality measured was particularly high on the variety used, which performance is known as moderate under Ferké 2 farming conditions.