Editor(s)

Dr. George P. Laliotis
Research Institute of Animal Science, General Directorate of Agricultural Research, Hellenic Agricultural Organisation "Demeter", Greece.

ISBN 978-93-90768-45-5 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90768-46-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/cravs/v3

This book covers key areas of agriculture and veterinary sciences. The contributions by the authors include climate change, erosion, mangrove ecosystem, formulated feeds, genetically improved farmed tilapia, fish feed, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, camel’s milk, antioxidative factors, burrowing behavior, larvae, plasma concentration, metamorphosed newts, digestibility, rumen fluid characteristics, livestock, sustainability index, chicken pepsin, internal bonds, viscoelasticity, microstructure, animal model, endoscopy, gastric ulcer, ethno-veterinary practices, animal health management, medicinal plants, antibiotics, fasciolopsis, cattle slaughter, tenderness prediction, meat colour and tenderness, trained visual panel, visual analysis. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of agriculture and veterinary sciences.

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### Chapters

##### Current Scenario of Mangrove Floristics of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Nitin K. Suyani, Mukesh Kumar Singh

Current Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Vol. 3, 2 June 2021, Page 1-8
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cravs/v3/7742D

The mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar constitute 12.39% of the total area of mangrove of the country. They are recognized as the best mangroves in the country as regards density and growth. About 99% of mangrove lies in Andaman Island and only 1% fall in Nicobar Island. They serve as a unique habitat for various fishes, crustaceans, aquatic organisms, birds, crocodiles, monkeys, etc. These rich and most productive ecosystem forms a basis for the food chain in the sea and coastal waters. They provide fuelwood, charcoal, timber, and wood chips and also helps to stabilize the shoreline and filter the land runoffs and green walls for soil erosion, thus key in stabilizing the loose soil from high wind velocity, tidal surges, and cyclonic storms. But in recent years the mangrove cover of the Islands has reduced from 686 km2 to 616 km2 showing a 10.20% decline. The major reason behind is the undervaluing of the ecosystem, as well as climate change implications.

##### Evaluation of Formulated Feeds for Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT)

Resti Tito Villarino

Current Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Vol. 3, 2 June 2021, Page 9-17
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cravs/v3/1700F

Background: The problem in the development of Genetically Improved Tilapia brought about by the protein from the expensive fish feed is the surprising cost of fish feeds. The study's aim is to look for an alternative and cheap fish feed. The research identified Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) growth and survival rates in the HAPA using formulated sweet potato granules and commercial feeds as the grounds for the development of a Technology Guide. Peelings and leftover materials are one of the cheapest nutrient sources that can decrease the elevated price of fish feed. The experiment method has been used in the research.

Results: The findings showed that the three formulated feeds have lower protein (20.33, 19.3 and 19.6) yet with higher fat (24.1, 15.69 and 10.72) than the commercial (24.1%, 3%). The initial and final weight in grams, length in centimeters and width in centimeters were highest on T1 then followed by T2 and T3. It was with the use of T1 which proved to be an effective feed.

Conclusion: Sweet potato peelings (Boniatos) and the remaining mackerel scad fish bones (Decapterus macarellus) that do not compete with human consumption should be developed for use in the formulation of feed. The ingredients utilized in the feed formulations are possible substitution of fish feed and the advancement of its usage is commendable.

##### A Detailed Review on Camel Milk

Current Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Vol. 3, 2 June 2021, Page 18-26
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cravs/v3/7882D

The article describes the role of camel milk in human diet. Camel milk differs from other ruminant milk as it contains low cholesterol, low sugar, high minerals, high vitamin C and higher protective proteins like lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, Immunoglobulins and lysozyme. Camel meat is a delicacy not to be missed during festivities. Male camels are also used for transportation of water, and of household items when families move to new grazing sites within the range. In addition, camels have an important role in traditional social relations, such as in payment of a dowry, and in compensation of injured parties in clan feuds. Camel’s milk is unique in terms of antioxidative factors, antibacterial, anti-arthritis, antifungal, anti-hepatitis, antiviral, treatment for Para tuberculosis, prevent aging, remedy for autoimmune diseases and cosmetics. Camel milk lacks $$\beta$$-lactoglobulin and used as an option for the individuals intolerant to lactose of cow’s milk. Insulin in camel milk is safe and efficacious in improving long- term glycemic control in diabetic patient. Camel milk reduces autism symptoms in children. Lactoferrin in camel milk has ability to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cell. Camel milk is rich in zinc and magnesium thus endowed antiulcer properties. Camel milk has high $$\alpha$$-hydroxyl acids which are known to smoothies the skin and also used to treat skin disorders such as dermatitis, Acne and Eczema. Although camel milk has such values, it’s less appreciated thus its consumption is restricted to pastoral area. Further studies should be conducted on the chemical composition and medicinal properties of camel milk.

##### Study of the Habitats, Burrowing Behavior, Physiological Adaptation and Life Cycle of Spadefoot Toad (Pelobates syriacus, Boettger, 1869) at the Southern Limit of Its Distribution in Israel

Current Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Vol. 3, 2 June 2021, Page 27-36
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cravs/v3/6842D

##### The Effect of Light and Soil Moisture on the Environmental Behavior of Newts (Triturus vittatus vittatus, Urodela): A Detailed Study

Current Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Vol. 3, 2 June 2021, Page 37-45
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cravs/v3/6843D

The effects of light and moisture on the response of metamorphosed newts (Triturus vittatus vittatus) to hiding places were studied under experimental conditions. No significant differences (X2-test; P > 0.05) were found in the choice of hiding places covered with black or transparent paper as the controls for the experiments. The newts' selection of hiding place was significantly affected by soil moisture and negative phototaxis. Significant differences (X2-test; P < 0.05) were found in the choice of hiding places between those covered by black paper and those covered by transparent, differently colored paper (transmitting different wavelengths of light): colorless, yellow, red, blue and green. The negative phototaxis differed with wavelength. The response to moisture was stronger than that to light. In all combinations tested, juvenile T. v. vittatus chose moist soil in hiding places covered by black or transparent paper, and the differences were significant (X2-test; P < 0.001).

##### Comparison of in vitro Digestibility and Rumen Fluid Characteristics between the Tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia) with Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum): An Advanced Study

Novirman Jamarun, Roni Pazla, Mardiati Zain, . Arief

Current Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Vol. 3, 2 June 2021, Page 46-51
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cravs/v3/1688C

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) on in vitro digestibility and rumen fluid characteristics. This research was carried out using a randomized block design with 3 treatments (the level of tithonia and elephant grass) and 5 replications. The following treatments were performed: T1 = 100% tithonia; T2 = 100% elephant grass; T3 = 50% tithonia + 50% elephant grass. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA), and differences between the treatment means were tested using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The parameters measured were as follows: dry matter digestibility (DMD) (%), organic matter digestibility (OMD) (%), pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) (mM) and NH3. The results revealed that DMD, OMD and VFA were significantly (P<0.01) increased by the 100% tithonia (T1), pH was lowest (P<0.01) in T1. However, T1 and T3 non-significantly affected (P>0.05) NH3 Concentration.  The overall study indicates that tithonia plant successfully has the highest digestibility in vitro and characteristics of rumen fluid.

##### Strategy for Improving the Management of Feed and Drinking Water for Smallholders Livestock Based on Sustainability Status in Lombok Island, Indonesia

. Mashur

Current Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Vol. 3, 2 June 2021, Page 52-67
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cravs/v3/8097D

The availability of feed is one of the most important factors in developing beef cattle farming. Until now, beef cattle breeding in Indonesia is still dominated by smallholder farms.  Almost all of the cattle breeding are smallholder livestock businesses with relatively low levels of production and productivity. Beef cattle farming on the island of Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara Province, is carried out using a group of collective cages, making it easier to manage and develop them. This study aims to develop a strategy to improve the management of feed, drinking water, and the socio-economic culture of beef cattle farming based on collective cages based on their status of sustainability in Lombok Island, Indonesia. The method used to determine the sustainability status is Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) with the Rapid Appraisal Beef Cattle Smallholder (RAPBCS) approach. The sensitive attributes that affect the sustainability index and the effect of errors are determined based on the Leverage analysis and Monte Carlo test. The results of the sustainability analysis show that the dimensions of animal feed management are 62.99%; dimensions of livestock drinking water management 63.12%; and social, economic, and cultural dimensions 55.45%. The results of the analysis of the 39 attributes studied contained 13 sensitive attributes that needed to be improved because they would affect increasing the value of the sustainability index. Multidimensional analysis of the continuity of improved management of feed, drinking water, and socio-economic and cultural practices for beef cattle based on collective cages on the island of Lombok, obtained a combined value of 60.86 in the category of moderately sustainable. Determination of the key sustainability factors obtained by prospective analysis to determine the strategy for improving feed and drinking water management in beef cattle farming based on collective cages in the future. The node is the status of the sustainability of feed management improvement, increasing farmer productivity, efficiency, and income; (2) strategy increasing the role of the government, business world, and other stakeholders and (3) strategies to strengthen farmer institutions, farmer economic institutions, extension institutions and the role of community leaders.

##### Chicken Pepsin and Rennet Gels: Internal Bonds, Rheology and Microstructure

Ferial Aziza Benyahia-Krid, Ouarda Aissaoui-Zitoun, Halima Boughellout, Faiza Adoui, Amani Harkati, El Hocine Siar, Abdellah Zikiou, Attia Hamadi, Mohamed Nasser Eddine Zidoune

Current Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Vol. 3, 2 June 2021, Page 68-77
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cravs/v3/1956F

The internal bonds created in milk gelation with chicken pepsin were approached by the use of dissociating agents-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), urea, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and compared to those with rennet gel. Gels viscoelasticity aspects and microstructure were studied using rheological dynamic non-destructive measurements and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) respectively. Results showed that no significant differences (p>0.05) in protein interactions between the two types of gel, with hydrophobic binding dominance in protein gelation. Viscoelasticity and microstructure also showed a similarity in the viscoelastic properties and in milk aggregation micelles mode, obtained by chicken pepsin or rennet.

##### Research on Gastric Ulcer Model in Mini-Pig

Woon Kyu Lee

Current Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Vol. 3, 2 June 2021, Page 78-85
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cravs/v3/9461D

Purpose: For its simple handling, small size, and analytical and physiological similarities to humans, the mini-pig has been in high demand in the basic and clinical research fields. It has been used in numerous clinical studies to mimic a wide range of ailments, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, bone abnormalities, skin infections, and gastrointestinal ailments.  It could be the most useful animal model for studying gastrointestinal diseases including gastric ulcers.

Materials and Methods: In this experiment, Sus scrofa female mini-pig weighing around 30 kg was employed. Animals were fasted for 48 hours with free access to drinking water after a week of acclimation, followed by an endoscopic intra-gastric acetic acid injection. Mini-pigs were divided into two groups, each with two mini-pigs. Endoscopy was used to examine the process of gastric ulcer development at the time of injection, on the 7th day, and on the 14th day. On the 14th day after the drug injection, an autopsy was performed, followed by a stomach tissue analysis.

Results: Gastric ulcer was induced very efficiently in mini-pig animal with clearly visible signs of necrosis, inflammation and mineralization. The therapeutic qualities of famotidine were proven when illness symptoms were significantly reduced.

Conclusion: We found that mini-pig can be an effective and practical species for inducing gastric ulcers, with a high resemblance to humans, and can be used in a variety of preclinical research. Animal models that are being used to study digestive diseases are important for understanding of pathogenesis of these disorders and testing new therapies.

##### Ethno-veterinary Practices for Animal Health Management and the Associated Medicinal Plants from 24 Locations in 10 Indian States

M. N. Balakrishnan Nair, N. Punniamurthy, S. K. Kumar

Current Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Vol. 3, 2 June 2021, Page 86-102
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cravs/v3/1691C

Introduction: The aim of this chapter were to collect the ethno-veterinary practices for prevention and cure of animal health conditions and associated flora from healers and knowledgeable dairy farmers and to rapidly assess these practices for their safety and efficacy.

Methods: Participatory rural appraisal and matrix ranking are used for prioritization of the animal health conditions. The documented formulations were rapidly assessed for their safety and efficacy using rapid assessment methodology.

Results: Local people used 248 species of plants belonging to 80 families for prevention and cure of animal health conditions. Out of 441 formulations using various plants, 353 are safe and efficacious. The majority of these medicinal plants belong to Leguminosae (27 species with 20 genera), Apiaceae (nine species), Cucurbitaceae (8 species), Euphorbiaceae (11 species) and Poaceae (14 species). Leaves are commonly used (34.42%) followed by roots, (11%), fruits (9.74%), seeds (8.76%), barks (8.76%, whole plant (3.57%) stem (3.25%) and rhizome (2.6%). Average expenditure incurred for animal health care by a household was Indian Rupees 726.00 with western veterinary treatment and Indian Rupees 42.4 with ethno-veterinary practices, saving Indian Rupees 684 per episode.

Conclusion: In the community, there is a wealth of cost-effective conventional animal health information and services. In livestock management, ethno-veterinary methods are a feasible alternative to antibiotics and other chemical medicines.

##### Determine the Prevalence of Fasciolopsis in Cattle Slaughtered at Eke Market Abattoir, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Ngele, Kalu Kalu, Ibe, Edward

Current Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Vol. 3, 2 June 2021, Page 103-109
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cravs/v3/8305D

In the current study, feacal samples collected from the rectum of slaughtered cattle were analysed using the standard floatation technique (saturated sodium chloride) to recover the ova from the faecal samples to determine the prevalence of fasciolopsis among cattle slaughtered at Eke Market abattoir, Afikpo, Ebonyi State Nigeria. The liver and other organs of the slaughtered cattle were also tested post mortem for Fasciola species. Of the 256 cattle slaughtered at the Eke Market abattoir between May 2011 – April 2012, 93(37.89%) were found to be positive with F. hepatica, 60(23.44%) were infected with F. gigantica. In this study, the prevalence of fasciolopsis on the livers and other organs examined during post mortem examination were 66(25.78%) for F. hepatica and 42(16.41%) for F. gigantica. The most common fasciolopsis infection in the study area was F. hepatica. Balantidium coli infection was found among the cattle sampled, with a prevalence of 46(17.97%). Due to the high prevalence of fasciolopsis in the study area, veterinary and health officers should inspect meat slaughtered at the Eke Market before releasing it to the public for consumption. For the cattle headsmen, a range land should be supplied that is devoid of freshwater snails (the intermediate hosts) of Fasciola infections.

##### The Relationship between Loin Surface Visual Characteristics with Instrumental Colour and Tenderness Characteristics from Five South African Beef Breeds

K. Y. Modika, L. Frylinck, K. W. Moloto, E. C. Webb

Current Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Vol. 3, 2 June 2021, Page 110-120
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cravs/v3/6080D

The study describes the relationship between visual and instrumental measurements for colour and tenderness between 5 South African beef breeds; Bos indicus (Brahman), Sanga type (Nguni), British Bos taurus (Angus), European Bos taurus (Charolais) and the composite (Bonsmara), 10 animals per genotype were used, n=50. The animals were finished off on a feedlot diet for a period of between 90-110 days at the ARC-AP feedlot and were slaughtered at the ARC-AP abattoir when they reached a live weight which would produce a carcass of Class A (no permanent incisors), and fat class 2 to 3 (1-5 mm) (South African Beef Classification System). After exsanguination, the carcasses were split and the right sides were electrically stimulated (ES) and the left sides were not stimulated (NS), but delay chilled. Steaks from both ES and NS treatments were aged until 3 days (d) post mortem (pm) on polystyrene plates at 6°C in a display cabinet and until 9, 14 and 20 d pm in vacuum bags at 1-4°C in a cold room. The steaks were then evaluated by visual analysis for colour, marbling, fibre separation, surface texture and structure integrity using a 10 member trained panel. Instrumental colour was measured using Minolta meter (CIE L*, a*, b*). Instrumental tenderness was measured by shear force using Instron.

Results of the study showed that Nguni breed produced the most tender and darker meat whereas, the Bonsmara breed produced the least tender and lightest meat. Good correlations were observed between the visual colour and L* (r=0.809; P<0.0001), b* (r=0.698; P<0.0001) and hue (r=0.797; P=0.797). There were also correlations between shear force and structure integrity (r=-0.410; P<0.0001) and fibre separation (r=- 0.401; P<0.0001). Very low correlations were observed between visual colour and shear force. Therefore, although a trained eye could judge meat colour by visual analysis, it seems not possible to predict tenderness by colour judgement. Visual texture did not show any potential as a reliable visual tenderness attribute, therefore cannot be used to predict meat tenderness. However, there is potential for an experienced eye in predicting tenderness by observing visual structural properties such as fibre separation and structural integrity.