Dr. Abd Elmoneim Osman Elkhalifa
Professor, Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

ISBN 978-93-91215-23-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91215-31-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/cras/v11

This book covers key areas of agricultural sciences. The contributions by the authors include  infestation, ectoparasitic fauna, domestic animals, livelihood, diversification, livelihood strategy, biodiversity, sensory properties, fattening, fresh meat, thermally treated meat, mass losses, changing climate, drought resilience, feed resources, nutritional characterization, nutritional composition, minerals, phytochemicals compound, antioxidants properties, agricultural science, organizational culture, social capital, transactional costs, sweet potato viral disease, meristem-tip culture, virus elimination, field performance, habitats, vegetation community, entomopathogenic fungi, mass production, liquid and solid media, pathogenicity, drip irrigation, infiltration, irrigation schedule, permeable velocity, coffee husk compost, greenhouse effect, hatchability, laying period. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of agricultural sciences.


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The zoological and epidemiological examination of Ectoparasite on some domestic Animals was carried out under open laboratory survey. 100 numbers of Sheep, 100 number of Dogs, 100 number of Goats, and 100 numbers of Cattle were examined for infestation. Structured questionnaire was administered in five (5) sampled communities’ areas within the study area. The villages were purposely chosen due to their proximity to the forest zone. The questionnaire was designed to collect information on the infestation rate of Ectoparasite fauna on some domestic animals in the Local Government Area. A total of hundred respondents were randomly selected and interviewed. The study revealed that the domestic animals were infested by the Ectoparasite in the communities. Ticks infestation reached its peak in the month of November 2009. The study revealed that 30%, 29%, 21%, and 20% of goats, dogs, sheep and cattle were infested respectively. In cattle, low infestation was recorded. The Ectoparasite examination was mainly on members of order Anoplura, order Siphonaptera and sub-order Ixodiodea. Two species of Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus and Boophilus were recorded while only a species of Hyalomma Haemaphysalis, Ctenocephalisdes were observed. Also two species of Anoplura that are of Linognathus vituli and Heamatopinus suis were observed during the survey. In the survey, infestation of fleas was mostly high between the months of June to September 2009. Examination of free and penned ranging animals was also observed. The survey recorded 21% of tick’s infestation on sheep. The examination revealed that the predilection site of tick’s infestation could be sighted mostly on neck region while that of the fleas is found at the trunk region. The findings of this study have given an update on the inventory of ectoparasites of livestock in Ayedire Local Government Area of Osun state, Nigeria.

The important cash crop of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is Cocoa. Despite significant government investment, productivity remains below capacity, owing to the government's technological research, growth, and extension (RD&E) emphasis. The aim of this research was to determine the impact of livelihood diversification on cocoa production in selected areas of PNG's Morobe and East New Britain provinces. The specific goal was to see if the study areas' cocoa production was influenced by farmers' livelihood diversification activities. The livelihood diversity and its effects on cocoa production in the selected provinces were studied using a cross-sectional descriptive analysis involving semi-structured interviews and discussions in the form of phenomenological reflection. NVivo software was used to analyse the data. Land scarcity, land tenure, risk minimization, cultural influences, farming system patterns, opportunities, comparative advantage, and the impact of modern changes were discovered to be the key causes of farmer participation in diversified livelihood activities.  The key motivation for diversifying livelihood practises was to increase a household's income portfolio and boost their social standing. As a result, despite its value, smallholder farmers do not devote their full attention to cocoa production.

Sensory Evaluation of Lamb’s Meat from Vlasina Lake, Serbia

Jasmina Stojiljkovc, Zoran Stojiljkovic, Dragutin Djukic

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 11, 26 June 2021, Page 20-34

It is known that sheep and lamb are highly nutritious. In Serbia, the most delicious mountain lambs why are most of the country and the world. In the modern economy of sheep production, it is considered that 85-90% of the income is provided from the obtained meat and milk used for fattening lambs, while only 10-15% of the total value of income is realized with wool. The characteristics and composition of lamb meat, above all, depend on the way the animals are raised, as well as on the application of many measures that need to be taken in the fattening of young lambs.

The purpose of this paper is to determine the sensory properties of lamb meat. The research was carried out on 12 lambs (6 male and 6 female) of the “Pirot improved sheep” were examined in order to determine the influence of length of fattening lambs and gender of lambs on sensory properties of fresh and thermally treated lamb meat. The first group of lambs was fattened for 60 days, the second and the third 120 and 180 days. Nutrition of the lamb to rejection (40 days) is the mother's milk. After 40 days, it switched to pelleted concentrate (with 18% protein) and a quality hay, which was ad libidum as the concentrate. At the end of the fattening, the lamb is slaughtered by the usual technique. The examined sensory properties of meat are: colour, odour, texture, marbling with points from 0 to 5. The best sensory features have the fresh meat of the lambs of the third group, and a weaker average score has the meat of the first group. The lamb's sex has an effect on the meat's marbling. Marbling is significantly better for female lambs meat than male lamb meat (P <0.05). The odour, flavour, tenderness and softness for thermally treated lamb meat in all three groups are not significant for male and female lambs. Mean tenderness values are significant (P <0.01) higher in the second in relation to the first group for both genders lambs. The sensory characteristics of roasted meat of female lambs for the three groups were assessed with higher grades compared to male lamb meat. Statistically significant differences between the genders in terms of meat flavour were determined for the second (P <0.05) and the third (P <0.01) group of lambs. It can be concluded that thermally treated meat of female lambs has better sensory qualities than the male lamb's meat. Differences in mass losses between the first and third, as well as between the second and third groups are significant (P <0.01). The gender of lambs does not have a significant effect on the mass losses of meat during cooking or roasting.

Study on Nutritional Characterization of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) as Forage in Kenya’s Rangelands

Margaret Syomiti, E. Maranga, G. Obwoyere

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 11, 26 June 2021, Page 35-44

The potential utility of drought-resilient and under-utilized Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) as livestock forage supplements has not been indisputably determined under the Kenyan conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine plausible pathways in the search for alternative feeding innovations to combat feed scarcity and feed quality as well as providing ideal interventions for adapting climate resilient livestock production systems. Arid and semi-arid areas of Baringo, Laikipia and Nyeri were selected for this study due to the prevalence of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) in these counties. The qualitative changes in nutrient content of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) are hypothesized to be linked to anatomical characteristics, physiological condition as well as phenological stage of plant growth. Proximate analytical techniques were used in evaluation of nutrient content of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) using on-farm forage sampling. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods were used to isolate the absence or presence of morphological and plant stage of growth significant treatment effects on Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) samples. Significant (P<0.001) crude protein (CP) content (14.9%) was observed in young spiny and spineless Cactus cladodes. Spiny and spineless (Opuntia ficus indica) Cactus were not significantly (P>0.05) different in terms of nutritional quality. Mature cladodes of spineless Cactus had the highest crude fibre (CF) content (32%). Ripe fruits of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) had significantly (P<0.001) higher nitrogen free extracts (NFE) (39.6%) content than other plant parts. The high CP and high energy levels (39.6% NFE) of Cactus species authenticate the value of under-utilized drought-resilient forages as alternative supplementary sources of feed for livestock in the truncated landscapes of Kenya. Cactus species cladodes and fruits are thus ideal non-conventional feedstuffs, and are recommended as alternative feed resources for substituting scarce and expensive conventional energy feed sources in Kenya’s dry lands.

Determination of Bioactive Compounds, Biochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Selected Minor Indigenous Fruits in Bangladesh

M. M. Molla, A. A. Sabuz, M. G. F. Chowdhury, M. H. H. Khan, M. Alam, T. A. A. Nasrin, A. Khatun, M. M. Islam

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 11, 26 June 2021, Page 45-62

Minor fruits may contain antinutrients, but there is no comprehensive primary data available in Bangladesh. As a result, the current research was carried out in order to collect data for a database of minor fruit composition. The antioxidant activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and reducing power assays were used to evaluate the total phenolic (TPH), vitamin C, total carotene, and ß-carotene contents and antioxidant activity of selected minor fruits (RPA). High-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector and autosampler was used to analyse phenolic compounds. The findings revealed that minor fruits contain a variety of phytochemicals,, particularly TPH, ascorbic acid, total flavonoid (TF), ß-carotene, total carotenoid (TC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC); values ranged, respectively, 0.23-176.50 mg GAE/g, 16.67-664.92 mg/100 g, 2.26-150.02 mg QE/100 g, 1.41-6897.57 µg/100 g, 1.26-98.24 mg/100 g and 1.15-47.46 mg/100 g. In the parameters antioxidant activity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH, reducing power capacity (RPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), metal chelating capacity (MCC), nitric oxide (NO), and free radical scavenging activity, IC50 ranged 0.01-278.24 µg of ascorbic acid/mg of extract, 39.70-250.00%, 3.21-634.00%, 0.02-1817.88 µM Fe2SO4/100g, 22.29-210.43%, 0.02-70.50%, and 4.98-856.70 µg/g, respectively. Phenolic acids that have been found and quantified, leading examples were gallic acid (279.06 mg/100 g), vanilic acid (43.77 mg/100 g), Þ-courmaric acid (178.96 mg/100 g), ferulic acid (20.44 mg/100 g), and lutein (91.13 µg/100 g) in aonla, day fruit, elephant apple, and bilimbi. Furthermore, all of the minor fruits are high in bioactive, biochemical, and antioxidant compounds that could be used in therapeutic applications.

Social Capital and Employee Behavior in an Organization: Resource for Reduction of Unproductive Waste in Agrarian Economy

Victor F. Stukach, Nadezhda A. Anikina, Vitaliy M. Pomogaev

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 11, 26 June 2021, Page 63-70

Objectives: The goal of this research is to investigate the parameters of existing organisational culture in the agrarian sector as a resource for forming social capital and its impact on transactional costs formation.

Method: Analytical methods such as sociological and expert interviews, content and problem-oriented analysis were used in an attempt to achieve the desired goal. The investigation of behavioural characteristics was based on G. Hofstede's parametrical models adapted to agriculture. The methods we used were intended to achieve the following goals: to reveal the essence of the agrarian sector's transactional costs while taking into account peculiar features in the field, to identify the specifics of behavioural settings and values, the specifics of cost patterns within the regional institutional interaction framework, and to analyse cultural codes and the agrarian sector's path dependence problem.

Findings: The parameters of existing organisational culture were studied on the materials of the agrarian sector of the regional economy; transaction cost specifics shaped by cultural component were identified; and research on cultural codes was carried out. The agrarian sector exhibited the following characteristics: an excessive production cycle, unequal income distribution throughout the year, and dependence on natural and climatic conditions. The features outlined above demonstrate the importance of state support and a well-developed communication system. The cluster of cultural components denotes a cultural code that reflects a high level of role differentiation between men and women; prevalent collective consciousness; a tendency to avoid situations of uncertainty and clearly established courses of action and regulations; a low level of self-control and a low level of the need to satisfy basic needs. Specific transactional costs shaped by cultural determinants include: data searching, processing, and storage costs, negotiating and contracting costs, coordination costs, politicization costs, collective decision making costs, and lost profits costs. The paper aimed to help solving issues related to overcoming informal institutional limitations, also it could be applied for development and accumulation of social capital, implementation of best informal practices on costs reduction by elimination of lost profits, functioning quality increase of transactional sector of economy in general.

Using Biotechnological Approaches for Virus Elimination in Sweet Potato: A Review

Yan Meng, Chunquan Zhang, Victor Njiti

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 11, 26 June 2021, Page 71-76

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) belongs to the Convolvulaceae family and is an important crop for food security. Sweet potato is subject to a wide range of pathogen infections. Among them, viral diseases are the major constraints for sweet potato productions, because viruses can be accumulated and transferred from one generation to the next through the use of infected storage roots for vegetative propagation. There are over 30 viruses worldwide that are known to infect sweet potato and many of them have been reported in the United States and have caused devastating yield losses. To realize the full potential of this crop, meristem-tip culture based biotechnique has been adopted for producing virus-indexed propagating material in the U.S. This review attempts to assess methodology for sweet potato virus detection and identification, as well as current biotechnological approaches for virus elimination and disease management. We also provide insights regarding the potential concerns and challenges for sweet potato industry.

Recent Study on Vegetation Classification and Habitat Types of Gambella National Park

Gatluak Gatkoth Rolkier, Kumelachew Yeshitela

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 11, 26 June 2021, Page 77-99

Gambella National Park has a diverse set of habitat types, which Ethiopia shares with its neighbor, South Sudan and the Park is considered as one of the top wildlife areas of Ethiopia . The development of management plan of the Gambella National Park is hindered by lack of information on habitat types within the park. The objectives of this research were to determine vegetation types and identify habitat types on recent satellite imageries. The method used for vegetation data collection was transects lines. PC-ORD software was used for analyzed vegetation data while Rapid Eye image 5m resolution 2012 was analyzed by ArcGIS version 10.1 to classify the habitats map of Gambella National Park. The cluster analysis classified, the Gambella National Park into 6 vegetation communities and the relative abundance and relative frequency was used for naming vegetation community types. However, the satellite image had classified the Gambella National Park into 5 major habitat types.

Rice hispa D. armigera is one of the most important constraints to crop production globally. It attacks the vegetative stages of summer rice causing 35-65% loss and post flooded transplanted rice causing 100% loss in yield throughout Assam and hence it is regarded as one of the major limiting factors in rice production in Assam. Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. is a naturally occurring potent entomopathogenic fungus which has been successfully utilized for controlling many insect pests of rice including rice hispa. For developing a good formulation, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill (Strain AAU-09) is mass cultured in the potato broth, rice gruel, coconut water, rice husk, sawdust and rice bran. It was seen that amongst the solid media ,rice husk in addition of 2% dextrose was the best in terms of spore production (6.25 x 107 conidia/ml) and pathogenecity (86.67%) to Dicladispa armigera (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults. Likewise, amongst the liquid media potato broth supplemented with synthetic chitin (2%), dextrose (2%) and peptone (2%) supported maximum spore production. Chitin is essential not only for spore production but also increasing the power of penetrating on cuticle.

Drip irrigation is a water-saving technique for crops in water-stressed areas. Drippers deliver water to the soil surface directly, continuously, and on a regular basis, and it infiltrates into the cultivated soil layer to ensure that plants grow and develop properly. The authors carried out the experiment and observed infiltration flow while researching soil moisture of the drip irrigation technique to determine the suitable irrigation schedule for Grape leaves in a water-scarce region.  Based on observed and calculated results, the authors have proposed a correlation of parameters as follows: infiltration depth, the average radius of wetting front on horizontal direction, irrigation water amount and time, the velocity of horizontal (vr) and vertical (vz) permeability of drip irrigation technique. The correlation coefficients of parameters are high (R2 from 0.906 to 0.9899). This research objective to determine the infiltration process and the deep of water after watering to serve for research on soil moisture process and determine the suitable irrigation schedule for Grape leaves in particular and for terrestrial plants (with short roots) in general at the water-scarce region in the South Central Part of Vietnam.

Analysing the Effect of Coffee Husk Compost on Soil Quality and Yield of Radish Green (Raphanus sativus var. caudatus) Under Greenhouse Conditions

Endar Hidayat, . Adrinal, Yoshiharu Mitoma, Hiroyuki Harada

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 11, 26 June 2021, Page 120-129

The imbalance nutrients are strongly influenced by the plant development. Estimating nutrient to radish green (Raphanus sativus var. caudatus) important in optimizing of compost required. Radish green is rich nutrient that need for health. As we know that compost is organic fertilizer that have proved improving in soil quality and yield of plants. Recently silicon (Si) have positive effect in yield of plant in under normal and stress condition. Based on the explained above, we conducted silicon (Si) was mixed with coffee husk compost in normal conditions with aims for improving of soil nutrient and yield of radish green. The experimental units were presented by pots under greenhouse conditions with several of dosage; Treatments consisted 100 g soil (T = control), 99 g soil + 1 g compost (1%), 97 g soil + 3 g compost (3%) in the absence (-Si) and presence of silicon (+Si) at a concentration 1 ppm SiO2 of 15 ml before sowing with two replications. Soil sample is taken in harvested time (days 21) were assessed in the pH, EC, magnesium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus and cation exchange capacity. Agronomic data were observed by counting; dry weight, stem height, leaf area and root length. The results showed that application of 3% in the absence of Si (Si-) could increase the nutrient in soil i.e magnesium (Mg) of 1.59%, potassium (K) of 4.53%, phosphorus (P) of 371.90 mg/100 g and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 50.58 meq/100 g. While the highest of stem height, leaf area and root length were 11.48 cm, 1.24 cm and 4.02 cm, respectively. This results have correlated that the highest of soil nutrient which might highest in the yield of plant. On the other hand, the presence of silicon (Si+) which have inhibited effect on plant growth. This might indicated that the lower concentration of liquid Si mixed with coffee husk compost cannot effectively to improving of yield of radish green (Raphanus sativus var. caudatus).

Determining the Physiological and Reproductive Responses of Domyati Ducks to Different Dietary Levels of Coconut Oil as a Source of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids during Laying Period

K. H. El-Kholy, A. I. A. Ghonim, M. A. Ahmed, Hoda A. Gad, Mervat N. Ghazal, M. A. A. El-Aik, Reham A. M. Ali

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 11, 26 June 2021, Page 130-142

The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of coconut oil (CO) supplementation in the diet to enhance the performance of Domyati ducks. A total number of 300 Domyati ducks (240 females and 60 males) aged 25-week-old were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups of three replicates, each replicate included 5 males and 20 females of Domyati ducks. The groups received CO at 0, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% during the experimental period. The results indicated that egg weight, egg number, and egg mass significantly increased in treated groups, compared to the control group. Furthermore, fertility and hatchability percentages were superior in 1.0, and 1.5% CO groups, compared to other experimental groups. Low-density lipoprotein in ducks that received CO was significantly lower than that of the control group. It is concluded that the inclusion of CO at a 1.5% level could be enough and useful for improving the reproductive and physiological performance of Domyati ducks.