Editor(s)

Dr. Gnana Sheela K
Professor, Department of Electrical Communication Engineering, Toc H Institute of Science & Technology, Arakkunnam, Ernakulam, Kerala, India.

ISBN 978-93-90888-85-6 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90888-93-1 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/aaer/v10

This book covers key areas of engineering Research. The contributions by the authors include  public transport, subsidy, transport services, sliding bearings, vibrations, fuzzy logic, vibration spectrum analysis, battery management system, voltage balancing, multiple model, fault diagnosis, performance degradation, command input strategy, reference models, climate change, evapotranspiration, irrigation water requirement, mechanical properties, rolled products, cold heading, bolted metal products, storage tanks fabrication, entrepreneurial risk, diversification process, diversification strategy, integration, die attach process, measurement tool, non-conductive adhesives, energy coal mixtures, physico-chemical properties, mineralogical analysis, hygroscopic moisture content, polyaniline, carbon nanotube, nanocomposite, cadmium sulphide, electrical transport, critical pressure, hydrocarbons, carbon atoms, molecular formula, blast domination number of a graph, triple connected domination number of a graph, triple connected graph, wind energy, PV module, energy storage system, pulse width modulation. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering Research.

 

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Chapters


Will Indonesia's Bus Subsidy Be Sustainable?

Muhammad Nanang Prayudyanto, Muiz Thohir, Stefan Belka

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 10, 29 April 2021, Page 1-9
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v10/6908D

The subsidies for public transport entails a controversial discussion on the pros and cons. On one hand mode share of public transport will decrease with increasing income levels towards private motor vehicle use. Intention of this paper is to prove that subsidy plays important role in the public transport operation and business. However such subsidy is not recover he needs to carry out the sustainable urban transport in the future. Government and private partner should create a systematic subsidy targeted for the right modes, that having sustainable achievement. This paper is structured to answer to what extent the effectiveness of government subsidies for the case of developing country.

Recent Study on Failure Diagnosis and Prognosis of Sliding Bearings

R. Antunovic, N. Vucetic, A. Halep

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 10, 29 April 2021, Page 10-25
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v10/2028F

Sliding bearings are widely used machine elements from which the correct operationdepends on the availability of many technical systems and great attention is paid to the study of the prediction method for sliding bearings. Problems that occur with sliding bearings lead to high levels of vibration and noise. One of the important parameters in the diagnosis and prediction of the sliding bearings failure is the thermal analysis. In addition to these parameters, frequent vibration spectrum analysis, oil film thickness and other relevant parameters are often used. Using advanced technologies, it is possible to significantly reduce the duration of measurement and on the other hand increase the accuracy of diagnostic methods. Fuzzy logic is a mathematically formalized mode of representation modeling uncertainty. In this paper, a selection of damage in the operation of a sliding bearing has been made and the way of these problems diagnosing is shown. Methods that integrate several diagnostic parameters into one show reliable methods of early detection of sliding bearing damage.

Charge Equalization of Battery System Considering State of Charge Variations in Electric Vehicle Application

Ginu Ann George, Tomson Thomas, A. Prince, M. V. Jayan

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 10, 29 April 2021, Page 26-33
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v10/8587D

Electric Vehicle (EV)/ Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) enabled by high-efficiency electric motor and controller, provide the means for a clean, efficient and environmental friendly transportation system. Portable rechargeable batteries are the essential basic component in EVs. In EV/HEV system a large number of cells should be connected in series to supply enough energy, while the voltage balancing problem between cells leads to poor performance. This chapter attempts modular battery charge equalization circuit, considering state of charge (SOC) of the battery under MATLAB Simulink environment.

The main goal is to design a fault-tolerant control with acceptable performance degradation due to faults in actuators, sensors, and device dynamics using multiple model techniques. The achievable performance under various component failures is expressed in the form of reference models, also known as appropriate performance reference models. Using eigen structure assignment, a series of controllers is synthesised based on these models. To achieve desired output, the proper controller is reconfigured for a particular fault state, and revised command input is selected automatically. The fault detection and diagnosis is done using IMM estimator and the controller reconfiguration is done using eigen structure assignment. The aircraft model is chosen to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model.

Investigating the Impact of Climate Change on the Irrigation Water Requirement in Northern Taiwan

Jyun-Long Lee, Wen-Cheng Huang

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 10, 29 April 2021, Page 49-70
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v10/8744D

The requirement for irrigation water would be affected by the variation of meteorological effects under the conditions of climate change, and irrigation water will always be the major portion of the water consumption in Taiwan. This study tries to assess the impact on irrigation water by climate change in Taoyuan in northern Taiwan. Projected rainfall and temperature during 2046–2065 are adopted from five downscaled general circulation models. The future evapotranspiration is derived from the Hamon method and corrected with the quadrant transformation method. Based on the projections and a water balance model in paddy fields, the future crop water requirement, effective rainfall and the demand for water for irrigation can be calculated. A comparison between the present (2004–2011) and the future (2046–2065) clearly shows that climate change would lead both rainfall and the temperature to rise; this would cause effective rainfall and crop water requirement to increase during cropping seasons in the future. Overall, growing effective rainfall neutralizes increasing crop water requirement, the difference of average irrigation water requirement between the present and future is insignificant (<2.5%). However, based on a five year return period, the future irrigation requirement is 7.1% more than the present in the first cropping season, but it is insignificantly less (2.1%) than the present in the second cropping season. Increased effective rainfall neutralizes the augmented crop water requirement, and causes the difference of irrigation requirement between the future and present to be insignificant.

Formation of the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Rolled Products for Cold Heading of Bolted Metal Products

A. A. Filipov, G. V. Pachurin, D. Yu Kozinov, G. A. Gevogian

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 10, 29 April 2021, Page 71-79
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v10/8289D

Products with a high level of physical and mechanical properties can be obtained either through the use of new materials, or through the development of new technological processes for their production. In this regard, increasingly higher requirements are imposed on metals and alloys as the main structural materials in terms of strength and plastic properties, formability, corrosion resistance and service life, as well as special and new functional characteristics. At the same time, there is a growing need to reduce labor costs, to save solutions to increasingly acute environmental problems. A widely spread and most productive way to obtain finished metal articles with high structural and mechanical properties are methods of cold heading out of rolled metal, which must have a certain quality - the required plasticity, uniform structure and process parameters along the full length, as well as soundness. In conditions of fierce competition in order to improve the quality of the upset metal articles, the enterprises are forced to find reserves at all the points of the process chain for transformation of the original rolled metal. The greatest effect is achieved by the excluding of energy-consuming and labor-intensive annealing in protective gas furnaces and control of surface defects by etching or mechanical operations. This paper is presenting an economical and environment-friendly technology for structural and mechanical maintenance of high quality of rolled stock for upsetting of metal articles. It is shown that drawing with rational degrees at each of the three stages of reduction after annealing with heating by high-frequency currents ensures the absence of mill scale and ellipticity. The minor oxide layer present was removed in the pickling baths within a few seconds. The rolled steel prepared by this technology has a highly dispersed equally spaced structure without a decarburized layer with increased plasticity, which enables to reduce the number of transitions in the process of upsetting of metal articles and to increase the tools service life. At the same time, there are no harmful emissions from annealing furnaces for rolled products and pickling solutions are less often refreshed.

Reducing Steel Scrap in Fabrication of Steel Storage Tanks: A Recent Study

Luma A. H. Al-Kindi, Wadood K. K. Al-Ghabban

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 10, 29 April 2021, Page 80-92
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v10/8586D

This paper focuses on reducing steel scrap in the process of fabrication of steel storage tanks. Reducing steel scrap is important for society to decrease the environmental influence, save natural resources and to decrease the greenhouse gas emissions and energy usage associated with steelmaking that is considered as a valuable resource in industry. “4Rs” i.e. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Restoring the materials are being considered as strategies of solid waste management. Production of any product causes waste which has little economy for the main production process, but those waste products also have an economic value, which can be improved by processing. In this paper a proposed method is viewed that could be implemented for reducing steel scrap in terms of area, volume and weight for saving the cost and adopting sustainability. This method aims to increase the use of steel scrap and will focus on the steel products industry. A methodology to reduce steel scrap is proposed and applied on a case study which is; a job order for manufacturing (17) storage tanks of capacity (55) m3 in the Heavy Engineering Equipment State Company (HEESCO). Scrap evaluation for each area, volume and weight is calculated. The percentage of area, volume and weight of plates used in the current situation are (13.609%), (15.875%) and (15.875%), respectively. After applying the proposed method the percentage of area, volume and weight of plates used are (6.666%), (8.154%) and (8.153%), respectively. The amount of improvement rate in reducing steel scrap generated is (51.017%) of the area (48.636%) and volume (48.642%) of weight. This amount of improvement rate and the evaluation of the steel scrap generated are considered as a valuable resource in steel fabrication industry.

The definition of "entrepreneurial risk" is described in the article as a critical component of successful entrepreneurial operation and an important component of management theory and practise. The method for estimating entrepreneurial activity losses is calculated, and the causal-consequential relationship between the degree of impact of market risks on the performance of the enterprise's economic activity is reflected. The principle of "diversification" as a form of economic process has been proven. Diversification is defined as one of the strategic alternatives to the enterprise's growth, and it is emphasised as a means of obtaining additional economic benefits in the face of a dynamic market situation. The essence of the diversification mechanism is determined, as well as the drawbacks of diversification strategy. Mechanisms of diversification strategy formation are substantiated. The main forms that are used in the risk management process based on the strategy of diversification are highlighted. The significant synergistic effect of two or more enterprises is emphasized, which helps to save resources by reducing costs, combining complementary resources, growing market weight as priority areas for investment and the conquest of new markets. The experience of world leaders in implementing the diversification strategy as the driving force of the unceasing development of the world pharmaceutical industry has been analyzedTaking into account the experience of other countries, it can be argued that the best outcome in collaboration with foreign companies for Ukrainian businesses can be obtained if an efficient diversification policy and a specific cooperation model are properly chosen. The most critical aspect of doing this is, first and foremost, making the best use of available resources, which are an integral part of modernising development and increasing the European Union's investment attractiveness.

The effectiveness of cooperation with foreign partners as the main strategic reference point in the development of national entrepreneurship can be achieved by implementing the proposed conceptual knowledge-resource-market integration portfolio of diversification strategy of business activity, the advantage of which is to combine individual knowledge, resource potential and entrepreneurial capabilities to make an effective economic decision in order to profit and strengthen competitive advantages in the national and foreign markets.  

Die Attach Process Tool Development for Voids Calculation

Frederick Ray I. Gomez, Rennier S. Rodriguez, Nerie R. Gomez

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 10, 29 April 2021, Page 106-109
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v10/2403E

Voids detection is one of the challenges during the application of non-conductive adhesives particularly die attach film (DAF) for semiconductor integrated circuits (IC) products, concerning production control robustness and detection. In this paper, a specialized tool capable to distinguish and quantify the amount of DAF voids is presented wherein the implementation of semi-auto grid lines generates more accurate measurement and correct defect call-out. The in-house software tool is an alternative cost-effective option for X-ray inspection that is found to be incapable of proper detection and accurate calculation of gaps and un-occupied area within the adhesive thickness that produces over estimation of production rejects. Ultimately with the use of the new tool, better accuracy and credibility of voids measurement was realized.

Systematic Analysis of Energy Coal Mixtures in Judicial Practice. Case Study: Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County, Romania

Csaba Lorint, Eugen Traista, Adrian Florea

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 10, 29 April 2021, Page 110-122
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v10/9020D

There are several situations in which it is necessary to clarify the types of coal that enter into the composition of mixtures: technical expertise and/or establishing the nature of some coal wastes, often from old stockpiles, in order to eliminate them. The proposed method is based on the identification and description of those mineralogical-petrographic and physico-chemical properties whose pursuit can lead to a diagnosis in differentiation of coal types. Systematic analysis involves in the first stage the identification of the different types of coal present in the sample by mineralogical analysis. From the sample subjected to mineralogical analysis, granules are extracted from the different types of coal present in the sample and the characteristics defining them are determined: moisture and hygroscopic moisture content, volatile matter content, fixed carbon content, agglutination characteristics, etc. Further, the characteristics of the mixtures are determined on another part of the sample and their structure is determined by algebraic methods. There are situations when is necessary an evaluation of the quantity of material existing in a stockpile or possible to be stored in a dump. This could be done using CAD software for modeling the stockpile surface (upper surface) and of the terrain beneath the stockpile (lower surface) then a volume calculation can be made between upper surface and lower surface, confined by the boundary of the stockpile.

Preparation and Electrical Properties of Polyaniline-MWCNT-CdS Nanocomposites

Mrinmoy Goswami, Ranajit Ghosh, Ajit Kumar Meikap

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 10, 29 April 2021, Page 123-129
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v10/8853D

Polyaniline-CNT-CdS nanocomposite has been synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization reaction. The particle size of nanocomposites lies in between 2.5 to 4.9 nm. The dc electrical transport property of Polyaniline-CNT-CdS nanocomposites has been investigated within a temperature range 77?T?300K. The dc conductivity follows 3D variable range hopping (VRH) model. I-V characteristics of the nanocomposite shows a non linear behaviour.

Four hundred and seventy (470) hydrocarbons (CnHm) were utilized to fit their critical temperature (Tc) and critical pressure (Pc) as functions of molecular weight and carbon atomic fraction. The proposed model is of the form: Tc=a*(Cfrac)b*(MW)c and Pc= a*(Cfrac)1/3+b*(MW)1/3+c where a, b, and c are the non-linear regressed parameters for the given model; Cfrac is the carbon atomic fraction in a molecule, which is equal to n/(n+m) for a hydrocarbon compound; and MW is the molecular weight, which is calculated as (12n + m). The model was found to predict both Tc and Pc with an adequate accuracy, manifested via the associated percent relative error (PRE) of the curve-fitted Tc and Pc. Out of the examined 470 hydrocarbons, low MW compounds were found to have PRE values higher than 10% for the predicted Tc values. On the other hand, for Pc prediction, higher PRE values were found for higher molecular weight compounds, with C26 and above.

Although the proposed model does not strictly differentiate among isomers having the same molecular weight and chemical formula, nevertheless, the difference in Tc and Pc among isomers is not significant to be picked up by a simple, straight forward model. A more rigorous model will work hard to offset such small differences in Tc and Pc among isomers, nevertheless, at the expense of model simplicity.

This article, muse on the widespread transformation graphs and penetrate the related lexis of the Blast domination number of graphs, for all sorts of transformation graphs,  and their complement graphs, for Stars. We have introduced an imperative measure of liability called Blast domination number. In this paper, and fragment, we flog out on the subject of the performance of the Blast domination number over the transformation graphs and their complement graphs of some standard graphs such as Stars.

An Integration of Microgrid with Hybrid Renewable Enrgy System and Mitigation of Power Quality Issues

V. V. S. Narayana Yirrinki, M. Sai Veerraju

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 10, 29 April 2021, Page 155-183
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v10/9003D

This chapter illustrates the control strategy in micro grid which interfaces the Wind, Photovoltaic (PV) and equips with Energy Storage (ESS) system through Converters like MI CUK or SEPIC. The energies with renewable sources will generate an irregular output voltage which leads to destroy the machines. Therefore, an energy storage system ESS which is used to reduce the irregular manner of output voltage. In this chapter demonstrates the control strategies and comparative analysis with various converters like MI CUK and SEPIC converters. Wind turbine can produce the mechanical torque and this torque supplies to PMSM. The PMSM converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. By having the option of being linked to the grid or operating in island mode, the micro grid may have greater stability. The power efficiency of micro grids in island service must be investigated in order to ensure that the micro grid’s infrastructure is not exposed to dangerous levels of power quality phenomena that may not usually occur in the national energy grid. The total harmonic distortion (THD) and its individual harmonic components are one of the power content phenomena.