ISBN 978-93-91882-12-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91882-13-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/mono/978-93-91882-12-9

Zeolite minerals play a significant role in many fields of industry, practice, and health protection. Therefore, it is of great importance to study their features and properties.

Because of their specific structure, zeolites – natural and modified, are excellent absorbents. They can work at the cellular level by trapping heavy metals and toxins, particularly lead (Pb), and safely removing them from the body. If lead enters in the organism per os, zeolite substances are able to absorb Pb in the gastrointestinal tract and thus to confine its concentration in the blood.

Clinoptilolite, a mineral from the Zeolite group, is known as one of the most excellent toxin absorbents.

In this book the changes of genetic and physiological characteristics of experimental animals intoxicated with Pb and supplemented with clinoptilolite are presented.

Lead was used in a 90-day ecotoxicological experiment. A clinoptilolite sorbent, prepared on the base of natural Bulgarian zeolite, was applied as an antidote. The diminishing of lead concentrations in the body and organs of the experimental animals significantly improved the animal state, determined by the chromosome aberrations, mitotic index, erythrocyte morphology, erythropoesis, and body weight. The dietary inclusion of the sorbent reduced the lead concentrations in the Pb-exposed and clinoptilolite-supplemented mice by 84%, 89%, 91%, 77%, and 88% in carcass, liver, kidneys, bones and feces, respectively.

In such studies it is important to make quantitative analyses with a view to establish the development of the animal state and determine some genetic and physiological characteristics of the exposed and treated animals. For that reason we constructed a mathematical model for the change with the time of the mitotic index, during the experiment. For the first time such a model was elaborated.

On the base of the model the coefficient of Pb absorption by gastrointestinal mucosa in the supplemented mice was found: $$\eta$$ = 3.53% (versus $$\eta$$ = 15% in non-supplemented ones). It shows that the animals’ recovery goes in parallel with the Pb bioaccumulation, and the susceptibility of the mouse’s organism to Pb load decreases, while the recovery rate of the genetic apparatus increases with time.

The book will be useful for scientist, lectures, teachers, students, and for a wide audience of readers.

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##### The “Magic” Zeolites

Svetla E. Teodorova

The “Magic” Zeolites, 21 August 2021, Page 1-55
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/mono/978-93-91882-12-9

Zeolites amaze us not only with their beauty and their structural variety. Zeolites are also widely used minerals, with different areas of applications. Very important is their feature to work at the cellular level by trapping heavy metals and toxins and safely removing them from the body. Especially Clinoptilolite, a mineral from the Zeolite group is known as one of the most excellent adsorbers. In our study clinoptilolite sorbent KLS–10-MA was applied in a 90-day ecotoxicological experiment with laboratory mice. This sorbent was prepared on the base of natural Bulgarian zeolite. Lead (Pb) was used as toxicant. The animals were arranged in four groups of 60 specimens each: Group 1 (control) – animals fed with conventional food for small rodents and water; Group 2 – animals fed with conventional food + clinosorbent KLS-10-MA and water; Group 3 – animals fed with conventional food and water + Pb(NO3)2; Group 4 – animals fed with conventional food + KLS-10-MA and water + Pb(NO3)2.

Chromosome aberrations, a decrease of the mitotic index, pathological erythrocytes, a drop in the erythropoesis, and a loss of body weight, resulting from a well-expressed toxicological stress, were observed in the Pb-exposed animals.

The dietary inclusion of the clinoptilolite sorbent reduced Pb concentrations in exposed and supplemented mice by 84%, 89%, 91%, 77%, and 88% in carcass, liver, kidneys, bones and feces, respectively. The genetic and physiological parameters of these animals were substantially improved: on day 90 the Pb-exposed and clinoptilolite-supplemented mice exhibited 2.3-fold lower chromosome aberrations frequency, 2.5-fold higher mitotic index, 1.5-fold higher percentage normal erythrocytes, 3.14-fold more proliferating erythrocytes and 1.3-fold higher body weight compared to Pb-exposed and non-supplemented mice. The mitotic index in the supplemented animals increased after day 40.

The sorbent is practically non-toxic and its application is not bad for the animal health and for the environment.

For in-depth study of the kinetics of lead bioaccumulation and of the organism reactions to chronic intoxication, a quantitative approach is also of great importance.

A mathematical model was constructed to outline the common trends of the Pb kinetics in bones. Based on the model, the coefficient of apsorption of Pb by gastrointestinal mucosa in the supplemented mice was found: $$\eta$$ = 3.53% . The same coefficient in the non-supplemented animals is $$\eta$$ = 15%.

For the first time a mathematical model for the change of the mitotic index with the time was elaborated. This model shows that the recovery processes in the animals run in parallel with the Pb bioaccumulation, and that the susceptibility of the mouse’s organism to Pb load decreases, and the recovery rate of the genetic apparatus increases during the experiment.

In fact zeolites reveal "magical" features and outline realistic perspectives on creating new effective drugs, based on modified natural clinoptilolites, in cases of chronic intoxications.