Editor(s)
Dr. Oscar Jaime Restrepo Baena
Professor,
Department of Materials and Minerals, School of Mines, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia.

ISBN 978-93-5547-208-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-211-3 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rtcams/v4

This book covers key areas of Chemical and Material Sciences. The contributions by the authors include Fatigue, 3D printing, Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene , Plasmon, surface plasmon resonance, sensitive element, sensitivity, accuracy of measurements, Additive manufacturing, selective laser melting, temperature distribution, residual stress, deformation, thermo catalytic decomposition, Non-linear system, white noise, response, equivalent linearization, random vibrations, Corrosion, corrosion fatigue, duplex stainless steel, geothermal environment,   Nano devices, circuit industry, molecular junctions, gamma doses, micro structures, Polysulfone, Malachite Green, X-Ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, Charge Transfer Complex, Scanning Electron Microscopy, dye sensitized solar cell, photo electrochemical performance, Nanoparticles, polymer blends, thin films, vapor deposition, electrical properties, optical properties,  petrographic study, geotechnics parameters. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Chemical and Material Sciences.

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### Chapters

##### Determination of Fatigue Characteristics of 3D Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)

M. M. Padzi, M. M. Bazin, W. M. W. Muhamad

Recent Trends in Chemical and Material Sciences Vol. 4, 8 November 2021, Page 1-11
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcams/v4/13719D

Recently, the use of 3D printer technology has become significant to industries, especially when involving new product development. 3D printing is a technology, which produces the 3D product or prototype using a layer-by-layer technique. 3D printing could reduce costs because it can efficiently use raw materials and produce less waste. However, there becomesless research on the mechanical performance of the 3D printed component. This study focuses on the evaluating of fatigue characteristics of 3D printed ABS specimens. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) has been chosen for material research due to its wide applications. Two types of specimen used, which is 3D printing and moulding specimens. The fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique was used to produce the specimens. The dog bone shape part was produced based on ASTM D638 standard and the tensile test has been carried out to get the mechanical properties. The fatigue test was carried out at 40%, 60%, and 80% of the tensile strength. The moulded part shows higher fatigue cycles compared to 3D printed part for all loading percentages. Fatigue lives for 40%, 60% and 80%, were 911, 2645 and 26948 cycles, respectively. The results indicated that 3D printed part has a lower fatigue life, which may not suitable for industrial applications. However, the 3D printed part could be improved by using various parameters and may be introduced in low-strength applications.

##### Technology and Materials for Sensors Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance

Hanna Dorozinska, Glib Dorozinsky, Natalia Kachur, Volodymyr Maslov

Recent Trends in Chemical and Material Sciences Vol. 4, 8 November 2021, Page 12-23
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcams/v4/14033D

In this chapter provided brieth review of materials and technologies of production sensitive element for surface plasmon resonance sensor (SPR).

Adduced in this paper are statistical data, in accord with which the number of publications in scientific journals devoted to the SPR sensor topic is permanently increased by the exponential law and to the end of 2015 reached approximately 6,000. It is indicative of topicality of further investigations aimed at development and creation of new analytical devices based on the SPR principle. Considered in the paper are the main directions to develop technology and construction of the available SPR sensors to increase their sensitivity and accuracy of measurements. It has been shown that lowering the roughness of the plasmon carrying layer and application of an additional dielectric layer with developed surface enables to increase more than two-fold the sensitivity due to increased surface of interaction between the sensitive element (SE) and studied substance. The main technical way to lower the surface roughness is thermal annealing, and the best result can be reached at the annealing temperature 120°C. The promising technological way to enhance the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements is to narrow the reflection characteristic R($$\theta$$), which can be realized by decreasing the roughness of the metal layer due to changing the geometry of mutual arrangement of the substrate and evaporator. It was ascertained experimentally that when the substrate is placed at the angle 45° between its normal and direction to the evaporator, and the SE metal layer is deposited multiply, the surface roughness of this layer is decreased by 2.5 times: from 2 down to 0.8 nm. As an additional dielectric layer, they often use metal oxides Al2 O3 , TiO2 , SiOxand ZnO, as well as nitrides, for example InN. The presence of this additional dielectric layer enables to reduce the detection limit when measuring the changes in refraction index of the studied substance down to the level 1x10–9, which corresponds to binding the complementary pair antigene–antibody with the concentration of antigene 1 fg/mL. This value of detection limit is by one order lower than that in available commercial analytical devices based on the SPR phenomenon (for instance, 3.10–8, which is typical for commercial Biacore T200). Considered in this review are promising directions for development of sensorics based on SPR, such as application of multilayer graphene coatings and polymer layers prepared using polymerization in high-frequency plasma of inert gas. In our opinion, further development of SPR sensors will be directed to increasing their selectivity, wear resistance of the sensitive element surface, as well as to the methods of receptor regeneration for multiple using the sensitive elements.

Based on analisis of reviewed articles, on our opinion, creation SPR-sensors in infrared range of spectrum is perspective for biological researches and immunosensors.

##### Study on Development of a Deformation Prediction System for 3D Printed Parts in Additive Manufacturing

Hong Seok Park, Saurabh Kumar, Bowen Qi

Recent Trends in Chemical and Material Sciences Vol. 4, 8 November 2021, Page 24-40
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcams/v4/13775D

Selective laser melting (SLM) is a promising additive manufacturing (AM) technique that has the potential to produce almost any three-dimensional (3D) metallic parts with complicated structures. During the SLM process, the thermal behavior of metal powder plays a significant role in maintaining the product quality during 3D printing. Furthermore, due to high heating and cooling rates within the selective laser melting (SLM) process, a high-temperature gradient forms in the heat-affected zone, which generates significant residual stresses within the fabricated parts. In this study, a deformation prediction system based on temperature distribution in 3D printed parts is developed. For that purpose, a thermo-mechanical coupling model was developed for studying thermal behavior, residual stress, and deformation during the SLM process of Ti6Al4V alloy. In the experiments, a TELOPS FAST-IR (M350) thermal imager was applied to determine the temperature profile of the melting pool and powder bed along the scanning direction during the SLM fabrication using Ti6Al4V powder. The numerically calculated results were compared with the experimentally determined temperature distribution. The comparison showed that the calculated peak temperature for a single track by the developed thermal model was in good agreement with the experiment results. Through the simulation, an effective prediction method for investigating the effects of process parameters such as the laser power and scanning speed on the temperature distribution, residual stress, and deformation was established. The findings showed that the development of residual stress on the fabricated parts gradually increased throughout the SLM process, produced by a heat accumulation effect.

##### Thermo Catalytic Decomposition of Methane over Cu - Al2O3 and 5 - 20wt% Ni - Cu - Al2O3 Catalysts to Produce Hydrogen and Carbon Nanofibers: Experimental Investigation

K. Srilatha

Recent Trends in Chemical and Material Sciences Vol. 4, 8 November 2021, Page 41-52
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcams/v4/13977D

Hydrogen is an environmentally friendly fuel that has the potential to significantly use of fossil fuels; several significant challenges must be overcome before it can be widely used. Thermo catalytic decomposition of methane (TCD) is one of the most useful methods for meeting future demand and thus an attractive route for COx-free hydrogen production, which is required in fuel cells. The combustion of fossil fuels mainly results in the generation of a huge quantity of green-house gases such as carbon, nitrogen and sulphur oxides. In this study, we attempted to produce hydrogen using Cu-Al2O3 and 5, 10, 15, and 20%wt percent Ni modified Ni/Cu-Al2O3 catalysts. It has also been observed that, the conversion order is Cu-Al2O3<5 wt% Ni/Cu-Al2O3 ~ 20 wt% Ni/Cu-Al2O3 <15 wt% Ni/Cu-Al2O3 < 10 wt% Ni/Cu-Al2O3 catalysts. It has been discovered that while increasing the loadings of nickel in Ni/Cu-Al2O3 the efficiency of thermo catalytic decomposition of methane is also increasing. Among the five prepared catalysts, the 10wt% Ni/Cu-Al2O3 catalyst exhibits good catalytic activity.SEM images of catalysts after methane thermocatalytic decomposition reveal the formation of carbon nanofibers. The XRD patterns of Cu-Al2O3 and 5,10,15, and 20wt percent Ni/Cu-Al2O3 catalysts revealed fairly crystalline peaks, which may be responsible for the increased catalytic life and formation of carbon nanofibers. The optimum hydrogen production rate of 70% was observed with a 10wt% Ni/Cu-Al2O3 catalyst, and hydrogen carbon fibres were also discovered, that can be used as catalyst support.

##### Determination of Response Statistics of Single Degree of Nonlinear Random Structure with Nonlinear Damping Characteristic and Nonlinear Elastic Characteristic

Petre Stan, Marinica Stan

Recent Trends in Chemical and Material Sciences Vol. 4, 8 November 2021, Page 53-61
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcams/v4/14245D

The paper investigates the applicability of the path integral solution method for calculating the response statistics of nonlinear dynamic systems whose equations of motion can be modelled by the use linearization differential equations. The present paper consists of discussion on dynamic response of structures under random load. They are random processes and commonly described by spectral density functions. An identification technique is proposed for a nonlinear oscillator excited by response-dependent white noise. Stiffness, damping and excitation are estimated from records of the stationary stochastic response. Assume that a single-degree of freedom structure is excited by a force which is a random process described by the spectral density function. We present a method for estimating the power spectral density of the stationary response of oscillator with a nonlinear restoring force under external stochastic wide-band excitation. An equivalent linear system is derived, from which the power spectral density is deduced.

##### Failure of Standard Duplex Stainless Steel X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 under Corrosion Fatigue in Geothermal Environment: A Recent Study

Marcus Wolf, Anja Pfennig

Recent Trends in Chemical and Material Sciences Vol. 4, 8 November 2021, Page 62-68
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcams/v4/14401D

Corrosion fatigue is well known to lower the lifetime expectancy of high alloyed steels. Duplex stainless steel X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 is a promising candidate to withstand both, corrosion and mechanical stress. Therefore, the corrosion fatigue (CF) was investigated in the Northern German Basin electrolyte at 369 K using a specifically designed corrosion chamber. CF damage was clearly related to lateral grain attack within corrosion pit cavities located perpendicular to the load applied. Additionally, multiple fatigue cracks and preferable deterioration of austenitic phase and intact ferritic phase. A delta-like micro crack structure and a curved path characterizes crack termination with little to no base metal deterioration. The cavity of immediate subsurface zone is most likely related to the earliest crack cavity exhibiting considerable degradation of the austenitic phase.  Crack initiation may be due to early pit formation resulting in depassivation but also due to local depassivation then resulting in pit formation – both initiation mechanisms lead to crack propagation and early failure.

##### Study on $$\gamma$$-Rays Irradiation Induced Structural and Morphological Changes in Copper Nanowires

H. Shehla, F. T. Thema, A. Ishaq, Naveed Zafar Ali, I. Javed, D. Wan, M. Maaza

Recent Trends in Chemical and Material Sciences Vol. 4, 8 November 2021, Page 69-78
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcams/v4/1950C

This contribution reports on the effect of $$\gamma$$-irradiations on the structural and morphological properties of copper nanowires (Cu-NWs) within the $$\gamma$$ doses varying from 6 to 25 kGy. At 9 kGy, the Cu-NWs started welding, forming perfect X-,V-, II-, and Y-shaped molecular junctions. Further increasing the $$\gamma$$ dose up to 15 kGy caused the Cu-NWs to fuse and form larger diameter NWs. At the highest dose of 25 kGy, the nanowires converted into a continuous Cu thin film. However, X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the structure of the Cu-NWs remained stable even after converting into a thin film. The formation of the Cuprite (Cu2O) phases was observed at higher $$\gamma$$ dose. The mechanism of forming welded networks of Cu-NWs and Cu thin films is explained via the short and high energy $$\gamma$$-ray wavelengths which act on Cu-Cu molecular covalent bonds isotropically. The welding technique is for the fabrication of large scale junction like structures. These nano devices are useful for the formation of nanoelectronics and the nano circuit industry.

##### Assessment of Spectroscopic Characterization of Pure and Malachite Green Doped Polysulfone Samples by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), UV- Visible and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Techniques

Rashmi J. Nayak, P. K. Khare, J. G. Nayak

Recent Trends in Chemical and Material Sciences Vol. 4, 8 November 2021, Page 79-87
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcams/v4/11814D

When subjected to a field – temperature treatment, polymers have strong dielectric characteristics because they can permanently store charge. By impregnating polymers with suitable dopants, the electret state and carrier mobility of the polymer can be substantially influenced.The establishment of a charge transfer connection between the acceptor and donor molecules improves the electrical conductivity of the polymer when it is doped with a low molecular weight organic component. The structural alteration in pure polymer with increasing impurity ratio is illustrated using spectroscopic techniques.  Polysulfone is employed as the host polymer and malachite Green is used as the dopant in this study. Isothermal immersion was used to prepare samples of pure and malachite green doped Polysulfone in the form of foil. For the pure sample, 4 gm Polysulfone was dissolved in 50 ml Dimethyl farmamide (DMF) solvent, whereas for the doped sample, 15, 35, 65, and 110 mg Malachite Green were combined with 4 gm Polysulfone, respectively. X-Ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (XRD), UV- Visible Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to investigate the structural and optical characterisation of these pure and doped samples.  Pure and doped polysulfone XRD diffractograms reveal both sharp and diffused peaks, which correspond to the crystalline and amorphous areas of the polymer, respectively. When examining the variation of intensity with two theta angles, it is found that the highest intensity for pure samples is 18.380, while the maximum intensity for doped samples is 18.610, 18.890, 20.520, and 21.110, respectively, due to the increase in doping ratio. This finding supports polysulfone's amorphous character being enhanced. The transmittance of pure polysulfone diminishes as the ratio of doping increases, according to a UV-visible spectroscopy investigation. The reduction in intensity of transmittance of pure sample is clearly apparent in the present case and some new peaks are also observed. This activity suggests the formation of Charge Transfer Complexes (CTC) between the donor and acceptor molecules, implying that the electrical characteristics of the Polysulfone polymer have improved. The micro structural properties of pure and doped samples were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). This study shows uniform dispersion of dopant malachite green and polysulfone.The purpose of the present study is to observe the improvement in the charge storage capacity of the polysulphone under different doping ratio of Malachite Green.

##### Study on Fruit Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

M. C. Ung, C. S. Sipaut, J. Dayou, K. S. Liow, J. Kulip, R. F. Mansa

Recent Trends in Chemical and Material Sciences Vol. 4, 8 November 2021, Page 88-93
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcams/v4/13663D

A cost effective and environmentally friendly solar cell is always a scientific challenge in solar energy conversion field.  Therefore, Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) which offers low cost fabrication and present attractive features that enhance the market entry. Dye sensitized solar cells are made up of nanocrystalline mesoporous oxide film, dye sensitizer, electrolyte, redox couple, counter electrode and conductive substrate. The major challenges that faced by the dye sensitizer is their high production and material cost, complicated and expensive synthetic route and also the easy degradation problem for the inorganic dye sensitizer. As a result, wide abundance and cost effective dye are the target for the alternative dye in DSSCs. Natural dyes appears as a practical alternative dye because they are inexpensive, easy attainable, abundance in raw material supply, environmentally friendly, non-toxicity and complete biodegradation. This article reviews the performance of the fruit based dye sensitize solar cell over these years.

##### Study on Preparation and Characterization of Subsurface Silver Particulate Films on Polymer Blends of Polystyrene/Poly (2-Vinyl pyridine) /Poly (Vinylpyrollidone)/Poly (4-Vinyl pyridine)

Pratima Parashar Pandey

Recent Trends in Chemical and Material Sciences Vol. 4, 8 November 2021, Page 94-105
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcams/v4/1605A

The polymer nanocomposites have been the exponentially growing field of research for developing the materials in last few decades. The remarkable improvement in the polymer nanocomposite is found when a small amount of nanosized particles is added to a polymer matrix. The addition of inorganic solid nanoparticles (typically in the form of fibres, flakes, spheres or fine particles) into polymer matrix increases their physical, structural and mechanical properties. Since the polymer–nano composites have been the staple of modern polymer industry, their durability under various environmental conditions and degradability after their service life are also essential fields of research. The successful application of nano particles depends upon both the correct preparation techniques followed by testing through characterization. Surface modification can improve the inherent characteristics of the nano particles and serve to prepare nano composites inexistent in nature. Therefore, some tools as their various properties like electrical, optical and morphological can be used to optimize the preparation of polymer nano composites. This leads to focus on preparation & characterization of polymer nanocomposite. This chapter will make an overview about the silver particulate thin films on softened polymer blends of Polystyrene (PS)/ Poly (2-vinyl pyridine) (P2VP), PS/ Poly (4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP), and Poly (vinylpyrollidone) (PVP)/P4VP deposited at a rate of 0.4 nm/s held at a temperature of 457 K in vacuum of 8×10-6 Torr by evaporation. These particulate thin films were characterized by their electrical behavior, optical properties and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Silver films deposited on softened PS, and PVP give rise to a very high room temperature resistance approaching that of the substrate resistance due to the formation of a highly agglomerated structure. On the other hand, silver films on softened P2VP and P4VP gives rise to a room temperature resistance in the range of tens to a few hundred M$$\Omega$$/$$\square$$ which is desirable for device applications. Silver films on the composites of PS/ P2VP, PS/P4VP and PVP/P4VP show resistances at room temperature. The optical and plasmonic response of Ag nanoparticles onto thin layers of blends shows encapsulation of nanoparticles. The electrical properties and SEM of silver nanoparticles on the thin layers of polymer blends indicate the formation of much smaller, narrower dispersion and wide size distribution.

##### Geotechnical Interattraction of Granites from Ouaddai Region (East) for Use in Civil Engineering

Bozabe Renonet Karka, Al-Hadj Hamid Zagalo, Maurice Kwekam

Recent Trends in Chemical and Material Sciences Vol. 4, 8 November 2021, Page 106-117
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcams/v4/1993C

This study focuses on the different qualities of granitic materials in the eastern region of Chad that can be used in construction. Achklun and Amgala are located in the North and South of Abéché, region of Ouaddaï (Eastern Chad). In Achklun and Amgala crop out, granites which are cross cut by diaclases and veins. Petrographic investigation of rocks shows that granites are of two types: (1) fine grains biotite granites constituted of quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase biotite andopaque minerals and (2) coarse grains amphibole biotite-granites made up of quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase biotite amphibole and opaque minerals. Structural feature investigated are diaclases and veins. Diaclases are observed in biotite granite and amplibole biotite-granite. They display NE-SW trend direction. Veins are observed in amplibole biotite-granite. They have granitic composition and pegmatitic texture. Veins display NE-SW dominant trend direction. The NE-SW trend direction suggests that their emplacement benefited from diaclase network. Geotechnical studies indicate that fine grains biotite granite is more resistant than amphibole biotite-granite. The resistant may vary from one station to another in the same rock type. This variation is due to mineral composition grain sizes and the intensity of fractures (diaclases). Base on field observations laboratory investigation the present work permitted to select the granite more adapted for various building.