Prof. (Dr.) Ana Pedro
Department of Education, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-19491-58-2 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19491-59-9 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rhlle/v8

This book covers key areas of language, literature and education. The contributions by the authors include education systems, continuous assessment learning activity, literacy rate,  teaching materials, k-4 transaction model, pedagogical innovation, technological pedagogical content knowledge, communication technology integration, empirical study, pedagogical and content knowledge, interpretive practices, musical expression, lamaholot language, sofia gubaidulina, student autonomy, students co-lecturers, contemporary music, art of teaching, quality education, indigenous languages, classroom management, teaching and learning. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of language, literature and education.


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This chapter sought to compare teachers' views on the preparation for grade 7 examinations between urban and peri-urban primary schools in Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe. A convergence parallel mixed methods design was utilized. In the quantitative phase, data was analyzed using the t-test and chi-square while the qualitative phase used in-depth interviews. Two high performing primary schools from each school location (Urban and peri-urban) were purposely selected. Sixty teachers (30 from each school location) were randomly selected in the quantitative phase. During the qualitative phase, 18 participants were purposely selected. The highly experienced urban teachers are more familiar with examinations. Parental involvement is lower in peri-urban than in urban schools. Urban schools complete their syllabuses on time despite large class sizes while peri-urban schools have difficulties in completing despite small class sizes. The quantitative results show that teachers in peri-urban schools received lower scores (M = 4.30, SD = 1.52) than did those teachers in urban areas (M = 7.00, SD = 1.73), t (58) = 34.57, p < 0.01, two tailed. The size of this effect is large (effect size r = 0.95). Most urban teachers had above 16 years teaching experience, while most peri-urban teachers had between 6 to 10 years teaching experience, \(\chi\)2 (1, N = 60) = 19.08, p < 0.05. Although the variables are not independent of each other, the strength of the association between them is moderate (V = 0.56). According to the qualitative findings, both school locations used the lecture technique as a manner of instruction. In urban schools, the usage of previous test papers will become more common after the completion of the curricula. The efficiency of instructors in peri-urban schools is hampered by a lack of resources and unclear school missions.

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Based K-4 Learning Transaction Model (K-4 LTM) in Science and Social Sciences: A Descriptive Study

P. B. Binjha , B. C. Das , A. Dansana , B. K. Das

Research Highlights in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 8, 4 August 2023, Page 17-33

This chapter highlights about Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Based K-4 Learning Transaction Model (K-4 LTM) in Science and Social Sciences. Technology has become an increasingly important part of students’ lives beyond school, and even within the classroom it can also help increase their understanding of complex concepts or encourage collaboration among peers.As a "conceptual framework," technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) has been developed to characterise the knowledge base that teachers require for successful technology integration. An experiment on the TPACK-based Practise Teaching Programme with reference to students' learning achievement was conducted in light of the importance of the concerns. The study has employed mixed method design especially the embedded mixed methods design used to explore the preliminary qualitative study to support for a primary quantitative study. Further this quantitative study has been supported with a qualitative study. The sample comprised of 40 student-teachers belonging to science and social science of the first batch integrated B.Ed program of Ravenshaw University and 341 students of CBSE-affiliated schools of Cuttack City. The experimental plan was implemented using an adaptation of the Solomon Four Group Design. We used Mean, SD, One-way ANOVA, t-test, and other statistical methods to analyse the quantitative data obtained from the achievement tests. The study team developed the TPACK-based K-4 Learning Transaction Model (K4-LTM) in response to the pre-service teachers' feedback.

The findings indicated that the implemented instructional processes affected pre-service teachers’ TPACK development positively. There were significant differences before and after the course implementation concerning Technology Knowledge, Technological Content Knowledge, Technological Pedagogical Knowledge, and TPACK in general”. In conclusion, further this experiment propelled to innovate TPACK based K-4 Learning Transaction Model with its unique features and practicability in the area of curriculum transaction. The results of the study have potentials to initiate reforms in teacher preparation more learner centric with support of TPACK based instruction.

Speech Recognition Lamaholot Language Lamalera Dialect

Yosef Demon

Research Highlights in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 8, 4 August 2023, Page 34-54

This chapter focuses mainly on the morphophonemic process in Lamaholot Language in the Lamalera Dialect. The smallest minimal meaningful elements in language are known are morphemes. So it is the alternation of the phonological shapes of a morpheme depending on the context it occurs in which is known as Morphophonemic alternation. This implies that this phenomena occurs in all languages. There are several intriguing differences between agglutinative languages and isolating, tonal, and inflecting languages, for instance, in terms of morphophonemic alternations. Lamaholot language is is not agglutinative, nor is it isolative (?) nor is it tonal. As a language characterized by neither agglutination, isolation nor tone, Lamaholot language has interesting morphophonemic phenomena to study. The morphophonemic processes in the Lamaholot language in the Lamalera dialect are elision or removing sounds, adding or inserting sounds, preserving sounds and changing sounds.  There are different types of sound: some are elided or removed, some are added or inserted, others are preserved, and some are changed by the inclusion of additional sounds. This distinction is made possible by the lack of verb affixes in Lamaholot as a method of morphophonemic modification.

De Profundis by Sofia Gubaidulina: Interpretation versus Performance

Gonçalo Pescada

Research Highlights in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 8, 4 August 2023, Page 55-67

The work creates an image of human suffering and portrays a hope that is born in the midst of pain. The choral part of the piece reflects concepts of hope, trust and mercy. Throughout the piece, growth from the depths is present. Sofia Gubaidulina, a living classic of modern music and one of the most popular composers of our time, is in constant search of both new timbres and spiritual truths. Born in Kazan (Russia), at the intersection of Tatar and Russian cultures as well as Islam and Christianity, she was naturally influenced by all of them, which is best reflected in Gubaidulina's continual interest in the wide range of expression means offered by Oriental music. Sofia Gubaidulina's work introduces new sounds and an incessant search for spirituality through sound. Despite the difficulties Gubaidulina experienced early in her life and career she was able to overcome many obstacles to eventually achieve international stature as a composer. De Profundis, Et Expecto, Silenzio, Last seven Words, Fachwerk, Under the sign of Scorpio are some of the composer's works inspired by the orthodox chants that insert the Bayan (accordion) as a scholarly instrument and essential vehicle for metamorphosis in musical language.  Despite the importance of a trustworthy interpretation of the score in the work De Profundis by Sofia Gubaidulina, the aspect of performance becomes essential to achieve an in-depth execution.

Student Active-Learning Approaches in Teacher Education

Darinka Sikosek

Research Highlights in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 8, 4 August 2023, Page 68-81

This chapter argues a greater stress to student-centered, active learning, approaches in teacher educationa beginnning already in lectures by the subjects of the DCEM1 methodology module.

Engaging students actively in the teaching and learning process has been proved to be an effective method in classroom. Our strategy for encouraging student participation in lectures is to make them co-lecturers with the teacher.

We employ student-co-lecturer and student-listener feedback, which is regularly conducted at the conclusion of a programme of specific curricular units, to track the effectiveness and quality improvement of their outcomes-teacher's activities. Students self – reflections are confronted with techer's trainer noticings. Some significant findings are interpreted in compliance with teacher competences. Performing a lecturer’s role during academic curricular lectures provides a number of teachers’ competences by Bologna process. In this role the students participate in the following groupings: as teacher trainer - student pair or teacher trainer - student & student team. In order to monitor the efficiency and quality improvement of lectures’ activities we make use of the students’- participants feedback or self-reflections, communicated to teacher-trainer who ensures the collection of continuous feedback, which takes place at the end of the program of specific curricular units. Analysis of applied checklist included six methodological parameters, namely: Organisation, Aims/Professional knowledge/skills, Didactic principles, Communication, Performance conditions, Quality of the teacher-trainers work and his/her personal characteristics and Others.

The ongoing evaluation of the student-co-lecturer model (obtained on the basis of students’ feedback) confirms greater student interaction in the adoption of both compulsory curricular contents, as well as the acquisition of convincing student experience (competence) in the adoption of didactic principles, in particular the implementation of the principle of activity and the enforcement of the principle of democratic relations between specimens of each didactic situation. CO- lecture's activities are valued regarding to optional AADIDG2 didactic pinciples. Student's criticisms dwelt on the small portion of colloquium problems/tasks that could be correlated with subject-specific competence, defined as the understanding of content and methodology of chemistry education.

In this research, special emphasis is given to complex competencies not only their acquisition, but rather how pupils develop them. For this purpose, a learning strategy has been developed, called learning by self-generating chemical models. Pupils learn individually on their own models, which are made from easily accessible, low-cost materials.

The study involved first- year secondary school-pupils, defined as self-creators of paper- and -wire models (experimental group) and assemblers of commercial models (called the control group). The research results indicate the correctness of the defined assumption of the higher performance of model self-generators in designing and developing deeper self-knowledge, as well as in acquiring a number of generic and natural science competences. The molecules under study appeared as geometric shapes and structures, which students represented by creating paper or plasticine models in the shape of balls, known as wire models.

Based on the results of statistical processing of the data, we have found out what self-creation of models (as an innovative approach) leads to better understanding and to subsequently sustained knowledge for the pupil. Additionally, it should be emphasized that students who self-generated models as opposed to those who just put the models together, often developed numerous complicated skills in the areas of problem-solving, practical competence, mathematical competence, and critical thinking abilities. The knowledge that was gained in this way was also better understood.

The study aimed to compare the differences among gifted students of different grades and genders concerning perfectionism, cognitive mindset, constructive thinking, and emotional intelligence.

This study adopted the investigation survey design.

A total of 908 gifted children in grades three through six comprising 549 boys and 359 girls selected randomly from twenty-five public elementary schools in thirteen cities in Taiwan were picked for the study.

The t-test and analysis of variance procedures were used in the study to examine the data from the four scales.

The study found four conclusions.

Firstly, on some perfectionism subscales, gifted students of different grades and genders performed quite differently.

Second, there were observable variations between grades in the cognitive mindset of exceptional students.

Thirdly, there was a significant difference between gifted pupils in different grades in the distrust-of-others subscale of the constructive-thinking scale.

Finally, there was a substantial difference in introversion, interpersonal relationships, and mood among gifted students of different genders.

The study suggested that gifted educators need to be concerned about the fear of mistakes, socially described perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, highly critical thinking, a fixed mindset, mistrusting others, and interpersonal relationships of gifted pupils of different grades or genders and provide suitable consultation.

How a Digitally Enabled Library Affects the Reading Habits and Skills of High School Pupils

Chuzaimah Dahlan Diem

Research Highlights in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 8, 4 August 2023, Page 130-138

The major goal of this study was to determine the impact of four critical school library elements on students' visits to the library, reading habits, and reading comprehension proficiency based on gender and school type. As a sample, the study included 336 pupils from 36 schools in South Sumatra. In this investigation, three instruments were employed. Twelve schools of each kind received a questionnaire regarding the availability of libraries. The pupils were given a reading habit questionnaire and a reading comprehension exam. The results show that the factors of school libraries (total) are significantly correlated with students’ library visits (p<0.000) and with reading comprehension achievement (p<0.01); the contributions of which are 43% and 23.1% respectively. When students’ reading habit and reading comprehension achievement were compared in terms of gender and types of school, the results show that there is no significant difference in reading comprehension achievement between males and females (p<0.095). However, there is a significant difference in their reading attitude and habit (p<0.000). This difference is strongly shown by those students from type B schools with girls having stronger attitude toward and habit of reading. The value of each finding of the study is discussed in relation to the development plan of both school libraries and literacy of the younger generation in South Sumatra. It is concluded that (1) The availability of key library features, such as the purchase or acquisition of current and relevant library materials, adequate service hours, and the availability of information and communication technology (ICT), has an impact on library use; (2) Senior High Schools (SMA) pupils in South Sumatra still have poor reading attitudes, habits, and achievement; (3) Despite having roughly equal reading achievement, males and females have very different reading attitudes and habits; (4) students from schools with accreditation of A have much higher reading achievement than students from schools with accreditation of B or C.

Adaptability of Language Planning Models for Sri Lanka's Medium of Instruction in Higher Education Institutions: Challenges and Opportunities

Niruba Sarath Jayasundara , Wijesekara Mudiyanselage Sumith Dananjaya

Research Highlights in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 8, 4 August 2023, Page 139-152

In terms of seeking the possibilities of establishing the medium of instruction in Sri Lanka's higher education institutions, a selected number of language planning models is scrutinized in the present study. The potency of Haugen's model of language planning, Donnacha's three-level language planning view and integrated language planning model, and Milligan's system thinking approach are considered for achieving the said purpose.

The challenges faced by higher education in Sri Lanka have also been attentive by the paper, stressing on the inadequacy of vocational skills development, criticism of the quality of graduates, and discrimination based on ability and language skills. While suggesting a number of potential solutions, multi-nationalization through branch campuses and online programs, student scholarships, and distance education programs are suggested as major solutions to these problems.

Ultimately, the article concludes that the choice of the language planning model may depend on the context and purpose for which it is being used, but effective language planning can have significant benefits for society.

This chapter tries to illustrate the phenomenon of place in Palestinian children's stories between 1967 and 2001 in the context of the political and cultural influences on Palestinian literary creation. To the best of our knowledge, no research has been done on the topic of location in Palestinian children's literature. In order to fill in the gaps in children's literature, this study was created.

Confluent Teaching Practise: Implementation of Process-targeted Activities by Chemistry Student-Teacher

Darinka Sikošek , Kornelia Zaric

Research Highlights in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 8, 4 August 2023, Page 161-182

The main aim of this chapter is to ensure the proper role of teaching practice, which is included in initial teacher training courses. Teachers’ competency in teaching and learning is an important factor in determining the success of a teaching session. Their ability and wisdom in handling learning activities will have a direct impact on students’ active involvement in learning. By utilising engaging and cutting-edge teaching strategies, chemistry teachers must acquire or create learner competences for proper teaching and learning in the subject. To ensure the development of a qualified chemistry teacher (active and innovative), the continuous teaching practise model for aspiring chemistry teachers in the Pedagogical Study Programme of Second Degree "Educational Chemistry" has been corrected in terms of activities and approaches. As the research model of rational analysis of teaching methods were selected contemporary methods, which increase pupils' curiosity and consequently motivation for learning and activity and creativity. The main result of the study is a list of potential competencies by prospective chemistry   teachers using active and innovative teaching methods. The implementation of continuous teaching practice (TP) provides an opportunity for both the acquisition and development of these competences: these are essential for using, understanding, and learning in a science such as Chemistry (for learners) and for active implementation according to teachers, needs (for trainee Chemistry teachers).

The performance of activities defined by ongoing teaching practise, particularly in the areas of testing and evaluation, experiential and collaborative learning, and experimental (laboratory and field) activity, can develop and produce these abilities. Activity and competence are used to evaluate each of these components independently.