Dr. Natt Makul
Associate Professor, Building Technology, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Phranakhon Rajabhat University, Thailand.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-19217-75-5 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19217-80-9 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rader/v4

This book covers key areas of engineering research. The contributions by the authors include face recognition, attendance recording, convolution neural network, autonomous system, iris scanning, structural adhesives, aluminium joints, Six Sigma methodology, CAD/CAM technology, fused deposition modelling, cohesive zone models, finite element analysis, fracture mechanics, structural adhesive, market globalization, autonomous vehicles, GIS technology, sustainable development, multiphase induction motor, power electronics converter, multiphase motors, six phase induction motor, Cloud Based Integrated Bhulekh Model, Winkler’s model, coefficient of subgrade reaction modulus, ANSYS Workbench, global warming, dehydration processes, Maximum power point, algorithm, software, I-V characteristic, fill factor, solar energy, solar radiation, hardness, microstructure, corrosion resistance, telegraph equation, electric network, voltage variation, electrical transmission lines. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering research.


Media Promotion:


This research work is aimed to developing a less disruption, cost effective and robust implementation of autonomous attendance management system. To keep track of students' daily presence, marking attendance is a common practice for all educational institutions at all levels. There was once a time when attendance was tracked manually. Although they are time-consuming and labor-intensive for a large number of pupils, these approaches are exact and exclude the possibility of fraudulent enrollment. To address the drawbacks of manual systems, autonomous systems based on radio frequency recognition scanning, fingerprint scanning, face recognition, and iris scanning are being developed. Each technique has benefits and drawbacks. However, the majority of these systems are limited by the requirement for individual human engagement during the recording of attendance. To close the gaps in the current human and autonomous attendance management systems, we developed a robust and efficient attendance recording system using a single group shot to detect face identification and recognition algorithms. A high-definition camera mounted in a stable location records a series of images for each student seated in a classroom. The faces are then extracted from the group shot using a standard procedure, and they are identified using a convolutional neural network that is well-known to students from a face database. We evaluated our technique using several datasets and group pictures. Our research shows that the suggested framework performs better in terms of effectiveness, usability, and implementation than the current attendance tracking methods. The suggested solution is a self-contained attendance system that necessitates little contact between humans and machines, making integration into a smart classroom simple.

Experimental Evaluation of the Peel Characteristics of Structural Adhesives

J. P. O. Pereira, R. D. S. G. Campilho

Research and Developments in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 30 May 2023, Page 14-24

Peel tests are widely used to characterize the peel strength of bonded joints and to control the adhesion quality. In this research, the adherend effect on the peel strength of a brittle adhesive is experimentally studied using the floating roller peel test with the aim of investigate how the adherend changes affects the adhesion properties on brittle adhesives and also to investigate the viability of using the floating roller peel test in composite-to-composite and composite-to-aluminium joints, and perform the respective comparison with aluminium-aluminium joints. On the other hand, it is also intended to prove the applicability of this test for quality control of adhesion and determination of peel strength in joints with composite materials. The results show that the Araldite® AV138 performance falls within the characteristic values of peel strength of other brittle structural adhesives, with very small discrepancies in the determined parameters.

Development of a Novel Jig Design to Reduce Fabrication Time of Metal Parts

S. K. S. Kumar, R. D. S. G. Campilho, F. J. G. Silva

Research and Developments in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 30 May 2023, Page 25-37

Machining is the most prevalent manufacturing operation in terms of volume and expenditure.  Machining operations of complex parts need to be properly thought in order to save time and improve the competitiveness of the parts. Often, jigs and fixtures are overlooked in milling processes, as an auxiliary tool, but these can help in optimizing a machining process as a part of continuous improvement. The method used for this study was   base an increasing demand forecast of a complex part, called Winding cone, which implies a reduction in the takt time from 4.6 to 2.6 minutes per part. This research tries to establish the best solution for the project, which was divided into four phases: research, design, machining, and implementation.  The design phase was based on the methodology of Design for Six Sigma methodology (DFSS) for the fixture. The project's critical outputs were harvested during the implementation phase.  The newly designed and produced modular jig system is able to deal with 12 parts per cycle, proving to be able to increase the number of parts machined per day by 32%, with expected savings of more than €6000 per year. This drastically reduces the lead times for new parts, which is crucial for a small-medium enterprise stay competitive. The new jig design and fabrication allowed comfortable loading and unloading of parts.

Shear Fracture Behaviour of Bonded Joints by Application of the Direct Integration Method

R. L. Fernandes , R. D. S. G. Campilho

Research and Developments in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 30 May 2023, Page 38-49

The shear fracture toughness (Gsc) and CZM laws of bonded joints were investigated in this study. This was accomplished using the End-Notched  Flexure (ENF) test geometry. Design can be geared toward lighter constructions using adhesive bonding, not only because of the immediate weight saving advantages of the connection over fastened or welded joints, but also because  of the flexibility to link diverse materials. Cohesive Zone Models (CZM) are a strong design tool, but they require the CZM laws of the adhesive bond in tension and shear as input. The experimental effort involved characterizing the bond's shear fracture using conventional and J-integral approaches. Furthermore, the precise geometry of the cohesive law was established using the J-integral technique. Numerical Finite Element (FE) simulations in Abaqus® were performed to assess the correctness of the generated CZM laws in predicting the experimental behavior of the ENF tests, and the findings were positive.  The CZM laws of the tested adhesive revealed a good agreement between specimens. As a result of this work, fracture information in shear for the chosen adhesive is provided, enabling the subsequent strength prediction of bonded joints.

Development of an Autonomous and Compact Cargo Vehicle for Industrial Applications

H. D. B. C. L. de Oliveira, R. D. S. G. Campilho, F. J. G. Silva

Research and Developments in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 30 May 2023, Page 50-61

The concept of a modular autonomous vehicle that can transport large loads is shown in this work, which will enhance the efficiency of industrial parks. The competitiveness of the industrial sector has greatly risen in recent years as a result of market globalization. The movement of goods inside industrial parks takes on a specific relevance in this context. Making use of autonomously guided vehicles is one of the answers.

This is a compact vehicle with reasonable transportation costs and speeds. It was decided to design a driving system that could move the suggested loads. Simulations of the transport with loads, either on the ground or in an industrial park, were used to carry out this design. The Finite Element Method was used to conduct a structural analysis of the vehicle, identifying the points where reinforcement is needed for various load situations. Finally, the necessary adjustments were made, enabling the structure to support the desired loads. The ultimate result was an autonomous vehicle capable of efficiently and safely transporting the required loads.

This chapter aims to highlight the role of GIS technology as an efficient tool in the urban design of the university campus. A university campus is an extended place that may be connected to the city and maybe a separate urban gathering if the university is built in a rural area. The university campus is not only what we see with our eyes, but it is the place that creates memory and knowledge Therefore, it is mainly intellectual assemblies before it is visual composition. It is used by a large group of students, employees, visitors, service providers, and academics. Campus Planning involves the experience and goals of the target groups and the talent and expertise of the architect in addressing the long-range needs of schools. Many schools face the same restraints as commercial development projects, and indeed the history of campus design and town design has many parallels. In addition, schools have complex functional requirements that are often not well solved by monolithic institutional buildings. The space between the buildings is as significant as the buildings themselves. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to build a geo-database to understand, analyze and predict how the campus will look in all its details and functions. The Study chooses the University of Jordan as a case study area. It is the first university constituted in Jordan and ranked as the best university. It is located in Amman the capital of Jordan with more than 45000 student. The study used ArcGIS software and Corrected Satellite Image of the district of the University of Jordan Accordingly, we will be able then to design and create a new master plan for the campus. This geo-database contains spatial and attribute data necessary for a good design. Additionally, it will be useful in the future since updating this geo-database is easy in GIS software. In addition, the geodatabase could be used as an interactive map for the students, visitors, and vendors of the university. Architects and Planners can participate in the students’ attitudes and ideas about the recent and future design of the campus as well as all target groups; to be more realistic in their designs. The study recommends other thirty Jordanian universities to apply the technology of GIS and to make an updated Geo-database plans.

Vector Control of Multimotor Drive and Introduction to Single Multiphase Motor

Archana S. Nanoty, A. R. Chudasama

Research and Developments in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 30 May 2023, Page 84-94

Three-phase induction machines are currently the industry standard for industrial electrical drives. These machines are replacing dc drive systems for a variety of reasons, including cost, dependability, robustness, and maintenance-free operation. Three phase induction motors are operated as separately stimulated dc motors for field-oriented control. The advancement of power electronics and signal processing systems has eliminated one of the most significant drawbacks of such ac systems: the issue of control. The task of variable speed control of induction devices is no longer a disadvantage with modern field oriented vector control systems.  The desire to improve system performance, particularly when power supply and semiconductor power ratings are limited, promotes the usage of phase numbers other than three. In this chapter a novel scheme of connecting two, three phase induction motors in parallel fed by two inverters; viz. VSI and CSI and their vector control is presented and instead of using two inverters for three phase motor, a single multiphase motor design is discussed.

Study on Cloud Based Integrated Bhulekh Model Transforming Revenue Administration and Digitally Empowering Society

Saurabh Gupta, Rajesh Kumar Gangal, Sameer Rajan

Research and Developments in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 30 May 2023, Page 95-105

The goal of the government is to deliver numerous citizen-centric services in a cost-effective and transparent manner. To do this, the government must leverage cutting-edge technology in novel ways and combine it with process reengineering models that include a range of stakeholders in service delivery. Additionally, the government can perform claim validation by directly verifying documentary proofs through created databases.

The study highlights the remarkable initiative taken by the Government of Uttar Pradesh to transform Bhulekh 1.0 to Bhulekh 2.0, by employing cloud-based integration of stakeholders in revenue administration, including the registry office, revenue courts, banks, Aadhar, e-District, and Common Service Center (CSC). This transformation has set a new standard of digital delivery of services and improved the performance of Revenue Administration through MeghRaj Cloud. The cloud powered Bhulekh 2.0 is making significant progress towards creating a digitally empowered society by providing services from anywhere at any time in a responsive manner.

Bending the Foundation Beam on an Elastic base by Two Winkler's Subgrade Reaction Coefficients

Mirko Balabusic, Boris Folic, Slobodan Coric

Research and Developments in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 30 May 2023, Page 106-121

A new method for analysis of counter beams is presented in This chapter. Beam on elastic foundation have been analysed, most usually, based on the Winkler’s model in which the soil is replaced by a bed of elastic springs. The compressive resistance of soil against the beam deflection is quantified in terms of spring constant k [force/length2/length], which is a frequent occurrence in the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The stiffness EI, Winkler's space with modulus of subgrade reaction k, and equality deformities of the foundation beam with the ground were all considered in the analysis. The solution is discovered through numerical analysis of the Winkler's model, with variation of different moduli of the subgrade reaction k2 outside the force zone r, while the modulus of the subgrade reaction k exists under the force P, up to the definition of minimum bending moments. The exponential function k2(r), as the geometric position of the minimum moments is approximately assumed. From the potential energy conditions of the reciprocity of displacement and reaction, the width of the zone r and the modulus of the subgrade reaction k2 is explicitly determined, introducing in the calculation initial and calculation soil displacement wsi successively. It is well-known that the error in shear force and moment distribution can become significant in the case of foundation beams with small length-to-depth ratio subjected to closely spaced discrete column loads, as well as in the case of flanged beams and beams with sandwich-like cross-section.  It is concluded that numerical example in which the influence of k and k2 values on bending moments of the counter beam is analyzed. The essential idea of this paper is to decrease the quantity of the reinforcement in the foundations, beams, i.e. to obtain a cost-efficient foundation construction.

This research is focused on the design and fabrication of frame of the new vehicle that used alternative power source (electricity) as its main energy. The design and geometry of electric vehicles are similar to fuel vehicles. Instead of petrol tank electric motor is added with rechargeable batteries. In this paper the vehicle is designed as two wheels at the front and single wheel at the back of the vehicle. A software programme called ANSYS Workbench is used to analyse the frame's structural and dynamic properties. The three-wheeler frame can withstand forces due to various loading, according to the structural analysis of the vehicle's stress, strain, and deformation. This study makes a case for further investigation on the design of truck frame using FEA ANSYS software. 

Engine Power Optimation with Bioethanol Fuel: An Experimental Study

Andri Setiyawan

Research and Developments in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 30 May 2023, Page 133-141

This study aims to determine engine power after mixing pertalite fuel with bioethanol from cassava. This research is experimental research. The proportion of the fuel ratio consists of a mixture of 10%, 15% and 20%. In this study, the treatment was the use of a variation of pertalite fuel mixture with an ethanol mixture from the fermentation, distillation, and dehydration processes of cassava of the cassava type of manggu on engine performance in the form of power on a 150 CC vehicle.The highest power value obtained from the process of testing the mixture of pertalite and ethanol fuel from the fermentation, distillation, and dehydration processes of mangu cassava to RPM was 11.77 kW in the mixture of pertalite and ethanol fuel from the fermentation, distillation and dehydration of mangu cassava. 20% PE, at 9,000rpm.

Multifunctional Device for Measuring and Monitoring Parameters of a Photovoltaic Module

Davronov Shokhjakhon

Research and Developments in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 30 May 2023, Page 142-158

In this work, analyzes of existing devices for measuring the current-voltage characteristic were carried out in order to compare several devices. The purpose of this work is to develop a device for measuring the current-voltage characteristics of photovoltaic modules and the environmental factors affecting them. The paper discusses a system for monitoring solar module parameters that measure air temperature, module temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, current-voltage characteristic, maximum power point (MPP), efficiency, and fill factor (FF) and stores the data in a computer. The system is constructed around a programmable microcontroller with an analog-to-digital converter built in. The suggested system's program code also includes an algorithm for determining the maximum power point of the solar module. Because every parameter are taken into account automatically and written to the computer in the form of tables, the system performs all measurements in real time and is simple to use.  In order to compare the suggested monitoring system with alternative commercial measuring equipment, the research looked at their properties. The proposal includes a circuit diagram for a monitoring system as well as an electrical circuit to measure current-voltage characteristics.

Experimental Study and Examination of Coated, Uncoated, and Cryogenically Treated HSS Cutting Tools

M. Prakash, P. Raja , M. Sakthivel

Research and Developments in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 30 May 2023, Page 159-172

High-speed steel (HSS) tools are the most commonly used tools in small and medium-scale industry.  This study report presents findings from an experimental evaluation of tungsten carbide-coated, shallowly cryogenically treated, thoroughly cryogenically treated, and untreated HSS tools.  High-speed steel is utilized because it is more affordable than other cutting tools while yet providing good reliability and quality. To ensure the tool's dependability, it is crucial to further enhance its capabilities. The best course of action is to make something harder. Various heat treatment and cold treatment procedures are employed to increase high hardness and good wear resistance. Cryogenic treatment is one such widely utilized and efficient treatment method. For high-speed steel, it gives significantly greater wear resistance and hardness. To determine the hardness and corrosion resistance, experiments were run. To determine the specimen's microstructure, microstructure analysis is carried out. The machining time was calculated once turning was completed. Calculations were made for tool life, MRR, and wear volume. Tools that have been tungsten carbide coated, subjected to shallow cryogenic treatment, deep cryogenic treatment, and left untreated are compared.

An Exact Solution of the Telegraphy Equations for Tracking the Electrical Signal in an Electrical Transmission Network

Daouda Konane, W. Serge Boris Ouedraogo, Toussaint Tilado Guingane, Abdoulaye Zongo, Zacharie Koalaga , François Zougmoré

Research and Developments in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 30 May 2023, Page 173-190

The solution of telegraphy equations requires the techniques of substitutions of differential equations. By adopting a general sinusoidal form of the solution allowing us to reduce them to second-order differential equations without a second member, we propose a new exact solution to the telegraph equations.  Simulations considering the standards of a Medium Voltage Cable NF C 33 220 of 12/20(24)kV allow to follow the variation of the current and the voltage in the electrical equipment as a function of time at each point of the line. Indeed, the different curves obtained correspond better to the real voltage curves observed in the electrical networks in service.