Editor(s)
Dr. Rachid Masrour,
Professor,
Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco.

ISBN 978-93-5547-737-8 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-738-5 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/racms/v2

This book covers key areas of Chemical and Materials Sciences. The contributions by the authors include bio-tribology, total hip replacement, metal-PE articulation, sulphuric acid baking, metal dissolution, cobalt minerals, multi-layerd nanocrystalline, microstructure, transmission electron microscopy, optimal performance, electron density, physical and  chemical properties, biocompatibility, functional efficiency, block copolymers, hydrolytic polycondensation, filled vulcanizate, heat resistance, simulation, industrial processes, mass transfer, kinetics, thermodynamic approximation, hydrodynamic approximations, Boltzmann's approximation, column apparatuses, convection-diffusion model, average-concentration model, chemical reaction, absorption, homogeneous function, power functions complex, catastrophic failures, biomedical devices, Nickel Secretion, Suspended Particulate Matter, respirable Particulate Matter. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Chemical and Materials Sciences.

Media Promotion:


Chapters


Objective: Research in the field of bio-tribology is trying to evaluate biomaterials with minimum wear. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) has recently been proposed as an alternative material for hip/knee joint replacement. The wear properties of Si3N4 can be enhanced by adding hexagonal boron nitride (hBN).

Methods/Analysis: In this article, the sliding wear behavior of Si3N4-hBN composite against alumina and steel (ASTM 316L) is evaluated in order to decrease wear loss. An attempt was made to determine the effect of hBN addition on Si3N4 wear performance. The experiments were planned according to Design of Experiments (DoE) – orthogonal array Taguchi method to evaluate the effect hBN addition for wear characteristic of silicon nitride..

Findings: To reduce Si3N4 wear loss, Taguchi analysis suggests 15N load and 8% volume of hBN against alumina, and 15N load and 12% volume of hBN against steel. The interaction between load and hBN addition is playing important role in wear performance of silicon nitride

Sulphuric Acid Bake-Leach Process for the Treatment of Mixed Copper-Cobalt Oxide Ores: An Experimental Study

Precious Mwamba, Jewette H. Masinja, James Manchisi, Leonard Kabondo

Research Aspects in Chemical and Materials Sciences Vol. 2, 8 July 2022, Page 12-24
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/racms/v2/16478D

As an alternative to reductive leaching, a sulphuric acid bake–leach method for the treatment of mixed copper–cobalt oxide minerals was studied. The effects of acid dosage, baking temperature, baking time and leaching time on the dissolution of copper and cobalt were investigated. Sulphuric acid was added to the mixed copper-cobalt oxide ore, which was then baked in a muffle furnace. To test the leachability of copper and cobalt from the baked material, the reacted samples were exposed to water leaching at room temperature.

Copper and cobalt dissolutions were dependent on acid concentration, with cobalt being more sensitive to the amount of acid. Without the use of reducing agents, copper and cobalt were extracted from the baked material in a short amount of time. The sulfuric acid bake-leach technique has been found to be a viable alternative to the reductive leaching method for copper-cobalt oxide ores.

TEM Cross-Section Sample (XTEM) Preparation of nc-Si/a-SiO2 Multi-Layer Thin Film Using cryo Ar+ Ion Slicing for Microstructural Analyses

R. Siddheswaran , Rostislav Medlin, Pavel Calta, C. Esther Jeyanthi

Research Aspects in Chemical and Materials Sciences Vol. 2, 8 July 2022, Page 25-36
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/racms/v2/3260B

Thin films of multi-layerd nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) have established wide attention in the field of third generation solar cells. In this chapter, the amorphous hydrogenated a-Si:H/a-SiO2 multi-layered films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is reported. Then the as-deposited thin film was annealed at 1100ºC to get the nc-Si/a-SiO2 multilayer. The structure of the as-deposited and annealed thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for the confirmation of the crystal structure. Besides, this chapter mainly reports the ultrathin specimen preparation of (nc-Si/a-SiO2) multilayer film for the HR-TEM analyses by using Ar+ ion slicing (milling) method. Several early preparation steps, including as cutting, gluing, and mechanical thinning, are included in the Ar+ ion slicing procedure. This slicing method yields a minimal trial, high yield, and thin cross-section suitable for high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis. The procedure for the preparation of ultra-thin cross-sectional specimen for TEM (XTEM) is reported step by step in this chapter. The textured multi-layers and the thickness of nc-Si/a-SiO2 were analysed using TEM and HR-TEM modes. 

Modification to a Formulation for Optimal Performance: A Review

Hebah Abdel-Wahab, Tamara Gund

Research Aspects in Chemical and Materials Sciences Vol. 2, 8 July 2022, Page 37-46
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/racms/v2/16401D

In a chemical reaction, reactant substance changes to product substance, the product substance will have different physical and chemical properties than the reactant substance. All chemical reactions involve a detectable change: color change, bubbling, heat evolution, heat absorption, light emission, or formation of a precipitate. Reactions are classified into three main reactions, precipitation reactions, acid base reactions and oxidation reduction reactions. The counting unit for number of atoms, ions or molecules in a laboratory seize sample is mole, abbreviated mol. A limiting reactant is the reactant that is completely consumed in a chemical reaction, it limits and determines the amount of product formed, the other reactants are called excess reactants. The quantities of product formed, and reactant consumed are restricted by the amount of limiting reactant. The objective of this work is to increase the quality of the tablet produced by increasing amount of bubbling per table, identify type of reaction occurring in the product, calculate the molar amount of each reactant that form greatest amount of gas product (CO2)., identify chemical compounds that would be harmful to the formulation, include additives that would increase the quality of the product. After researching each chemical in the formulation and studying possible reactions of each chemical in the formulation. It’s found that the bubbling power of the tablets in water was due to the reaction between vitamin C and cream tartar with baking soda, the molar amounts of reactants were calculated for optimal performance, producing the greatest amount of bubbling per tablet, chemical compounds found to decrease amount of bubbling per table is sodium chloride, and chemical compounds found to increase quality of the product is sugars.

Review on Resin Modified Core Build Up Materials

Gitanjali Singh, Lalit C. Boruah , Akanksha Bhatt, Swikriti Agrawal

Research Aspects in Chemical and Materials Sciences Vol. 2, 8 July 2022, Page 47-57
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/racms/v2/2906A

The aim of the study is to evaluate and understand the importance of modification of resin based core build up materials in order to improvise the physical and chemical characteristics. The restorative materials should be able to restore the structural balance, functional efficiency and aesthetic harmony of the oro-facial structures. To fulfil these requirements, it must have the following properties: sufficient flexural strength to prevent core dislodgement during function; sufficient compressive strength to withstand intra-oral forces; biocompatibility with the surrounding tissues; ease of manipulation; capacity to bond to tooth structure; pins and posts; and dimensional stability. Most resin-based core build-up materials must be applied in increments to cure fully, however some materials, such as Bulk Flow materials and materials that release fluoride, such as Fluorocore, Absolute dentin core build-up composite, and Pulpdent Hardcore, may now be applied in bulk. It is concluded that evolution of core build up materials and it’s ability to match the structural and functional aspects of natural tooth structure is everlasting.

Polydiorganosiloxane-polyphenylsilsesquioxane Block Copolymers Bearing Various Si-substituents: Synthesis, Properties

V. A. Alexeeva, Yu. V. Khoroshavina

Research Aspects in Chemical and Materials Sciences Vol. 2, 8 July 2022, Page 58-69
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/racms/v2/6491F

Block copolymers have been synthesized from dihydroxyl-terminated polydiorganolsiloxane oligomers bearing various Si-substituents and polyphenylsilsesquioxane oligomers. The products are soluble, amorphous and display excellent thermal properties in comparison with the linear polydiorganolsiloxane analogues. The structure, molecular weight and thermal stability properties of these silicone block copolymers were investigated. Overall, the aim of studies is to obtain polymer material with high molecular weight and thermal stability, thus further improving its application value.

Modeling and Simulation of Chemical and Mass Transfer Processes in Industrial Column Apparatuses

Boyan Boyadjiev, Christo Boyadjiev

Research Aspects in Chemical and Materials Sciences Vol. 2, 8 July 2022, Page 70-108
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/racms/v2/2819A

In the Chapter is presented theoretical analysis of the methods for industrial processes modeling and simulation. Two main problems in the modeling of the kinetics of industrial mass transfer processes are solved that arise from the need for information about the interphase boundaries and velocity distributions in the phases in the column apparatuses and the interaction between the simple (elementary) processes in the complex process, i.e., information about the process mechanism.

A Brief Study about Bio Inspired Self-Curing Composites

Sravan Kumar Khuntia, Shantanu Bhowmik

Research Aspects in Chemical and Materials Sciences Vol. 2, 8 July 2022, Page 109-120
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/racms/v2/2227A

The purpose of this technical paper is to sort the methodology in line with ongoing research efforts in Bio-inspired composites. A perspective on current and future self-curing approaches using this biomimetic technique is offered. The self-curing material paves the way for longer-lasting components while also avoiding catastrophic breakdowns. The ability of humans to cure things has led to a number of studies on self-curing composites: A quantum leap into enhanced material behavior. The rate of damage versus rate of curing is consequently a determinant of curative proficiency. Over the last few decades, tremendous development has been achieved in composite materials, production processes, and structural design. Nonetheless, composite materials are restricted in all engineering disciplines due to their susceptibility to various types of defects during the manufacturing stage, such as porosity, foreign body inclusion, incorrect fiber volume, bonding defect, fiber misalignment, ply misalignment, incorrect curing cycle, wavy fiber, ply cracking, delamination, fiber microstructural defects, and so on. As a result, solutions to overcome these faults during the service life of composites utilized in diverse structures and equipment were required.

This potential field of research has made significant progress in recent years, but there are still many procedural hurdles to overcome, and there is an urgent need for concentrated research to address a number of areas of concern. Nature, on the other hand, has materials that have the ability to heal and restore themselves, assuring their survival. New curing chemicals with improved stability and faster kinetics will emerge as a result of continued research in the field. The precise placement of curing agents is a hot research topic at the forefront of self-curing. Vascular networks are strongly linked to new bio-imitative curative medicines.

Estimation of Nickel Secretion in the Industrial City Bhilai (C.G.)

Rekha Trivedi

Research Aspects in Chemical and Materials Sciences Vol. 2, 8 July 2022, Page 121-133
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/racms/v2/16895D

The goal of this chapter is to estimate and continuously monitor the levels of nickel in the ambient air and rainwater of Bhilai over a specific time period. During the study period, air and rainwater samples were obtained at the sampling site Bhilai Institute of Technology in Durg district, Chhattisgarh, India. The obtained results were contrasted with those of a 1998 study, which had been conducted.Nickel content was found to be greater than the data from 1998. The outcome showed that nickel was present in rainwater and ambient air in significant amounts, but did not exceed the legal limit. The range of nickel in rainwater was found to be between 312 ng/l and 584 ng/l, while the range of nickel in air was found to be between 0.87 ng/m3 and 215.4 ng/m3.