Editor(s)
Dr. P. Elangovan
Associate Professor & HOD,
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SRM TRP Engineering College, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India.

ISBN 978-93-5547-230-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-235-9 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8

This book covers key areas of science and technology. The contributions by the authors include sound pressure levels, road surface anomalies, geo-locator, thin films, spray pyrolysis, optical constants, band gap energy, bioacoustics analysis, health services, basic services, administrative science concepts, public service concepts, energy sources, on-farm and off-farm activities, lower limb amputation, gender difference, depression, anxiety, stress, corrugated airfoil, lift coefficient, drag coefficient, panel method, Reynolds number, peer tutoring, expository teaching strategy, speed bumps, vehicle, vibration dosimeter, comfort Index, bacterial population, brain volume, Intracranial volume, Intracranial pressure, Volume-Pressure relationship, ICP Control, ICP Plateau-waves, harmonics, total harmonic power, nonlinear load, active power filter, M-algorithm, App-DDoS browsing behavior, hidden semi Markov model. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology.

Media Promotion:

### Chapters

##### Definition and Validation of a Method for Identifying Road Surface Anomalies on Streets by Measuring Noise and Vibration

Vincenzo Barone, Domenico Walter Edvige Mongelli, Antonio Tassitani

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 1-10
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/4234F

This work was created in order to present an automatic methodology for detecting anomalies on the road surface, based on data provided by a noise dosimeter and a vibration dosimeter, both of which were synchronised with a smartphone with a geo-locator (GPS). There have already been studies on this subject, particularly to identify objects in the subsoil or to recognise the stratigraphy of bituminous conglomerates that make up asphalt road paving, but no one has looked into the possibility of identifying road surface anomalies through the analysis of sound pressure levels or acceleration levels that can be registered on board of a vehicle that runs along a stretch of road. Along this sense, once tested and validated, this survey approach allows for the identification of road anomalies in a specific route using a single survey and the combined use of measuring instruments.

##### Determination of Optical Characterization of the CdZnSe2xTe2(1-x) Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis Method

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 11-20
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/14136D

CdZnSe2xTe2(1-x) thin films for different composition parameters ‘x’ have been deposited on large substrate area (glass plates) by the spray pyrolysis method which is simple, inexpensive and economical at 300o C substrate temperature. The main objective of this study is to characterize the thin films grown by measuring their optical properties which include Absorbance (A),  Transmittance(T),  Reflectance(R), Absorption coefficient($$\alpha$$), Band gap energy (Eg), Refractive index (n), Extinction coefficient (k), Dielectric constant ($$\epsilon$$),(real and imaginary parts) and Variation of these properties with composition parameter. From the optical transmission and reflection spectra, absorption coefficients were calculated. Band gap energy were determined from absorbance measurements in visible range using Tauc theory. Band gap energy values are found to lie in the range 2.04-2.52 eV for the films with composition parameter, x= 0 to 1. It shows that the main transition at the fundamental absorption edge is a direct allowed transition. The values of optical parameters obtained by this method are suitable for many scientific studies and technical applications.

##### Morphometric and Bioacoustic Study of the Ornamental Gaga’s Chicken (Ayam Ketawa) from Kebayoran Lama and Pinrang

Abinawanto ., P. S. Effendi

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 21-26
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/9546D

The aim of study was to distinguish two types of Gaga’s chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus, namely dangdut type and slow type based on morphometric and bioacoustics characters.  Twenty samples were collected from Pinrang, South Sulawesi, and the rest of seven samples were collected from Kebayoran Lama, Southern Jakarta, respectively. The Gaga’s chicken body weight was not significant different from Pinrang and Kebayoran Lama either in “slow type” or “dangdut type”. In contrast, the neck bone length of the “dangdut type” from Pinrang was longer (P<0.05) than Kebayoran Lama. Based on bioacoustic analysis of “dangdut type” shown more beats (4-7 times) than “slow type” (3-5 times).

##### The Concept of Public Service at the District General Hospital, in the frame of State Administration (A Case at Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia)

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 27-32
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/13413D

Health service is one of the basic services which are very important and needed by the community at large. That is why then, the government through the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia in 2010 mandated that the level of excellent health basically provides opportunities for individuals or communities to take advantage of their opportunities and potential, so that the level of welfare in general will increase. Related to this, research on health services was carried out, especially related to the implementation of the BPJS (Social Security Administration Agency) at Regional General Hospitals. The aim of research was to explore the concept of state administration in the concept of public service. The service concept focuses on optimizing the BPJS program in handling health for the community. The research was conducted at Pelabuhan Ratu Hospital and Sekarwangi Hospital, Sukabumi Regency, West Java Province. To achieve the goal, a descriptive method with a qualitative approach was used. This method is used to find facts with the right interpretation and accurately describe the nature and actions of group and individual phenomena at the empirical level. The results showed that the BPJS program implemented by the Pelabuhan Ratu Hospital and Sekarwangi Hospital was not optimal.

##### Study on Appraisal of Per Capita Consumption of Charcoal and Firewood as an Alternative Energy Sources for Domestic Usage in Keffi Nasarawa State Nigeria

Ibrahim Sufiyan, M. I. Nasir, A. T. Ogah, K. D. Muhammad

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 33-44
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/2675E

The most basic way to use forest resources is to use their byproducts (firewood and charcoal) in our homes. Africa has suffered greatly from a lack of energy supply. In recent years, Nigeria's electricity supply has been limited. Gas, kerosene and LNG are exorbitant that poor people cannot afford. Poverty is increasing, particularly in a mostly rural community in Nigeria as well as Africa, as a result of bad leadership, leaving common people with no resources to rely on except forest resources, where women and children go to bushes. This study examines the per capita consumption of firewood and charcoal on a daily, weekly, monthly, and annual basis. The use of fuelwood is determined by consumption rates. To statistically validate the rate of fuelwood consumption, regression analyses were used. The results show that there are high rates of consumption per capita per day (charcoal 0.20 kg, firewood 0.09 kg), per capita per week (charcoal 9.9 kg, firewood 4.48 kg), per capita per month (charcoal 181.9 kg, firewood 82.5 kg), and per capita per year (charcoal 26,937 kg, firewood 12,042 kg). This shows that people are destroying forests on a daily basis and altering the natural systems of the environment for the sake of fuelwood consumption.

##### Study about Income Diversification: An Approach to Farm Family Household in Different Agro-climatic Zone of J&K, UT

Parvani Rekhi

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 45-56
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/2540E

The diversification of a portfolio is an alternative strategy for households to minimize their income variability and to ensure a minimum level of income. Multi-stage sampling, binary logistic regression and logit regression design were used for the study. The study was conducted in Jammu & Kashmir State (Union Territory) in the year of 2016-17 with a total sample size of 630 farming families drawn from the four agro-ecological zones. From each selected villages, 15 farming families were drawn randomly without replacement and out of 15 farm families only 10 families were retained for analysis. The result revealed that mean age of farming families in sub-tropical, intermediate, temperature and cold-arid zone was 53, 50, 47 and 51 years respectively and educational level of middle pass was 24.40 percent from the total sample size of 630. Majority of the household (78.40%) did not diversify their off-farm activities and very least percent had high level of income diversification (1.90%) from off-farm activities. An average gross income from on-farm enterprise was Rs. 77,623 per annum and from off-farm activities the average income was Rs. 1,17,643 per annum. Education, size of family members and fragmented land holdings were the push factors which motivated the farming family households to diversify towards other activities. The study further suggested that there is a need to develop education and skill development training among the farm family households, as it will surely provide a positive impact on the ability to diversify their other livelihood options.

##### Study on Gender Differences among People with Lower Limb Amputation in Indian Population on the Basis of Depression, Anxiety & Stress

Shivangi Mehra, Sarika Boora, Chitra Kataria

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 57-64
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/13756D

Aims and Objectives: The present study compares the level of depression, anxiety and stress on the basis of gender differences in people with lower limb amputation in Indian population. It is critical to investigate the impact of amputation on the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress in both genders because recovery from amputation is a difficult journey.

Methodology: A sample of 100 Lower Limb Amputee patients who were non-prosthetic users (n=100, n=50 Males, n=50 Females) was collected from rehabilitation unit of Indian Spinal Injuries Centre & Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang Sahayata Samiti, New Delhi. In this study data was collected by convenient sampling technique. Depression, anxiety and stress were evaluated by Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - 21 Items (DASS-21). The scores of depression, anxiety and stress were evaluated to find out the gender differences among subjects with lower limb amputation.

Results: Data recorded was analyzed using SPSS data analysis software. An Independent t-test was used to compare the difference among both the genders with lower limb amputation in terms of depression, anxiety and stress. There was significant difference seen among the females with higher level of depression, anxiety and stress as compared to males with lower limb amputation.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that there was a gender difference in context of Depression, Anxiety and Stress in subjects with lower limb amputation among Indian population. The key findings of the study suggest that the females with lower limb amputation tend to have higher level of depression, anxiety and stress in comparison of males with lower limb amputation.

##### Aerodynamic Characterization of Bio Inspired Corrugated Wings: A Recent Study

Yagya Dutta Dwivedi

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 65-77
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/13961D

The wings of a dragon fly in the wild have corrugations on their surface and are known to have efficient aerodynamic properties. Aerodynamic analysis of bio-inspired profiles corrugated A, corrugated B, and NACA 0010 was investigated in this study utilising a 2-D panel approach and wind tunnel testing. All profiles were examined for coefficient of lift, drag, and glide ratio for two Reynolds numbers, 1.9x104 and 1.5x105, and for angles of attack ranging from 0 to 160 degrees. The results of the panel approach have been confirmed using current and previous experiment data, as well as computational work from the cited literature. For low angles of attack, there was good agreement between experimental and panel approaches. When compared to NACA 0010, the results showed that corrugated profiles can achieve higher lift coefficient and lower drag coefficient up to 80 degrees angles of attack. Surface pressure coefficients for all three profiles were validated using the panel method at 40 angles of attack. From -100 to 200 angles of attack, contours of non-dimensional pressure and velocity are shown. Corrugated profiles outperform NACA 0010 for low Reynolds number flows, according to a good correlation between experimental data and computational approaches

##### Determination of Relative Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring and Think-Pair-Share Strategies in Improving Senior Secondary School Students’ Academic Performance in Chemistry in Osogbo

Muhideen Abiodun Oloyede, Emmanuel Folorunso Bamidele, Popoola Oluwasegun Oladipupo

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 78-90
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/2891E

The study looked at the effects of peer tutoring and think-pair-share instructional strategies on students' academic performance in Chemistry. Also it compared the efficacy of peer tutoring and think-pair-share strategies on improving students' attitudes toward Chemistry. These were done in order to highlight which teaching strategies can improve students' academic performance in Chemistry.  A non-equivalent pre-test, post-test control group experimental research design was used in this work. All public senior secondary class one (SS 1) science students in Osogbo were included in the study.  Olorunda Local Government was chosen using a basic random selection procedure out of the two local government areas in Osogbo. Three senior secondary schools in the Local Government Area were chosen, and one intact class from each of the schools was chosen using a simple random sample procedure. A total of 113 participants were included in the study (38, 37 and 38 from each of the three schools). Using a simple random sampling technique, the schools were divided into three groups (Peer Tutoring, Think-Pair-Share, and Teacher Expository). The data for the study was collected using two instruments: Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) and the Questionnaire on Attitudes of Students towards Chemistry (QASTC). Analysis of Covariance(ANCOVA) was used to examine the data collected . The results revealed that students exposed to peer tutoring, think-pair-share instructional strategies and those exposed to instructor expository teaching strategies performed notably different (F= 28.970; p< 0.05). The findings also revealed that when students were exposed to peer tutoring and think-pair-share, there was no significant difference in their attitudes about Chemistry(F= 2.865; p> 0.05). The Think-Pair-Share Teaching Strategy (TPSTS) had the greatest impact on student academic achievement when compared to the Peer Tutoring Teaching Strategy (PTTS) and the Teacher Expository Teaching Strategy (TETS). When compared to PTTS, students exposed to TPSTS exhibited a mean difference of 1.8904 and a mean difference of 4.1287 when compared to TETS. According to the findings, think-pair-share was a better teaching approach for enhancing students' academic performance in Chemistry than peer tutoring and teacher expository teaching strategies.

##### Vibrations on Board of Different Categories of Vehicles: A Method for Analyzing the Influence of Speed Bumps on Comfort

Vincenzo Barone, Domenico Walter Edvige Mongelli, Antonio Tassitani

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 91-100
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/3251F

This paper shows the results of a study conducted on five different categories of vehicles in a specific test site. The aim was to investigate how the effect of the test site discontinuity determines variations of comfort related to the increase in speed and to the five selected road vehicles of different classes. Measurements were obtained by combining data relating to vibrations in the three reference axes, detected through a vibration dosimeter (VIB-008), and geolocation data (latitude, longitude, and speed) identified by the GPS inside a smartphone. This procedure, through the synchronization between dosimeter and GPS location, has been helpful in postprocessing to eliminate any measurement anomalies generated by the operator. After the survey campaign it was determined that a formulation allows defining a Comfort Index (CI) depending on velocity and five vehicles of different classes. Some reference thresholds and six classes of vibrational comfort were also identified. This study showed that the presence of speed bumps, in the test site investigated, appears to be uncomfortable even at speeds well below those required by the Highway Code.

##### Determination of Soil Microbial Population and Enzyme Activities under Jasmine Cultivation as Influenced by Nutrient Sources

B. Bhakiyathu Saliha, B. Banupriya, P. Balasubramaniam, R. Indirani

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 101-112
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/2549E

Multi nutrient deficiencies in soil have been reported with increasing frequency over the past two decades on a worldwide scale, is considered as an important factor that reduces yield and affects the quality of harvested products. Nutrient cycling and transformation of in soil is influenced by microbes and the availability of organic and inorganic nutrients to plants and microbes can both be controlled through enzyme activities. Keeping this in view a field experiment was conducted at O. Alangulam village of Thiruparankundram block, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu during 2016-18. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the influence of Sulphur at different levels of pressmud and gypsum with or without the recommended inorganic fertilisers through various sources such as single super phosphate(SSP) and Suphala on soil microbial population and enzyme activities and optimize the sulphur requirement of Jasmine (Jasminum sambac). The significantly higher bacterial population of 124 × 106 CFU g-1 was observed in the treatment that received pressmud as sulphur source @ 60 g sulphur/plant/year along with RDF (recommended dose of fertilisers were applied @ 60:120:120 g of N:P2O5:K2O/plant/ year in the form of urea, SSP and MOP).This was followed by the treatment that received pressmud @ 40 g sulphur/plant/year along with RDF (111 × 106 CFU g-1). Application of inorganic NPK fertilizers without organics decreased the activities of dehydrogenase and aryl sulphatase enzymes. The flower yield hectare-1 ranged from 3.8 to 15.4 tonnes ha-1as influenced by various nutrient sources. Application of RDF along with Gypsum @ 60 g sulphur/ plant/year recorded significantly higher yield followed by the treatment that received RDF along with Pressmud @ 60 g sulphur/plant/year.

##### Determining the Relationship between Intracranial Pressure Increase and Volume of Brain Compression

Erik Ryding

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 113-120
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/5335F

Objective: The physiological background for intracranial pressure, ICP, increase at brain compression is presently unknown. Current knowledge of the relationship between ICP and volume of brain compression is based on animal experiments, which has led to the theory of elastic brain tissue compression, which like a loaded spring causes the ICP increase. However, tests of brain tissue composition, or compression, find no basis for elasticity, or compression.

The aim of this article is to describe the physiological features controlling ICP since it is necessary for the understanding of intracranial physiology, but also since ICP is an important parameter in neuro-intensive care medicine.

Methods: This evaluation is based on the physiological consequences of the closed intracranial compartment, the thin-walled, compressible venous bed, the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow, CBF, to blood pressure changes, and the coupling between ICP and the intra-capillary blood pressure through the thin, flexible capillary wall. These features influence the intracranial venous blood volume, the venous vascular resistance, and the CBF.

Together these features are shown to revile the ICP dependence on the volume of brain volume compression.

Results: The evaluation leads to a formula that describes the relationship between ICP and changes in the brain volume. The formula predicts an exponential ICP increase at brain compression like in animal experiments but, contrary to the elastic tissue theory, a gradually higher exponential for larger compression.

Conclusion: The found relationship between ICP and changes in brain volume may prove to be a useful tool in neuro-intensive care patients for following changes in intracranial volumes by the aid of continuous ICP measurements.

Since brain-compressing volumes includes the arterial pulse volume, the ICP formula may also enable CBF calculation from ICP measurements. It is obvious that the volume reduction in the CBF direction eliminates any intra-vascular pressure fall.

The physiological relationships leading to the description of the relationship between ICP and brain volume change may by themselves help in understanding other intracranial phenomena, like ICP plateau-waves.

##### Study on Harmonic Identification and Mitigation Using APF in Distribution System Consisting of Single Non Linear Load

S. V. D. Anil Kumar, K. Ramesh Reddy

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 121-133
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/5093F

This work provides a unique method for compensating source side current harmonics caused by the presence of nonlinear characteristic loads in power systems using an Active power filter (APF). This is quite often because optimising the capability system networks utilising traditional mathematical modelling based mostly linearized approaches is difficult due to the advanced, nonlinear, and non-stationary nature of systems that involve a large number of different constraints.   To avoid the complexity of conventional concepts, this paper proposes the application of Total Harmonic Power (THP) to two complete cases with and without APF, i.e. identifying the harmonics and reducing their effect with APF to lower the supply current Total harmonic distortion (THD) sufficiently below fifth order to satisfy the IEEE-519 standard even under distorted offer. For scenarios with and without APF management methods using THP control techniques, intensive MATLAB simulations and comparative analysis were used.  The new modification was applied to several case studies and proved to be successful. Moreover, to eliminate the possible errors associated with measuring the harmonic powers due to calculating the phase shifts between harmonics.

##### Detection of Distributed Denial of Service Prevention (DDoSP): An Overview

S. S. Sreeja Mole, L. Ganesan

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 134-139
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/14343D

The present study was carried out to describe the browsing habits of web Searchers and attacks can be prevented. There are many solution based methods created against Distributed Denial Of Service (DDoS) attacks are focused on the Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol layers as a substitute of the high layer. An extended hidden semi-Markov model is proposed to describe the browsing habits of web searchers. A forward algorithm is derived for the online implementation of the model based on the M-algorithm in order to reduce the computational amount introduced by the model’s large state space. Entropy of the user’s HTTP request sequence accurate to the replica is used as a principle to measure the user’s normality. Finally, experiments are conducted to validate our model and algorithm. A new on-line algorithm based on the M-algorithm was designed for the anomaly detection. A set of real traffic data collected from an educational website and a generated App-DDoS attack traffic were used to validate our model.

##### Determination of Biting Behaviours and Peak Range of Mosquito Armigerous subalbatus in Different Sites

S. Uthirasamy, T. Chitra

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 8, 10 November 2021, Page 140-149
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v8/2746E

Biting behaviour and peak values of Armigerous subalbatus mosquitoes were observed at K. K nagar in Erode district, Tamilnadu. Armigerous subalbatus was collected from five separate locations. The Armigerous subalbatus high peak is observed from November to March. The mosquitoes Armigerous subalbatus were observed at five separate locations. A total of 178 mosquitoes were collected at the Open Dark Place site (Sewage).The minimum total number of mosquitoes seen at Open Light Place was 37. (Sewage). The total number of mosquitoes collected in the outdoors was 32. The number of Armigerous subalbatus mosquito observed in the Open Place site was 14 and the total number of mosquito recorded in the Open Place site was 8. The intensity of ambient light at sunrise and sunset indicates the peak of biting activity. The standard deviation value of the morning peak falls was reported as 06.30 $$\pm$$0.173 at 06.30 hours in 50% value of morning time. The standard deviation value of the evening peak falls was found to be 18.30 $$\pm$$0.223 at 18.30 hours.

This study found that the rate of variation in light intensity and not fixed level or value is the critical factor, which observes the activity peak of biting mosquitoes.