Dr. Mohd  Rafatullah
Senior Lecturer, Division of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.

ISBN 978-93-90768-98-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90768-99-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nips/v13

This book covers key areas of physical science research. The contributions by the authors include entropy, quantum interference, low-voltage distribution, grid automation, smart circuits, smart grid convergence, monogamy inequality, shareability, quantum correlations, information technology, face recognition, local binary pattern histogram, Joule-Lenz energy, quantum electron transitions, electromagnetic energy emission, variational iteration adomian decomposition method, laplace variational iteration method, modified variational iteration laplace transform method, new modified Kamal variational iteration adomian decomposition method, metallic plasma model, stabilized Jellium model, Ab-initio model, metallic surfaces, electron density parameter, neutrino mixing matrix, leptogenesis, probability, QRS detection, floating point multiplier. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical sciences.


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Analysis of Entropy Associated with Information Storage and Its Retrieval

Abu Mohamed Alhasan

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 13, 27 February 2021, Page 1-18

We provide an entropy analysis for light storage and light retrieval. In this analysis, entropy extraction and reduction in a typical light storage experiment are identified. The spatiotemporal behavior of entropy is presented for D1 transition in cold sodium atoms. The governing equations are the reduced Maxwell field equations and the Liouville–von Neumann equation for the density matrix of the dressed atom.

SmartLVGrid Platform - Convergence of Legacy Low-Voltage Circuits toward Smart Grid Paradigm

Raimundo C. S. Gomes, Carlos T. Da Costa Jr., Jose R. Silva, Jose R. Sicchar

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 13, 27 February 2021, Page 19-38

The current electrical system is in the transition to a new technological model called the Smart Grid,
and the speed of this process will be so much faster if better adjusted to the available technical and
financial resources are the transition systems implemented. In this article, we present a method for
convergence of the traditional power distribution grid to the smart grid paradigm from the retrofitting of
the legacy circuits that compose this grid. Our results indicate that the application of such a method,
given through a distributed system platform with integrated technological resources added on overlaid
to the legacy infrastructure, converts these passive grids into intelligent circuits capable of supporting
the implementation of a broad scope of functionalities smart grid.

Monogamy Inequality in Terms of Higher Powers of a Correlation Measure: An Analysis

A. R. Usha Devi, . Sudha, P. J. Geetha

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 13, 27 February 2021, Page 39-53

We begin with the basic notions of limited shareability of quantum correlations, the so-called monogamous nature of quantum states and outline how this feature is manifested through a monogamy inequality. Not all measures of quantum correlations are suitable for bringing out the restricted shareability of correlations in a quantum state. While measures of bipartite correlations such as concurrence, quantum discord do not satisfy monogamy inequality for all categories of correlated quantum states, their second powers are found to do. There has also been a proposition that all multiparty quantum states can be made monogamous by considering positive integral powers of any quantum correlation measure (Ann. Phys. 348, 297 (2014)). We focus on this proposition and analyze whether satisfying monogamy inequality in terms of higher powers of a correlation measure implies limited shareability of correlations.

An Overview in Disadvantages of the Modern Communications

Hasan Bakheet Jasim

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 13, 27 February 2021, Page 54-61

In modern societies, social networking and many more, are making human life easier. Communication and technology are created many changes in all fields of life. High speed in, translations, transport, shorten the time, exchange the information between the people, and others cases. Communication can be define as a process in which individuals share their opinion, ideas and various information by means of several such as writing, reading, symbols, signs, speech and communication. We review and discussed the reasons and results for bad (disadvantage) for the communications in Iraq. Most of the companies for communications and networks in Iraq are using the old and worst methods to connectedness in communications. After the year 2003, all people are looking forward or willing to use and live the modern life, by using the information technology (IT), but they are not thought or (forget), what happened to them, when they are used worst connectedness the networks. The goal for this study to investigation all aspects of life, where more important for people life as, (health, economy side, the cost, security, maintenance, manufacture high-quality, services network, week internet (wobbling), banks, kid card cards or master card, stack the internet pack, laser planning for life, power outages and irregularity during the day, the environmental pollution). All these are affected on the life. We found increase in, more diseases are founded, Cancer disease, Congenital malformations, Abnormal birth(giving birth before her time), Hair loss, increased respiratory infections, increased skin allergies, skin spots, the drawer dose is high because near the radiation source. In additional to the problem of the age is the environmental pollution is not controlled in all the developed and undeveloped countries of the world and it directly affects people lives. So the IT revolution has become more affected than the useful. Emphasizing the inevitability and security of the information sent and how they stolen it by the hackers through the development of programs.

Recent Study on IoT Based Embedded Smart Lock Control System

Hasan Bakheet Jasim

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 13, 27 February 2021, Page 62-70

Smart home security and remote monitoring have become vital and indispensable in recent times, and with the advent of new concepts like Internet of Things and development of advanced authentication and security technologies, the need for smarter security systems has only been growing. . In recent times the need for security and surveillance has become vital in many areas such as homes, offices, banks, etc. The design and development of an intelligent web-based door lock control system using face recognition technology, for authentication, remote monitoring of visitors and remote control of smart door lock has been reported in this paper. This system uses Haar-like features for face detection and Local Binary Pattern Histogram (LBPH) for face recognition. The system also includes a web-based remote monitoring, an authentication module, and a bare-bones embedded IoT server, which transmits the live pictures of the visitors via email along with an SMS notification, and the owner can then remotely control the lock by responding to the email with predefined security codes to unlock the door. This system finds wide applications in smart homes where the physical presence of the owner at all times is not possible, and where a remote authentication and control is desired. The system has been implemented and tested using the Raspberry Pi 2 board, Python along with OpenCV are used to program the various face recognition and control modules. This paper also explores the immense potential of computer vision in general and face recognition, in particular, the possibilities of IoT in home security and automation. The versatility and prowess of Linux operating system, the Python programming language, and the OpenCV library have also been explored, in depth.

In the first step, the Joule-Lenz dissipation energy specified for the electron transitions between two neighbouring quantum levels in the hydrogen atom has been compared with the electromagnetic energy of emission from a single level. Both the electric and magnetic vectors entering the Pointing vector of the electromagnetic field are referred to the one-electron motion performed along an orbit in the atom. In the next step, a similar comparison of emission rates is performed for the harmonic oscillator. Formally a full agreement of the Joule-Lenz and electromagnetic expressions for the energy emission rates has been attained. The case of the electron oscillator allowed us to perform a more direct comparison of the quantum approach to the emission rate with the classical electromagnetic theory.  

Applications on Hybrid VIM Methods

Shruti S. Sheth, Twinkle R. Singh

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 13, 27 February 2021, Page 83-115

This research examines the Analytical Approximate Solutions of the Non Linear Partial Differential Equations such as Non Linear Wave Equations, In viscid and Viscid Burgers’ Equations etc. using Variational Iteration Method (VIM) and hybrid VIM methods such as Variational Iteration Adomian Decomposition Method (VIADM), New Modified Kamal Variational Iteration Adomian Decomposition Method (New MKVIADM), Laplace Variational Iteration Method (LVIM), Modified Variational Iteration Laplace Transform Method (MVILTM) etc.

VIM is a powerful tool to solve the differential equations which gives fast consecutive approximations without using any conditional assumptions or any further transformations which may change the physical behavior of the problem. Adomian Decomposition method is also an efficient method which handles the linear and non linear differential and integral equations with Initial and Boundary Conditions. It provides an efficient numerical solution in the form of an infinite series which is obtained iteratively. It usually converges to the exact solution using Adomian polynomials. Laplace Transform is a very popular and powerful integral transform to solve the linear initial value problems. Kamal Transform is a recent new arrival of an integral transform which is commanding to solve the linear initial value problems. To solve the equations the combination of the methods has been used and tried to implement it to solve the Non Linear Partial Differential Equations.

Aim of this research is to check the influence and accurateness of hybrid VIM methods. To exemplify the reliability of the methods, we made the comparison of the solutions with different methods. The obtained results declare that this alternative approach converges rapidly, helps for getting the accuracy, and handles the ones with discontinuities.

The work function of metals was calculated using the metallic plasma model (MPM). The results obtained were compared with the available results of the stabilized jellium model (SJM), Ab-initio model and the experimental values. Result shows that the stabilized jellium model was in good agreement with experimental values for the simple metals, the transition, inner transition and rare-earth metals. The metallic plasma model gave results that are agreeable with experimental values for most of the metals especially the polycrystalline metals. The work function of elemental metals obtained from the SJM calculation was in fairly good agreement with experimental values. This shows that the SJM could be used to calculate and predict the work function of metals.  The ab-initio results were higher than experimental values except for Ba, Ca and Sr, this shows that the metallic plasma model is more reliable in predicting the work function of metals.

Neutrino Physics is a mature branch of science with all the three neutrino mixing angles and two mass squared differences determined with high precision. Inspite of several experimental veri?cations of neutrino oscillations and precise measurements of two mass squared differences and the three mixing angles, the unitarity of the leptonic mixing matrix is not yet established, leaving room for the presence of small non-unitarity effects. Deriving the bounds on these non-unitarity parameters from existing experimental constraints, on cLFV decays such as,  we study their effects on the generation of baryon asymmetry through leptogenesis and neutrino oscillation probabilities. We consider a model where see-saw is extended by an additional singlet S which is very light, but can give rise to non-unitarity effects without affecting the form on see saw formula. We do a parameter scan of a minimal see-saw model in a type I see-saw framework satisfying the Planck data on baryon to photon ratio of the Universe, which lies in the interval,  We predict values of lightest neutrino mass, and Dirac and Majorana CP-violating phase  for normal hierarchy and inverted hierarchy for one ?avor leptogenesis. It is worth mentioning that all these four quantities are unknown yet, and future experiments will be measuring them. Future measurements related to Dirac CPV phase in neutrino experiments will validate or contradict some of the results presented here. Our analysis in this work only provides a benchmark for consistent works affiliated to model building.

Assessment of QRS Detection on Noisy ECG Signal Using Threshold-based Method

M. A. Z. Fariha, R. Ikeura, S. Hayakawa, S. Tsutsumi

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 13, 27 February 2021, Page 139-151

The threshold-based method has been used at the last stage of most QRS detection for monitoring many cardiac diseases including arrhythmias detection. The method also been proven to achieve good detection accuracy in clean and high-quality ECG signal. However, the threshold-based method is sensitive to noise and the performance of detectors will be affected by low-quality ECG signal data. The numerous types of noise and different abnormal morphological of ECG signal will produce low-quality of signal. Because of that, the performance of the threshold-based method to detect the QRS complex in low-quality ECG signals should be investigated. In this paper, to assess the QRS detection on noisy ECG signal, the performance of threshold-based method is evaluated. Two experiments were performed using MIT-BIH Noise Stress Test data and MIT-BIH Arrhythmia data to assess the algorithm performance. The performance of the algorithm was then analysed and presented. This paper shows the capability of the threshold-based detection method to identify QRS complex in noisy ECG signals.

A Frame Work for Decimal Floating Point Multiplier Using Vinculum Multipliers

G. Sreelakshmi, Kaleem Fatima, B. K. Madhavi

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 13, 27 February 2021, Page 152-162

IEEE Decimal floating point format play an important role in many financial, tax, account, commercial and internet based applications for which binary floating point format is not suitable. IEEE Standards Association approved a revision to the IEEE 754-1995 format to IEEE 754-2008 which includes specifications for DFP formats and operations. This paper broadens our past work on floating point multiplier utilizing proficient vinculum multipliers for mantissa multiplication and vinculum adders for adding exponents.

Biologically active molecules create substitutes in liquid water by means of a remarkable physical process. These molecules have indeed a charged part that can oscillate at a characteristic low frequency f. Its electric field aligns the dipoles of close water molecules and forms small polarized “water pearls” of identical size. They constitute chains, where they are set in oscillatory rotation at the frequency f, as soon as their length allows for standing waves. These chains are thus trimmed and become information carriers. They produce themselves an electric field, oscillating at the frequency f. It causes multiplication of identical chains, which can also excite the specific receptors of the chosen active molecules by resonance. This process is theoretically proven and confirmed by measurements.