Dr. Guang Yih Sheu

Associate Professor,
Chang-Jung Christian University, Taiwan.

ISBN 978-93-90768-43-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90768-51-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nicst/v9

This book covers key areas of physical science research. The contributions by the authors include  Fresnel reflection, quantized electromagnetic field, quantum correlators, normality, distribution functions, Shewhart control charts, Fraunhofer diffraction, two-dimensional Fourier transform, digital micro-image, mechanical twist, binary mixtures, phase equilibrium, nanocrystalline composites, high energy milling, electromagnetic wave, absorption, absorber and triple band absorber, conservation laws, projection postulate, quantum measurements, DNG metamaterial, Gödel’s incompleteness theorem, logical paradoxes, conformal mapping, lagrange control, fisher statistics, solid glass microspheres, epoxy matrix, wear resistance, mechanical properties, Lomax distribution, broadband detector, magnetic suspension, variable reluctance motor, gravimetric calibration, Vicker’s micro hardness method. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical sciences.


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We researched an autonomous calibration method of the zero-difference (i.e. the difference between zero values of each sensor probe which brings a serious error to the measurement values) in the three-point method using three displacement sensors for measuring the surface straightness. The outline of the calibration method is as follows. (1) a simple disc gauge made by CNC turning machine, etc. is used for the calibration of the zero-difference between the three sensors. (2) the disc gauge rotates a few revolutions and moves parallel to the three displacement sensors built into a holder. (3) the geometrical parameters between the sensors and the disc gauge are simultaneously acquired at each predetermined movement of the sensors and the zero-differences are determined by our developed algorithm.

In this paper, the detailed uncertainty analysis of the displacement sensors of a surface straightness measurement system with the three-point method is proposed with basic mathematical method. The main uncertainty components are regarded to be the linearity, sensitivity, zero-value, and repeatability of the measurement of the sensors. In particular, the coefficient elements of the uncertainty components arisen from the systematic effect, which cannot be reduced to zero even if both the sampling number for calibrating the system and that for measuring the shape of an object surface are made infinitely large, are investigated with respect to the influence of them on the measurement uncertainty. The derivation and analysis of the equation which describes the expanded uncertainty U of the measured shape considering the above uncertainty components are studied in detail with some numerical simulations.

Cluster Expansion Analysis for Dynamic Networks

Jianjia Wang, Zhihong Zhang, Dongdong Chen, Edwin R. Hancock

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 9, 3 March 2021, Page 23-47

The structure of networks can be efficiently represented using motifs, which are those subgraphs that recur most frequently. One route to understanding the motif structure of a network is to study the distribution of subgraphs using statistical mechanics. In this paper, we address the use of motifs as network primitives using the cluster expansion from statistical physics. By mapping the network motifs to clusters in the gas model, we derive the partition function for a network and this allows us to calculate global thermodynamic quantities, such as energy and entropy. We present analytical expressions for the numbers of certain types of motifs, and compute their associated entropy. We conduct numerical experiments for synthetic and real-world data-sets and evaluate the qualitative and quantitative characterizations of the motif entropy derived from the partition function. We find that the motif entropy for real-world networks, such as financial stock market networks, is sensitive to the variance in network structure. This is in line with recent evidence that network motifs can be regarded as basic elements with well defined information-processing functions. Our model is capable of detecting abrupt changes or anomalies in network structure and distinguishing different types of time-dependency for different types of anomaly.

Consumers’ Attitude towards Oyster Consumption in Ghana

Agbekpornu Hayford

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 9, 3 March 2021, Page 48-61

Attention is being given to the role of attitudes and perceptions in recent times in shaping policy and, ultimately, the supply of and demand for seafood (including oyster) by both product and sources. Oysters have very high essential vitamins and minerals such as protein, omega three fatty acids, calcium, zinc, iron, vitamins B and E and poses no danger to the cholesterol levels in human. The objective of this study was to examine consumers’ attitude towards mangrove oyster consumption in Ghana. Hundred and sixty (160) respondents were sampled from Bortianor, Tetegu, Tsokome and Faana. Findings showed that all respondents (100%) sampled had eaten an oyster before and have enjoyed it. A higher percentage showed a preference in eating oyster due to the level of its saltiness (71.4%), colour (75.0%), odour (67.9%), flavour (92.9%), Juiciness (92.9%), freshness (92.9%) and texture (85.7%). Most respondents bought oyster meat daily (35.7%), ate daily (39.3%), bought it in a steamed form (64.5%) and also consumed it in the steamed state (35.7%). A greater percentage of respondents who consumed oyster meat, do so at home (92.9%) and used it to prepare the main meal (85.7%) such as stew and soup. In conclusion, oyster consumption is well favoured in the communities sampled. This calls for the expansion of oyster activities in the selected and other coastal communities to complement the protein intake of households and improve nutrition challenges in fishing communities and Ghana as a whole.

Construction sector is dynamic and it differs from other industries in terms of the hazards exposed to its workers. The activities carried out at the construction sites are very diverse and every construction phase posts different hazards. Thus, appropriate worksite’s hazard control is crucial and demand for an updated OSH legislation is long-awaited. A complete legal framework is warranted to cater for the alarming state of safety and health issues in the industry. The proposed unification of the Factories and Machinery Act 1967 and the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994, with current and updated Regulations for construction activities shall become a strong move towards effective implementation of the legislation. Efforts shall be taken toward strengthening the OSHA 1994 and not to retain the enforcement of both the FMA and the OSHA, as what believed by the authority and the industry to be necessary many years ago. It is no longer appropriate for both legislations to exist and appropriate steps shall be taken to expedite the formulation of the Regulations and Approved Code of Practice under the OSHA 1994, particularly for construction activities, in order to clarify and explain the general safety duty laid down in the OSHA 1994.

Investigation on Optimization of a Continuous Hybrid Impeller Mixer via Computational Fluid Dynamics

N. Othman, S. K. Kamarudin, M. S. Takriff, M. I. Rosli, E. M. F. Engku Chik, M. A. K. Meor Adnan

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 9, 3 March 2021, Page 72-81

This paper presents the preliminary steps required for conducting experiments to obtain the optimal operating conditions of a hybrid impeller mixer and to determine the residence time distribution (RTD) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this paper, impeller speed and clearance parameters are examined. The hybrid impeller mixer consists of a single Rushton turbine mounted above a single pitched blade turbine (PBT). Four impeller speeds, 50, 100, 150, and 200 rpm, and four impeller clearances, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mm, were the operation variables used in this study. CFD was utilized to initially screen the parameter ranges to reduce the number of actual experiments needed. Afterward, the residence time distribution (RTD) was determined using the respective parameters. Finally, the Fluent-predicted RTD and the experimentally measured RTD were compared. The CFD investigations revealed that an impeller speed of 50 rpm and an impeller clearance of 25 mm were not viable for experimental investigations and were thus eliminated from further analyses. The determination of RTD using a ????-???? turbulence model was performed using CFD techniques. The multiple reference frame (MRF) was implemented and a steady state was initially achieved followed by a transient condition for RTD determination. This study showed that the optimum conditions for mixing operations in a hybrid impellerare100 rpm and 50 mm for impeller speed and clearance height, respectively, which resulted in an RTD curve with a strong, sharp peak.

Obesity is a metabolic disease that has reached epidemic proportions. The WHO has declared obesity as the largest global chronic health problem in adults, including in India. BMI is widely used as a deputy measure of obesity, but underestimates the prevalence of obesity, defined as an excess of body fat. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) in females. The study was a cross-sectional design. A selected sample of 70 females aged 25-50 years participated in a detailed height and weight measurement were taken using standard methodology and body fat percent estimated by bio - electrical impendence analysis (BIA). Results to the present study body fat were found to be higher in female subjects and 70 percent of subjects had body fat more than 30 percent. According to BMI 68 percent subjects were found to be overweight and obese subjects were having lower range increased the percent BF of subjects also increased. This shows positive relationship between BMI and percent BF. This proves that the figures are alarming among females. The purpose of this study prevention and control of this problem because obesity is the root of various diseases in adult life.

‘‘Paspanguwa’’; A Traditional Sri Lankan Herbal Drink

A. K. H. Priyashantha, C. Mahendranathan

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 9, 3 March 2021, Page 90-96

Medicinal plants play a crucial role in curing several health problems, particularly, in developing countries. Sri Lanka has a great history of practising traditional medicine. Among the several forms of traditional herbal drinks, ‘‘Paspanguwa’’ (PP) became a much popular one in Sri Lanka, due to its various health benefits. Coriandrum sativum, Coscinium fenestratum, Hedyotis corymbosa, Solanum xanthocarpum and Zingiber officinale are the primary ingredients used in the preparation of the PP. In this chapter, we highlighted the importance of PP, with special reference to it’s added ingredients.

DNA damage response (DDR) is an essential mechanism to maintain genomic stability as its activation promotes cell-cycle arrest and facilitates DNA damage repair, resulting in resistance towards various genotoxic insults. Radiation-induced DDR is regulated mainly by three phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs): ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), and ATM and Rad3-related kinase (ATR). Therefore, the therapeutic inhibition of PIKKs represents a promising strategy to increase radiosensitivity in cancer cells.

In the presented chapter, we aimed to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the radiosensitization of leukemic cells by PIKKs inhibitors. We focused on recently developed specific ATR inhibitor, VE-821 (3-amino-6-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamide), that has been reported to have a significant radio- and chemo-sensitizing effect delimited to cancer cells (largely p53-deficient) without affecting normal cells. We evaluated the impact of VE-821 on proliferation, viability, and cell cycle of sham-irradiated and irradiated leukemic cells and compared it to the effect of another PIKK inhibitor KU55933, targeting ATM. Both inhibitors proved to radiosensitize MOLT-4 cells, and additionally, 10 µM VE-821 was shown to act as an effective antiproliferative agent in sham-irradiated human leukemic T-lymphocyte MOLT-4 cells.

Furthermore, we employed SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteomics to describe in detail the mechanism of the radiosensitizing effect of VE-821 in human promyelocytic leukemic cells HL-60 (p53-negative). Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-prefractionation with TiO2-enrichment and nano-liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis identified 9834 phosphorylation sites. Further analysis revealed 328 differentially regulated phosphoproteins (false discovery rate 1%).

Proteins with up-/down-regulated phosphorylation were mostly localized in the nucleus and were involved in all phases of the cell cycle and cell division. Pre-incubation with VE-821 combined with IR modulated the mechanisms of the G1/S transition, impacted the intra-S-checkpoint, disrupted the G2/M checkpoint, and altered the activity of kinases involved in mitosis. In addition, we found that ATR inhibition impacted phosphoproteins involved in DDR, gene expression, and apoptosis. Moreover, sequence motif analysis revealed significant changes in the activities of kinases involved in these processes.

In conclusion, our phosphoproteomic analyses allowed us to provide a comprehensive description of ATR kinase inhibition and its impact on cellular response to IR-induced genotoxic stress. Taken together, our data indicate that ATR has multiple roles in response to DNA damage and that its inhibitor VE-821 is a potent radiosensitizing agent for leukemic cells.

Emphasizing the Navigation in Space-Time as the Basis for Information Modeling

Alina Paranina

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 9, 3 March 2021, Page 116-124

The article presents the author’s concept of information modeling of the world, based on the leading role of solar navigation (orientation in space-time by the sun). The concept was developed in the course of comprehensive research on the main patterns of use of information resources (semiotics) during the exploration of nature of geographical space by humans. The objects of the study were the monuments of ancient material culture of European Russia and Southern Siberia. The applied field research methods include survey, description, observation, work with maps and Earth remote sensing, as well as methods of mathematical, conceptual modeling and mapping. Theoretical analysis is based on the theory of reflection and systemic and chorological approach, methodological statements of historical geography by V.I. Paranin.

Molecular dynamics (MD) study on glycolic acid in the physiological salt solution has been performed, which is a model of a biofuel cell. The structure and charge distribution of glycolic acid in aqueous solution used in MD is beforehand optimized by Gaussian09 utilizing the density functional theory. MD is performed in the NPT constant condition, i.e. the number of particles, pressure, and temperature of MD cell are definite. The structure difference of the glycolic acid and oxalic acid is detected by the water distribution around the molecules using the pair distribution functions, gij(r), and the frequency dependent diffusion coefficients, Di(?). The transport properties for glycolic acid anion and oxalic acid anion are quite different, which may be attributed to the structural difference. The anomalous dielectric constant of the solution, i.e. about 12 times larger than that of water, has been obtained, which may be attributed to the ion pair formation in the solution This fact may be explained by the large dipole moment formation in the solution, however the further analysis is left for the future study.

Mass Transfer by Stent Based Drug Delivery System: An Analytical Study

Jagadeesha Seethappa, Indira Ramarao, Madhura Keshavamurthy, Suma Seethkal Padmarajaiah

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 9, 3 March 2021, Page 133-146

An attempt is made to model the stent based drug delivery by assuming a rectangular channel divided into a lumen region, stent placed in the wall region and porous wall. Velocity, concentration and dispersion coefficient at large time are analytically obtained through modified Gill and Sankarasubramanian approach. The results are graphically depicted. Results show that diffusion coefficient is the main factor which affects the mass transfer. The study carried out here helps in analysing the situation where drug is delivered through a stent to the damaged arterial wall.

Other Oxides Pre-removed from Bangka Tin Slag to Produce a High Grade Tantalum and Niobium Oxides Concentrate: An Advance Study

S. Permana, J. W. Soedarsono, A. Rustandi, A. Maksum, I. Susanto

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 9, 3 March 2021, Page 147-158

Indonesia, as the second largest tin producer in the world, has a byproduct from the production of tin. This byproduct is in the forms of tin slag containing tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) and niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5). Tantalum and niobium are in the 14 critical materials, so the focus of their recovery from tin slag will be an alternative option. This study focuses on the recovery of tantalum pentoxide and niobium pentoxide from the tin slag. In the process, one part of the tin slag sample was sieved only (BTS), and the other was roasted at 900°C, water quenched and then sieved (BTS-RQS). Samples BTS and BTS-RQS were characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray Florence (XRF). One part of BTS-RQS sample was dissolved in hydrofluoric acid (HF) and the other was dissolved in hydrochloric acid (HCl), washed with distilled water, and then dissolved into sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Each sample was characterized by using XRF. The BTS sample produced the highest recovery of 0.3807 and 0.6978% for Ta2O5 and Nb2O5, respectively, from the particle size of -1.00+0.71 and a fraction of 47.29%, while BTS-RQS produced the highest recovery of 0.3931 and 0.8994% for Ta2O5 and Nb2O5, respectively, on the particle size of -0.71+0350 and a fraction of 21%. BTS-RQS, dissolved with 8% hydro fluoride acid, yields tantalum pentoxide and niobium pentoxide with a ratio of 2.01 and 2.09, respectively. For the sample BTS-RQS dissolve first with 6M hydrochloric acid, washed with distilled water, then dissolved with sodium hydroxide 10M, the yield ratios are 1.60 and 1.84 for tantalum pentoxide and niobium pentoxide, respectively. In this study, it is found that the dissolution by using hydrofluoric acid 8% yields the best ratio.