Editor(s)

Dr. Gnana Sheela K
Professor,
Department of Electrical Communication Engineering, Toc H Institute of Science & Technology, Arakkunnam, Ernakulam, Kerala, India.

ISBN 978-93-90768-86-8 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90768-87-5 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nicst/v8

This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include linear mixed models, hypothesis testing, comparison of matrices, F-distribution, beta binomial distribution, generalized F-distribution, hypothesis testing, linear mixed models, longitudinal data, entropy, quantum network, connectivity matrix, Laser welding, YAG laser, dissimilar materials welding, laser welding, third generation of advanced high strength steel, tensile testing, microstructural analysis, micro-hardness test, X-Ray diffraction, service oriented architecture, simulated annealing, fuzzy set, medical diagnosis, hybridization, microbial electrolysis, microbial fuel cell, bio?lm, biohydrogen, Taguchi method, orthogonal array, water-repellency, emulsification, photochemical, neuromarketing, encephalography, electroencephalography. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology.

 

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Chapters


In linear mixed models the assessing of the signi?cance of all or a subset of the random effects is often of primary interest. Many techniques have been proposed for this purpose but none of them is completely satisfactory. One of the oldest methods for testing randomness is the F-test but it is often overlooked in modern applications due to poor statistical power and non-applicability in some important situations. In this work a two-step procedure is developed for generalizing an F-test and improving its statistical power. In the ?rst step, by comparing two covariance matrices of a least squares statistics, we obtain a “repeatable” F-type test. In the second step, by changing the projected matrix which de?nes the least squares statistic we apply the test repeteadly to the same data in order to have a set of correlated statistics analyzed within a multiple testing approach. The resulting test is suf?ciently general, easy to compute, with an exact distribution under the null and alternative hypothesis and, perhaps more importantly, with a strong increase of statistical power with respect to the F-test. In the light of these results we believe that our two-stage approach based on a combinnation of a ”repeatable” F-type test with a multiple testing approach may suggest a procedure for improving statistical power in linear mixed models.

In longitudinal studies with subjects measured repeatedly across time, an important problem is how to select a model generating data by choosing between a linear regression model and a linear latent growth model. Approaches based both on information criteria and asymptotic hypothesis tests of the variances of “random” components are widely used but not completely satisfactory. We propose a test statistic based on the trace of the product of an estimate of a variance covariance matrix de?ned when data come from a linear regression model and a sample variance covariance matrix. We studied the sampling distribution of the test statistic giving a representation in terms of an in?nite series of generalized F-distributions. Knowledge about this distribution allows us to make inference within a classical hypothesis testing framework. The test statistic can be used by itself to discriminate between the two models and/or, if duly modi?ed, it can be used to test randomness on single components. Moreover, in conjunction with some model selection criteria, it gives additional information which can help in choosing the model. The test statistic proposed in this paper has been applied to two data sets. With the tourism data it is used by itself to discriminate between the two models, with the Cadralazine data it is used in conjunction with several indicators based on information criteria that give an estimate of the probability of accepting or rejecting the model chosen.

Study on Graph Entropy Associated with Multilevel Atomic Excitation

Abu Mohamed Alhasan

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 8, 23 February 2021, Page 33-42
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v8/6541D

A graph-model is presented to describe multilevel atomic structure. As an example, we take the double L configuration in alkali-metal atoms with hyperfine structure and nuclear spin , as a graph with four vertices. Links are treated as coherence. We introduce the transition matrix which describes the connectivity matrix in static graph-model. In general, the transition matrix describes spatiotemporal behavior of the dynamic graph-model. Furthermore, it describes multiple connections and self-looping of vertices. The atomic excitation is made by short pulses, in order that the hyperfine structure is well resolved. Entropy associated with the proposed dynamic graph-model is used to identify transitions as well as local stabilization in the system without invoking the energy concept of the propagated pulses.

Pulsed Laser Welding between DP1000 Steel and Aluminum Alloy 1050

António B. Pereira, Ana Cabrinha, Fábio Rocha, Pedro Marques, Fábio A. O. Fernandes, Ricardo J. Alves de Sousa

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 8, 23 February 2021, Page 43-59
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v8/6290D

The welding of dissimilar metals was carried out using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser to join DP1000 steel and an aluminum alloy 1050 H111. Two sheets of each metal, with 30 × 14 × 1 mm3, were lap welded, since butt welding proved to be nearly impossible due to the huge thermal conductivity differences and melting temperature differences of these materials. The aim of this research was to find the optimal laser welding parameters based on the mechanical and microstructure investigations. Thus, the welded samples were then subjected to tensile testing to evaluate the quality of the joining operation. The best set of welding parameters was replicated, and the welding joint obtained using these proper parameters was carefully analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Despite the predicted difficulties of welding two distinct metals, good quality welded joints were achieved. Additionally, some samples performed satisfactorily well in the mechanical tests, reaching tensile strengths close to the original 1050 aluminum alloy. The possibility to effectively join high strength dual-phase steels with a soft, ductile 1XXX aluminum alloy opens a new range of design possibilities and attests the versatility of laser-type welding operations. The authors hope that this study can serve as a sounding base for any other future work in this area.

Pulsed Laser Weldability of the Third Generation Advanced High Strength Steel

António B. Pereira, Rafael O. Santos, Bruno S. Carvalho, Marilena C. Butuc, Gabriela Vincze, Luciano P. Moreira

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 8, 23 February 2021, Page 60-73
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v8/6291D

In order to meet the demands of vehicular safety and greenhouse gas emission reduction, the automotive industry is increasingly using Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) in the production of the components. With the development of the new generation of AHSS, it is essential to study their behavior to manufacturing processes used in the automotive industry. For this purpose, the welding capability of newly developed third-generation Gen3 980T steel was investigated using the Nd:YAG laser welding with different parameters conditions. The analysis was made by uniaxial tensile tests, micro-hardness Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The criteria used to evaluate the quality of the weld were the distance between the fracture and the weld bead and the surface finish. It was observed a relationship between the quality of the weld and the energy density, expressed by a partial penetration for values below the optimal, and by irregularities in the weld bead and a high number of spatters for the values above the optimal. During welding, the phase transformation occurs, leading to a high amount of martensite. This fact leads to an increase of 53.7% of hardness in the fusion zone. Further analyses need to be done in order to quantify the amount of each phase, but this is a topic for future research.

Adaptive Methods to Optimize Web Services Selection and Service Compositions Construction

Issam AlHadid, Khalid Kabbaneh, Hassan Tarawneh, Aysh Alhroob, Evon Abu-Taieh, Sufian Khwaldeh, Dima Alrwashdeh, Rami S. Alkhawaldeh

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 8, 23 February 2021, Page 74-86
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v8/3174D

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) introduced the web services as distributed computing components that can be independently deployed and invoked by other services or software to execute composite services that represent an end-to-end business process. An important problem in the SOA is the web service selection and composition problem which involves selecting the right web services mix to construct the best service composition that achieves the consumers Service Level Agreement (SLA) requirements.

In this chapter we propose different methods to solve the problem of the business processes execution engine web service selection and services composition construction in the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).  The chapter provides different mechanisms to improve the web services selection and composition using dynamic techniques. The main goal is to satisfy the services' requirements expressed as the SLA and to enhance the services selection and composition by increasing the availability and decreasing the response time of the service compositions.

In our daily life, we often come across various problems related to the high dimensionality of data. In such type of problems irrelevant and superfluous data along with useful data is also present. Thus, dimensionality reduction has found wide applications in data analysis and management. In recent years the issue of dimensionality reduction in a fuzzy situation has also gained importance and has invited attention of researchers. The various techniques and theories have been developed by them to solve these types of problems. Some of these techniques based on probabilistic approach and others are non-probabilistic approach. For finding coherent and logical solution to various real life problems containing uncertainty, impreciseness and vagueness, fuzzy soft set theory is gaining significance. Recently, on a theoretical study of intuitionistic fuzzy soft has also been developed. The combination of intuitionistic fuzzy set and intuitionistic fuzzy soft set are more useful for application point of view in the environment when uncertainty due to vagueness is more complex.

In this chapter the concept of fuzzy soft set is defined as hybridization of fuzzy set and soft set theory. A new technique is proposed to convert the soft set table into fuzzy soft set table, which is applied in dimension reduction of big data. The concepts of fuzzy soft set and intuitionistic fuzzy soft set are defined as hybridization of fuzzy set and soft set theory. New methods of applications of fuzzy soft and intuitionistic soft sets are also described in Medical Diagnosis following Sanchez’s approach.

An Electricigen Bacteria Biofilm Dynamical Model for Microbial Fuel-Electrolytical Cells Systems

Victor Alcaraz-Gonz´alez, Ren´e Alejandro Flores-Estrella, Uriel Garza-Rubalcava, Andreas Haarstrick

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 8, 23 February 2021, Page 102-125
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v8/7454D

A mathematical model for anodic electricicigen bacteria useful for Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MEC)
and Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) is proposed on the base of global mass balances of the different
species present in these systems and considering that all the involved microorganisms are attached
to the anodic biological film. Three main biological reactions are introduced, which are obtained
from the solution of partial differential equations describing the spatial distribution of potential and
substrate in the biofilm. The model is simulated in computer using numerical methods. Results show
this model to be in concordance with reported works, but additionally it is highlighted the importance
of the biofilm growth dynamics as controlling factor.

A CO2/NaAlO2/H2O absorption-reaction system was adopted to prepare nano aluminum trihydate (ATH) particles for cables use in a rotating packed-bed (RPB) reactor (Phase I). The Taguchi experimental design was used to give an orthogonal array, L9(34). The parameters were the speed of rotation (A), gas-liquid flow rate ratio (B), aging temperature (C) and aging time (D), each having three levels. According to the signal/noise (S/N) ratio analysis, the larger-the-better for the BET area (Sw) was found to be A3B3C1D1, while the parameter significance was DABC. Empirical formula for Sw was also obtained and discussed. Subsequently, the optimum size (10.7 nm) of ATH powders were used to blend with the matrix including plastics and additives (Phase II) for characterization further. The examination of composite materials showed that the limiting oxygen index (LOI) was higher than 28, indicating an excellent fire-retarding property. The Taguchi method was used to look for optimum conditions for preparing nano-ATH. The particle size, grain size, powder morphology and thermal analysis were analyzed. The results also showed that the LOI for nano ATH is higher than that bought from the market, while the fire-retarding grade examination (UL-94 test) for both ATHs was found to be of a V-0 grade. In addition, the mechanical properties for nano ATH were measured prior to using the ATH from the market. Finally, the process creates an opportunity to capture CO2 for some industries.

In the recent years, worldwide and environmental issues have prompted the developers to re-direct their to bio-based resources even in the medical sector. In this context, bacterial cellulose based materials are the upcoming area of research due to its potential medical application in the wound healing field. On the contrary, there are several natural antiseptic materials available out of which the Beeswax, a well- known material which suits requirements for the development of a medical textile material for the purpose of wound healing. Beeswax is a natural animal wax which has various properties in addition to its biocompatible nature. Beeswax, an excellent emulsion stabilizer and water-repellent enhancer is coated over the textile fabrics to remove the surface roughness, The chemical constituents of beeswax varies according to the geographic region. Beeswax enhances water repellency and emulsifies insoluble particles in textile fabrics. Vitamin A, which is an essential for human cell development is a major composition in the Beeswax. Nata de Coco, a typical bacterial cellulose is the most popular one in the production of nata. Nata is the fermentation product of the bacteria, Acetobacter xylinium referred to as Nata de Coco, Nata de Pina whereby their flavors are controlled by the coconut water based and pineapple based cultures respectively. Nata de Coco marks a remarkable application in the wound healing process for the second degree burns. In this present study, the superficial water-repellency for the beeswax coated fabrics and the artificial developed bacterial cellulose material called Nata de Coco is being compared which will further take the development process to the next stage This forms a major base for the development of various biomaterials.

Advanced Study on Phytochemical Screening for Antioxidant Properties of Germinated Foxtail Millet

Jelang Jelku D. Sangma, W. Jessie Suneetha, B. Anila Kumari, K. B. Suneetha Devi

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 8, 23 February 2021, Page 152-160
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v8/2156E

Phytochemicals are complex group of bioactive non-nutrient compounds of plant kingdom and an integral part of the human diet. The present research was carried out to screen the phytochemicals in raw and germinated foxtail millets. It is also commonly known as Italian or German or Chinese or Hungarian millet. The screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, fixed oils and fats, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides in both raw and germinated foxtail millets. Amino acids were not detected in raw but present in germinated, indicating in prominent in the bio-availability of amino-acids due to germination. The absence of quinones indicated that extracts have not undergone any oxidation during storage. Now in modern world antioxidant is in high demand as it plays a very important role in neutralizing free radical which are formed due to stress, environmental pollution, ageing and food habits.

Study of Electroencephalography for Enhanced Understanding of Consumer Preference

B. Neeharika, W. Jessie Suneetha, B. Anila Kumari, M. Tejashree

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 8, 23 February 2021, Page 161-169
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v8/2158E

Conventional measurements used for consumer response to food products may be subject to cognitive bias, as measurement data was consumer reported thoughts or through questionnaires. Decision-making about food is influenced by complex set of emotions, feelings, attitudes and values that are not easy to assess simply by asking consumers their opinions. For an unbiased approach electroencephalography (EEG), an electrophysiological method can provide implicit and extensive data. EEG uses electrical activity of brain to record and explain perceptive, attentive as well as emotional processes of consumer towards foods. To enhance this understanding, recently there is growing interest in field of “neuromarketing,” that uses neuroscientific techniques to study consumer behavior. The asymmetry of EEG signal between right and left hemispheres of brain can be used to determine acceptability of stimuli in a stimulated person. The accurate measurement through EEG enables marketers to compare consumer response to different marketing stimuli and impact moments associated with particular product or brand for better positioning of product in market.