Dr. Natt Makul
Assistant Professor,
Building Technology, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Phranakhon Rajabhat University, Thailand.

ISBN 978-81-949988-9-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-949988-0-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nicst/v4


This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include steam condensation, turbine cascades, rutting resistance, fatigue cracking resistance, waste cooking oil, modified asphalt, resource-saving design methods, rational system decomposition, migration, technical structure, marshalling yard, emission factors, Ibadan, solid waste, pain studies, protein kinase, epsilon isoform, cultured nociceptors, irrigation farming, private information sources, public information sources, information needs, genetic variability, correlation, path analysis and grain yield, antioxidant, organic farming, eating quality, physicochemical factors, finger millet, liquid manure, organic solar cells, ternary bulk heterojunction, moisture content, charcoal, hot-smoking, smoke-drying, cold-smoking, drying and preservation, GEV model, stationary, non-stationary, seasonality, projections, Yamane formula, Likert scale, rehabilitation, assistive device, working capital management, return on assets, cash collection period, cash payment period, inventory period. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology.


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Investigation on Losses Connected with Steam Condensation in Turbine Cascades

Miroslav Stastny

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 4, 10 February 2021, Page 1-11

The process of condensation of the steam flowing through the LP part of a turbine is evidently the last mystery of steam turbines. The mathematical approach used for the condensation of flowing steam is based on the homogeneous condensation and on the binary nucleation of water droplets with a representative chemical impurity NaCl. The physical and mathematical models are briefly described. The homogeneous and binary nucleation numerical models are then used for the calculation of steam flow with condensation in the 2D nozzle-blade cascades of the first wet stage of the low-pressure part of a fossil-fuel condensing steam turbine and of a similar cascade of the LP part of a nuclear turbine. Main results of the calculations are presented and analyzed. It was used humid air for experimental investigation some phenomena of the two-phase flow, e. g. modelling water steam condensation in the flow in LP nozzle cascade of a steam turbine. Condensation effects in transonic flow in experimental nozzle cascade validated the losses. With the effects of steam chemistry on the surfaces of turbine blades in the transition zone of the LP part of a steam turbine are connected further losses.

Rutting and Fatigue Cracking Resistance of Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) Modified Trinidad Asphaltic Materials

Rean Maharaj, Vitra Ramjattan-Harry, Nazim Mohamed

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 4, 10 February 2021, Page 12-24

The issue of the disposal of waste cooking oil (WCO), a product of the frying and cooking activities at high temperatures generated mainly from the food industry, restaurants, hotels and residences has become a major environmental issue. The influence of waste cooking oil (WCO) on the performance characteristics of asphaltic materials indigenous to Trinidad namely Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA), Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB) and a TLA:TPB (50:50) blend was investigated to deduce the applicability of the WCO as a performance enhancer for the base asphalt. The specific performance attributes of rutting resistance and fatigue cracking resistance as measured by the rheological properties of complex modulus (G*) and phase angle (?) were investigated. The results demonstrated that the incremental addition of WCO to the three parent binders resulted in an incremental decrease in the rutting resistance (decrease in G*/sin? values). However the incremental addition of WCO in the three asphaltic binders resulted in an increase in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease G*sin? value). The fatigue cracking resistance and rutting resistance (G*sin? and G*/sin? respectively) for the TLA:TPB (50:50) blends were between those of the blends containing TLA and TPB as the base binder. An increase in temperature resulted in decreases in the values of  G*sin? and G*/sin? for the three asphaltic parent binders and all of the WCO modified asphaltic blends indicating an increase in the resistance to fatigue cracking and a decrease in the rutting resistance with temperature. This study demonstrated the capability to create customized asphalt-WCO blends to suit special applications and highlights the potential for WCO to be used as an environmentally attractive option for improving the use of Trinidad asphaltic materials such as TLA and TPB.

This chapter discusses a resource-saving method for choosing a rational structure of an automated control system when technical structure migration from a centralized system based on a powerful processor to a functionally distributed system based on microcontrollers. The method allows you to determine a rational number of subsystems that effectively use the computing and financial resources of the project. The approach is illustrated by a real example of designing an automated control system for a marshalling yard.

Determination and Assessment of Levels of Gaseous Air Pollutants Emitted at Ajakanga Dumpsite, Ibadan, Nigeria

Falusi, Bamidele Ayodeji, Odedokun, Omobola Ajibike, Abubakar, Adiketu, Bolarinwa, Oladayo Tunde, Agbike, John Egbe

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 4, 10 February 2021, Page 36-46

Municipal solid waste dumpsites have been reported to generate different kinds of air pollutants the world over. Deposition of air pollutants, such as CO, H2S, NH3, NOx and SO2 emitted from municipal solid waste on the leaves of plants growing within the vicinity of dumpsites has adverse effects on their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties. There is a need for regular monitoring of their levels in the atmosphere. In this study, the concentrations of three gaseous air pollutants (SO2, NOx and NH3) emitted from municipal solid waste and the effect of these gaseous air pollutants on the ascorbic acid contents of tissues of Chromolaena odorata collected at Ajakanga dumpsite, Ibadan, Nigeria, were determined using uv/visible spectrophotometry. The ranges of concentrations obtained for SO2, NOx and NH3 were 255.86–503.66 ?g/m3; 246.67–1,155.79 ?g/m3 and 777.51–1,852.48 ?g/m3 respectively in air samples collected at the dumpsite. The results obtained from this study revealed that there was an enhanced gaseous air pollution of the dumpsite’s environment with the three air quality monitoring parameters investigated (i.e. SO2, NOx and NH3). The increasing order of the gaseous air pollutants at the dumpsite is SO2 < NOx < NH3. Enhanced reduction in the ascorbic acid content of C. odorata naturally growing within the vicinity of Ajakanga dumpsite in comparison to the control site Ajakanga dumpsite was observed.

Gabapentin is a well-established anticonvulsant drug which is also effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Gabapentin, a structural analogue of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid, was originally developed in the early nineties as a third-generation antiepileptic drug. Although the exact mechanism leading to relief of allodynia and hyperalgesia caused by neuropathy is not known, the blocking effect of gabapentin on voltage-dependent calcium channels has been proposed to be involved. In order to further evaluate its analgesic mechanisms, we tested the efficacy of gabapentin on translocation of protein kinase C epsilon (PKC????) in cultured peripheral neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). We found that gabapentin significantly reduced PKC???? translocation induced by the pronociceptive peptides bradykinin and prokineticin 2, which are involved in both inflammatory and chronic pain. We recently showed that paracetamol (acetaminophen), a very commonly used analgesic drug, also produces inhibition of PKC????. We tested the effect of the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, and we found that the inhibition of translocation adds up in a non-cooperative fashion. Our study provides a novel mechanism of action for gabapentin in sensory neurons and suggests a rationale and a mechanism of action for the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, which has recently been shown to be effective, with a cumulative behavior, in the control of postoperative pain in human patients.

A principal component which is concern with explaining the variance-covariance structure of a set of variables through a few linear combinations of these variables is usually referred to as multivariate. Any system producing or containing information intended for transmission is an information source. This study examines the use of multivariate statistical analysis and total information score for information sources of irrigation farming in North western Nigeria. A questionnaire survey of 368 household was used to explore the impact of information sources in accessing agricultural information by irrigation farmers. Three States were studied using qualitative and quantitative research approach. The results of the study revealed that irrigation farmers in the study area opted to use information emanating from public and private sources. The results further reveal that there is a strong positive linear relationship between agricultural information needs of irrigation farmers and the sources of that information. The study therefore, suggested that in order to fill the information gaps of the irrigation farmers, more sources should be explored and be made available to the irrigation farmers. The type and level of training depend on the readiness of the agricultural information centres (ministries), user-researcher, extension workers and rural irrigation farmers and policy makers. This is because the lack of articulated agricultural information user training down to the grass-root level has often impeded the dissemination of agricultural information to the farmers.

Investigation on Genetic Variability in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under Heat Stress Condition

Sanjay Kumar, Suresh B. G., Anand Kumar, G. R. Lavanya

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 4, 10 February 2021, Page 67-74

The present experiment was carried out at field experimentation centre of the Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (Uttar Pradesh) to study genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in fifty germplasm of chickpea during rabi, 2017-18. The maximum phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were noticed for 100-seed weight, biological yield per plant, grain yield per plant and number of primary branches per plant. High heritability were recorded by 100 seed weight, biological yield per plant, primary branches per plant, grain yield per plant, effective pods per plant, total number of pods per plant, secondary branches per plant, plant height, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was observed for 100 seed weight, biological yield per plant, primary branches per plant, grain yield per plant, effective pods per plant, total number of pods per plant, secondary branches per plant and plant height which suggested that these characters can be considered as favorable attributes for the improvement through selection. Path coefficient analysis for grain yield per plant revealed that biological yield, harvest index, secondary branches, canopy temperature at vegetative stage, effective pods per plant had given the highest contribution on yield per plant. So the utmost importance should be given to these characters during the selection for yield improvement in late sown chickpea.

Impact of Organic Farming on Agronomic Crops Productivity, Grain Quality and Antioxidant Activity

Amit Kesarwani, Sweta Shikta Mahapatra, Shih Shiung Chen

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 4, 10 February 2021, Page 75-87

The aim of the study is to understand the mechanism of chemical or organic fertilizer influence on physicochemical, starch pasting properties and antioxidant characteristics of rice grain. Similarly, how some of the indigenous liquid organic manure brings the production changes in the finger millet crop. For rice, the study was conducted for 2 years in popular Japonica cultivars i.e., Kaohsiung No. 139 and Taikeng No.16 which grown twice a year in Taiwan. The results highlighted that physicochemical properties were least effected by external factors and found genetically inherited. Major pasting properties such as Peak viscosity, Setback value and pasting temperature improved under organic farming, however in further analysis eating and cooking quality reported no significant changes except aroma in rice. Interestingly, the organically grown rice has proven to be better in higher accumulation of secondary metabolites (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), flavonoid content, and ferrous chelating capacity). In nutshell, organic had role in changing some metabolic conditions in crop but genetic traits and environment have significant effect with least variation under agronomic practices in rice. The role of chemical fertilizer was strong in finger millet performance compared to other organic sources.

Ternary Bulk Heterojunction Photoactive Layer for Organic Solar Cells

M. A. Sbei, H. Derouiche

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 4, 10 February 2021, Page 88-93

A ternary thin film has been fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) / copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/ [6,6]-phényl-C61-butanoate de méthyle (PCBM) and deposed between an indium tin oxide (ITO)/ poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) photoanode and a D-?-A indoline (D129)/ aluminium photocathode. The thin films have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy in order to study the influence of adding P3HT on the morphological, structural and optical properties of the photoactive layer. We have also compared the I-V characteristics of ITO/ PEDOT:PSS/ CuPc0.5: PCBM0.5/ D129/ Al and ITO/ PEDOT:PSS/ P3HT0.3:CuPc0.3:PCBM0.4/ D129/ Al organic solar cells with and with and without annealing. Both structures show good open-circuit voltage and Fill Factor. Indeed, the incorporation of P3HT into CuPc:PCBM thin film improves all the photovoltaic properties.

Detailed Study on Design and Construction of Fish Smoking Kiln

Hussaini, Idris Danjuma, Adamu, Gbomsari Idris

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 4, 10 February 2021, Page 94-111

The design and construction of fish smoking kiln was undertaken with the aim of improving the existing fish smoking kiln. The kiln consists of metal frame made of angle iron on which the entire component was assembled. The handle controls the speed of the ventilation fan through chain and sprocket. The charcoal housing is made of perforated metal sheet to allow for proper ventilation. The kiln is operated manually by turning the handle which drives the fan to augment natural ventilation. The machine performance was evaluated using fish samples (African mud Fish) smoked to an average moisture content of 11.46% within an average time span of 5 h, and the average final weight of the dried fish was 0.9827 Kg. It was found that the fish can be kept for at least two months before showing the sign of spoilage. It can also be concluded that fish that should be stored in cartons should be accompanied by the application of less harmful insecticides.

Describing the Summary of Single Site Extreme Wave Analysis in the Pacific Ocean Comparing Stationary and Non-Stationary GEV Models

F. Calderón-Vega, C. Mosso, A. D. Garcia-Soto, E. Delgadillo-Ruiz

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 4, 10 February 2021, Page 112-124

An extreme value analysis of maximum significant waves recorded at a buoy located in the Pacific Ocean is summarized from a previous study in this book chapter.  The analysis was carried out from two perspectives, by considering a Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) model with stationary distribution (i.e., the time variations are not accounted for), and by considering a non-stationary GEV model, which incorporates the monthly seasonality of maximum observed values in time increments; the maximum significant wave behavior was parameterized using harmonic functions for the distribution measures. Both approaches were compared for a single buoy. In the study a seasonality effect was found, which was also present at the Gulf of Mexico in previous studies, and which cannot be captured by a stationary model.  Future studies for more buoys and wider regions are desirable, to characterized extreme wave activity, aimed at improving the design and management of coasts and ports by including seasonality.

A Study on Sample Size Determination in Survey Research

Anokye M. Adam

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 4, 10 February 2021, Page 125-134

Obtaining a representative sample size remains critical to survey researchers because of its implication for cost, time and precision of the sample estimate. However, the difficulty of obtaining a good estimate of population variance coupled with insufficient skills in sampling theory impede the researchers’ ability to obtain an optimum sample in survey research. One of the key challenges that social science researchers face in survey research is the determination of appropriate sample size which is representative of the population under study. This is to ensure that findings generalized from the sample drawn back to the population are with limits of random error. This paper proposes an adjustment to the margin of error in Yamane’s (1967) formula to make it applicable for use in determining optimum sample size for both continuous and categorical variables at all levels of confidence. A minimum sample size determination table is developed for use by researchers based on the adjusted formula developed in this paper.

Reporting Some Case Studies Concerning Information and Communication Technology Based Inclusion into University

Alessandro Pepino, Gennaro Sicignano, Adriano Torri

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 4, 10 February 2021, Page 135-148

In recent years, a revolution occurs, in both the school and the university: the traditional education paradigms have been questioned.

This phenomenon has been triggered by two phenomenon:

  • the use of new information and communication technology-based learning paradigms by the students;
  • the growing focus on the needs of inclusion of students with disabilities and specific learning disabilities.

This paper discusses some examples in which we not only explain how ICT serves to help students with special needs to integrate within the university context, but also how a multidisciplinary approach in the management of inclusion projects allows you to better manage this type of projects and improve the lives of the students involved.

Emphasizing the Working Capital Management and Firms’ Profitability: Evidence from Quoted Firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange

Olaoye Festus Oladipupo, Falana Olatunbosun

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 4, 10 February 2021, Page 149-162

Over the years, it appeared that firms failed to subject short-term investments to proper management thereby leading to either excessive or inadequate working capital which in turn affected their profitability. Working capital and the sequence it forms are managed by working capital management. To empirically satisfy this, this paper examined working capital management and firms’ profitability in Nigeria quoted firms on Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE). A panel data methodology was used with different regression estimators to analyze this relationship based on a balanced panel of 10 listed firms during the period 2008-2017. It was discovered that cash collection period and cash payment period exerted a negative impact on return on assets, though the impact was only significant for cash payment period on the ground of ?0.064 (p = 0.000 < 0.05), as against the estimate for cash collection period that stood at ?0.032 (p = 0.077 > 0.05). Also discovered was that both the current ratio and inventory period exerted a positive impact on return on assets, though the impact was only significant for current ratio on the ground of 8.172 (p = 0.000 < 0.05), as against the estimate for inventory period that stood at 0.045 (p = 0.438 > 0.05). The study concluded that working capital management affected firms’ profitability in Nigeria. Therefore it was recommended that while the shorter collection was maintained, payment to creditors should not be elongated so as to enjoy cash discount (if any) and that firms should be proactive in the management of raw materials in order to avoid idle resources that might negatively impact their financial performance. Finally, the researcher recommends conducting further studies and researches on working capital management and firms’ profitability in the banking sector.