Editor(s)
Dr. Pradip K. Bhowmik
Professor,
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.

ISBN 978-93-5547-091-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-143-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nicb/v6

This book covers key areas of  Chemistry and Biochemistry. The contributions by the authors include toxin-antitoxin systems, nanocrystalline MgO, green chemical synthesis, Cellulose extraction, biomass, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse, Patch-Clamp, chanellomics, scanning ion conductance microscopy, membrane receptors, sol-gel synthesis, adsorption, photo-Fenton degradation, single-cell video-mass spectrometry, international harmonized analytical method, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, centrifugal monolithic silica spin mini-column, Neonicotinoids, insecticides, metal-ligand homeostasis, oxidative/nitrosative stress, Quantum chemical studies, hematology, antioxidant system, gene expression, spermiogenesis, spermatogenesis, metabolism, apoptosis, GO-CuO nanocomposites, cytotoxic activity, drug delivery, Human colon cancer cell. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of  Chemistry and Biochemistry.

 

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Articles


Thermophilic Bacteria have the Toxin-Antitoxin System too: Type II Toxin-Antitoxin System Composites in Geobacillus

Rawana N. Alkhalili, Joel Wallenius, Bjorn Canback

New Innovations in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 6, 31 December 2021, Page 1-23
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicb/v6/14556D

The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems play a significant role in regulating stress responses in prokaryotes and they also have a biotechnological potential. Thus, they have been attracting research attention. While considerable recognition has been given to type II TA system of mesophiles, thermophiles have received limited attention. Here, we are presenting the putative type II TA families encoded on the genomes of four thermophilic strains belonging to the Geobacillus genus. We employed the TA finder tool to mine for TA-coding genes and manually curated the results using protein domain analysis tools. We also used the NCBI BLAST, Operon Mapper, ProOpDB, and sequence alignment tools to reveal the geobacilli TA features. We identified 28 putative TA pairs, distributed over eight TA families. Among the identified TAs, 15 represent putative novel toxins and antitoxins, belonging to the MazEF, MNT-HEPN, ParDE, RelBE, and XRE-COG2856 TA families. We also identified a potentially new TA composite, AbrB-ParE. Furthermore, we are proposing a Geobacillus acetyltransferase TA (GacTA) family, which potentially represents one of the unique TA families with a reverse gene order. This study aims for highlighting the significance of studying TAs in thermophiles, in general, and in Geobacillus, in particular, and facilitating future experimental research.

Ethyl cinnamate is important chemical produced by industries on commercial scale. Although this is available naturally in number of plants, the cost of extraction and purification is non-affordable on commercial scale. Existing method for syntheses of this chemicals are acid and enzymatic esterification as well as condensation using Na metal and strong bases under homogeneous condition. These methods are limited by low yield, long reaction time and pollution on commercial scale. To circumvent these limitations, it is very important to develop the method for synthesis of ethyl cinnamate under heterogeneous condition using reactive catalytic systems. For this purpose, Cu, Fe, and Mn doped nanocrystalline MgO was synthesized using an alkali leached hydrothermal technique and used as heterogeneous basic catalysts in a one-pot Wittig reaction to produce ethyl cinnamate. XRD, UV-DRS, FT-IR, FESEM, EDS, and XPS techniques are used to characterize the basic catalysts. The catalytic activity of synthesised catalysts was investigated in a one-pot Wittig reaction at room temperature in DMF solvent of benzaldehyde, triphenylphosphine, and ethyl bromoacetate. Under optimised reaction conditions, the Mn doped nanocrystalline MgO catalyst yields 98 percent. Enhancement of surface basicity due to doping of Mn in MgO was ascertained by UV-DRS and XPS study. In this study we observed the synergistic effect of transition metal doping, particle size and morphology on surface basicity enhancement of nanocrystalline MgO in one pot Wittig reaction for green chemical synthesis of ethyl cinnamate.

Cellulose from Agricultural and Industrial Waste: Extraction and Characterization

Muna Hasoon Sauodi, Hathama Razooki Hasan

New Innovations in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 6, 31 December 2021, Page 44-51
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicb/v6/1773F

Agricultural and industrial wastes are generated in huge quantities all over the world; generally they are not reused or recycled, therefore they are among the most environmental pollutants. Nowadays, the attention towards using these agricultural and industrial wastes, as attractive sources and among the most potential available stocks that are used for production of many useful molecules has been increased. Therefore the aim of the present work was to extract cellulose from different agricultural biomass and industrial waste, due to their contents of carbohydrates, as sources for such useful molecule, in particular cellulose via fast and simple technique. Simply, eco-friendly processes were carried out for isolation of cellulose from different waste sources. The used process is very efficient for obtaining good yield of cellulose where the extracted cellulose amount was (17.4%, 20%, and 18.2%) from rice husk, waste office paper and sugar cane respectively.. The powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR were used to characterize the extracted cellulose. In terms of crystallinity and structure behaviours, a comparison with standard cellulose was made and the results suggested that the isolated cellulose was in agreement well with the standard one and thus can be tried to produce biofuel .among other applications.

The present study propose a mass spectrometric patch-clamp equipment with the capillary performing both a local potential registration at the cell membrane and the analyte suction simultaneously. This paper provides a current literature analysis comparing the possibilities of the novel approach proposed with the known methods, such as scanning patch-clamp, scanning ion conductance microscopy, patch clamp based on scanning probe microscopy technology, quantitative subcellular secondary ion mass spectrometry or "ion microscopy", live single-cell mass spectrometry, in situ cell-by-cell imaging, single-cell video-mass spectrometry, etc. We also consider the ways to improve the informativeness of these methods and particularly emphasize the trend at the increasing of the analysis complexity. We propose here the way to improve the efficiency of the cell trapping to the capillary during MS-path-clamp, as well as to provide laser surface ionization using laser trapping and tweezing of cells with the laser beam transmitted through the capillary as a waveguide. It is also possible to combine the above system with the microcolumn separation system or capillary electrophoresis as an optional direction of further development of the complex of analytical techniques emerging from the MS variation of patch-clamp. The idea of "MS-patch-clamp" in its current state is not simply a research method, but a fundamental approach that can be extended to a large number of detection, ionization and desorption methods and various ways of the analyte supplying.

Green Synthesis of Ceria Nanoparticles Using Allium sativum Extract: Adsorption and Photo Fenton Degradation of Congo Red Dye

K. C. Remani, Zahira Yaakob, N. N. Binitha

New Innovations in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 6, 31 December 2021, Page 61-80
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicb/v6/2140C

Present study targets the synthesis of ceria nanoparticles by sol-gel method using aqueous Allium sativum (garlic) extract and to study the application of the synthesized samples in Congo Red dye removal from water via adsorption as well as photo Fenton degradation. The structural, optical and electronic properties of the ceria samples prepared using different amounts of the garlic extract were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm methods. The results showed that the synthesized cubic fluorite ceria nanoparticles are spherical with particle sizes between 10 nm to 40 nm. N2 adsorption studies revealed the mesoporous nature of the ceria samples having narrow slit-like pores. The synthesized materials are having both adsorption and photo Fenton activity in the removal of a model pollutant Congo red. Effect of different reaction parameters such as time, ceria dosage, the volume of dye solution and dye concentration on the percentage removal was studied in both cases. A maximum of 96% Congo red was removed by adsorption and 100% dye was removed by photo Fenton degradation by using the best CeO2 sample.

This chapter introduces a suitable analysis method for routine residual monitoring of antimicrobial drugs in food.  A rapid, simple, and space-saving technique of sample preparation followed by a 100% water mobile phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled photo-diode array detector (PDA) for quantifying acetamiprid (ATP) and imidacloprid (ICP) in unpolished rice was described here. The analytes were extracted from the sample using a handheld ultrasonic homogenizer with water, and purified by MonoSpin® C18-CX, a centrifugal monolithic silica spin mini-column, and quantified within 20 min sample-1.  The accuracy, precision, and system suitability are well within the international method acceptance criteria.

Synchronous Work of Membrane ATPases for Metal Traffic in Epidermal Cells (Quantitative Assessment)

V. I. Petukhov, E. V. Dmitriev, L. Kh. Baumane, A. V. Skalny, Yu. N. Lobanova, A. R. Grabeklis

New Innovations in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 6, 31 December 2021, Page 89-98
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicb/v6/3192E

The authors analyze the results of atomic emission spectrometry of hair samples for Al, Cd, Fe, Cr, Cu, Li, Pb, V, and Zn in 952 healthy subjects and 952 liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Using correlation analysis (Pearson) of the obtained data, the authors have found pair correlations between metal concentration values. According to the authors, criticality or synchronization (as a particular case of the critical state of the system) can be inherent in all ATP-dependent membrane pumps (P-type) controlling metal-ligand homeostasis in epidermal cells. A quantitative criterion (synchronization index) is proposed to measure the level of criticality (synchronization) in the functioning of membrane ATPases. If hair spectrometry data at the level of individuals demonstrates power-law distribution, then due to the inherent power-law to scale invariance a similar distribution should be expected at the cellular level.

Indoline-2,3-dione-3-oxime(IDOX) was synthesized and characterized by IR, mass and 1H-NMR. The Hyper Chem 7.5 software was used for quantum mechanical calculations. Study was conducted to determine molecular components of Indoline-2,3-dione-3-oxime (IDOX) and to provide information about its Structural details.

The geometry optimization was carried out using Ab Initio method. The theoretical spectral data and QSAR parameters were generated with semi empirical single point AM1 method. The HOMO and LUMO frontier orbital energies were also computed for the optimized keto and enol forms of IDOX molecule. The experimental and theoretical spectral data are nearly comparable. The pH- metry studies indicated presence of one dissociable proton in IDOX. The manuscript describes the structural aspects of Indoline-2,3-dione-3-oxime

Recent Trends in Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Research

Oluwatoyin Adenike Adeyemo-Salami

New Innovations in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 6, 31 December 2021, Page 110-123
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicb/v6/1558B

Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) is a solvent with wide application in various industries. Presented in this chapter are investigations conducted in the last two decades on EGME both in humans and in animal species. The documentation has confirmed EGME as a gonadotoxicant with attendant effect on other parameters such as hematological, oxidative status, apoptosis, inflammation, gene expression and metabolism.