Dr. Aurora Martínez Romero
Professor, Clinical Biochemistry, Juarez University, Durango, Mexico.

ISBN 978-93-5547-112-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-113-0 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nicb/v4

This book covers key areas of chemistry and biochemistry research. The contributions by the authors include physicochemical properties, Microbial factors, lower anaicut basin, fresh water fish, cabernet-Sauvignon, phenolic substances, stilbenoids, antioxidant activity, post fermentation maceration, resveratrol, adsorption, isotherms, kinetics, Fourier transform infrared, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, \(\beta\)-galactosidase, specific activity, lithium chloride, small compounds, drug-targeting, FOXO transcription factors, FOX proteins, Raman spectroscopy, anharmonicity, negative thermal expansion, structural phase transition, phonon, anticancer agents, amines, antimicrobial activity, activated carbon, polypyrrole coated sawdust, oil-polluted areas, biochemical indices, crude oil, adsorption isotherm, kinetics, spectral characterization, UV/Vis spectroscopy, vitamins, antioxidants, haber-weis reaction, micronutrient. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of chemistry and biochemistry.


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Assessment of Physicochemical and Microbial Factors of Water in Lower Anaicut Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

P. Anbusrinivasan, M. Thenral

New Innovations in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 4, 11 October 2021, Page 1-10

Water quality and quantity have an important impact in a region's health, wealth, and prosperity. Water pollution is a phenomenon that occurs when the quality of water deteriorates as a result of numerous human activities. This chapter provides basic idea of   physiochemical and microbial factors which gives sustainable environment for aquatic life.  In this chapter, the physico-chemical parameters and microbial population in soil sediment, water and gill region of Labeo rohita from Lower Anaicut Basin were examined. Based on their growth characteristics on specific culture media, some human bacterial and fungal pathogens were isolated. The fishes' medium and the sediments in their habitat were also collected and tested for pathogens. In the gill region, however, five bacterium species and four fungus species were discovered.This study focuses on the quality of Labeo rohita in the Lower Anaicut basin and aims to raise awareness among fish consumers.

Effect of Post-fermentation Maceration on the Chemical Composition of Some Wines

Nino G. Vephkhishvili, Marine G. Bezhuashvili, Vano L. Shiukashvili

New Innovations in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 4, 11 October 2021, Page 11-18

The therapeutic and preventive value of red wine treatment is highly dependent on the presence of various groups of phenolic compounds. In this sense, the post-fermentative maceration method was used to make phenol-rich Saperavi and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. It was determined that the following changes occurred during the post-fermentation maceration process: total phenols, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, common stains, trans-resveratrol, \(\varepsilon\)-viniferin, alcohol, volatile acidity, acidity titer and changes in the amount of extracts.

The best post-fermentation maceration parameters for the investigation of these wines were determined as a consequence of the experiment. Tightness, duration 15 days, temperature - + 25 - + 27\(^{\circ}\)C.

The adsorption of an acidic dye Methyl Orange (MO) onto non-viable blue green algal biomass, Oscillatoria sp. was investigated in aqueous solutions in a batch mode with respect to operational parameters like contact time, adsorbent dose, pH, and temperature. The characterization of the algal biomass was done by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models and Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fit exhibiting maximum adsorption capacity of 98.03 mg/g. The rate constants at different concentrations were analysed using the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion models to describe the kinetic data. Adsorption kinetics were discovered to follow the pseudo-second order rate equation. At high temperatures, thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy revealed that adsorption is endothermic, random, and spontaneous. The results indicated that Oscillatoria sp. could be effectively employed as adsorbent material for the removal of MO dye from effluents.

Objectives: Differentiate the particular activity of Alkaline Phosphatase and \(\beta\)-Galactosidase in LiCl2 treated young and old aged rat's brain and liver to their control.

Materials and Methods: For 10 and 20 days, four groups of male wistar rats (each n=5) were used to assess the levels of Alkaline phosphatase and \(\beta\)-galactosidase. In comparison to the control, LiCl2 treated the brain and liver of young and old rats.

Results: LiCl2 increases protein content, which is required for old brain cell activation. Alkaline phosphatase and \(\beta\)-Galactosidase showed increased specific activity in the brain and liver of young and old rats treated with LiCl2 for 10 and 20 days, respectively, when compared to their control. In fact Alkaline phosphatase showed significantly higher activity for 10 and 20 days LiCl2 treated young brain exhibited 16.77 ± 0.309 and 27.74 ± 0.237 respectively as compared to their control 3.80 ± 0.230 while old rat's brain exhibited 14.28 ± 0.215 and 16.30 ± 0.24 respectively as compared to their control 8.65 ± 0.304 nm/min/mg of protein, similarly higher activity obtained for young liver 19.51 ±0.487 and 21.28 ± 0.317 as compared to their control 3.67 ± 0.402 and finally the old liver exhibited 15.02 ± 0.355 and 18.45 ± 0.439 as compared to their control 3.26 ± 0.304 nm/min/mg of protein respectively.

Conclusion: These findings confirm that both membrane bound Alkaline Phosphatase and \(\beta\)-Galactosidase enzymes exhibited higher specific activity for LiCl2 treatment in wistar rats brain and liver cells. So lithium has a positive effect on both young and old brain cells for \(\beta\)-galactosidase while having a greater positive effect on Alkaline phosphatase in the rat liver and brain for cell membrane integrity.

Discovery of Small Compounds that Target FOXO Transcription Factors and Modulate their Transcriptional Activity and Physiological Function

Judith Hagenbuchner, Veronika Obsilova, Petra Obexer, Tomas Obsil, Michael J. Ausserlechner

New Innovations in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 4, 11 October 2021, Page 41-54

FOXO transcription factors are critical regulators of cell homeostasis that control a plethora of different target genes and thereby steer cell death, differentiation, longevity and senescence in mammalian cells. The objective of the present study was to identify novel chemical compounds that bind to the DNA-binding domain of FOXO3 and modulate its transcriptional activity. The strategy was to combine pharmacophore-modelling-based in silico compound screening with fluorescence polarization protein-DNA binding assays and cell-based compound validation. By this approach, we identified small molecules that physically interact with the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of FOXO transcription factors with highest affinity to human FOXO3. These compounds do not act as chemical inhibitors, but modulate the FOXO3 transcriptional program in human cells. The mode of interaction between compounds and the FOXO3-DBD was assessed by NMR spectroscopy and docking studies. We demonstrate that compound S9 and its oxalate salt S9OX interfere with FOXO3 target promoter binding, modulate the transcription of distinct gene subsets and interfere with the physiological program activated by FOXO3 in cancer cells. These small molecules prove the druggability of the FOXO-DBD and provide a structural basis for modulating these important homeostasis regulators by directly affecting protein-DNA interaction in normal and malignant cells.

Study on Phonon Anharmonicity in a Framework Material H\({_3}\)[Co(CN)\({_6}\)]

K. K. Mishra

New Innovations in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 4, 11 October 2021, Page 55-63

Since last several years, the author has been studying the phonons on functional materials and has established structure-property correlations on flexible framework structure materials, lead free oxides, thin film perovskites, low dimensional 2D materials like graphene nanosheets, TiS3 nanofiber, VSe2 nanosheets, SnO2 quasi nanoparticles etc. In this book chapter, temperature dependent Raman spectroscopic studies on negative thermal expansion framework material H3[Co(CN)6] have been presented in the temperature range 80-300 K to elucidate the phonon anharmonicity of different phonons. No discontinuous or slope changes of phonon mode frequencies, linewidths and their band intensities were noticed suggesting that the compound was stable in the entire temperature range of investigation. Phonon anharmonicity models were used to analyse the temperature dependencies of mode frequencies and their linewidths. It was observed that the three-phonon decay process was dominant over the four-phonon process in this flexible compound. Concisely, the present study demonstrates the anharmonicity of the phonons and their correlation on thermal expansion of H3[Co(CN)6] framework material.

Study on Design, Synthesis of Novel 1, 8-Naphthalimidederivatives and Their Antimicrobial Activity

Rambabu Sirgamalla, Shyam Perka, Mukunda Annimalla

New Innovations in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 4, 11 October 2021, Page 64-91

The functional 1, 8-Naphthalimide derivatives are capable of binding to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and showing anticancer activities has received enormous attention in nowadays. In the present chapter the new 1,8-Naphthalimides derivatives synthesis and there antimicrobial activities are described.

The potentiality of activated carbon (CSAC) and polypyrrole coated sawdust (PPy/SD) derived from the fruit of the gardening plant material of cordia sebestena to remove acid orange -7 from aqucous solutions via adsorption was investigated. The adsorption process provides an attractive alternative treatment, especially if the adsorbent is inexpensive and readily available. The batch mode adsorption studies were carried out by varying experimental parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature. The kinetic data at different concentrations and at different temperatures were analysed for both the adsorbents using pseudo first order and pseudo second order models. The equilibrium data were also analysed by Freundlich and Langmuir models. Thermodynamic studies were also evaluated. Finally, the performance of CSAC was compared with PPy/SD. The experimental results indicated that PPy/SD is most suitable for the removal of Acid Orange 7 from aqueous solutions than CSAC.

This study intended to comparatively assess some biochemical indices in eighteen catfish harvested from rivers, swamp and commercial fish ponds in oil-polluted and non-oil polluted areas of Nigeria. Three fishes were collected from each of the following sites; Akaraolu swamps in Ahoada East LGA (AR), a commercial fish pond within the area (AP), The New Calabar River in Ikwerre LGA (BR), a fish pond within the area (BP), Omambala River, Anambra East LGA (CR), a fish pond in Awka, Anambra state (CP), six groups in all. Variation of effects in fishes from the two regions was estimated using the following biochemical parameters; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, sodium ion, potassium ion, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Analysis was done in keeping with standard procedures. On analysis, the ALP and ALT activities (33.93±2.37 and 44.33±2.96 respectively) from AR were significantly (p<0.05) different from BR (17.00±0.58 and 35.00±5.69 respectively) and CR (22.00±2.31 and 30.67±2.60). The AST activity from AR (68.67±0.88) was not significantly different from that of BR (69.00±1.73) but was significantly different from that of CR (70.33±4.33). Also, site AP (65.53±0.37, 73.00±2.08 and 50.00±1.15 respectively) were significantly higher than CP (42.00±2.89, 64.67±4.33 and 44.67±5.46 respectively) and BP (26.00±1.15 and 50.20±1.15 respectively). However, the AST activity of catfish from AP (73.00±2.08) was not significantly different from that in BP (73.67±1.86). The creatinine, urea, Na+ and K+ concentrations observed from AR and AP were significantly higher in comparison to other sites. There was a significantly increased GSH, Catalase, and MDA, and a lower SOD concentration for AR and AP in comparison to other sites. The results show a variation in biochemical indices in fishes from oil-polluted sites when compared to non-oil polluted sites.

The foremost objectives of the present research work is to remove the methylene blue dye from wastewater samples using carbon derived from Zephyranthes citrina (ZC)  bulb by kinetics and isotherm studies.  The present studies open up an innovative approach and investigate porous, efficient raw carbon from the ZC, which was used as an adsorbent. The well-dried and finely powdered ZC bulb was carbonized at a temperature of 900°C. The carbonized crude ZC sample was characterized by FT-IR, UV-visible, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction techniques, and their adsorption potential to remove the basic methylene blue (MB) dye from an aqueous sample. Adsorption studies comprise both adsorption isotherm and kinetic methods. The processes were carried out with diverse adsorbate concentrations and adsorbent quantities at various time intervals in the batch mode process. Kinetic models of Lagergren first order, pseudo second order and intra particle diffusion were used to assess the kinetics and adsorption mechanism. The results revealed that the adsorption process follows the first order kinetic model of Lagergren. Based on the results obtained, the maximum removal (81%) of the dye was achieved as a solution containing 50 mg of the 50 ml dye at 3 hours for methylene blue. The results indicated that the bulb of ZC carbon is a proficient adsorption material and is also used as a cost effective alternative that can absorb dye from an aqueous solution without activation treatment.

Determining Antioxidant Activity in Honey as a Result of Haber-Wais Reaction

Aldina Kesic, Nadira Ibrisimovic-Mehmedinovic, Almir Sestan, Aida Crnkic, Benjamin Catovic

New Innovations in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 4, 11 October 2021, Page 126-136

The antioxidants present in natural food products show a higher antioxidant activity than synthetic one [1]. Polyphenolic compounds are the most important antioxidants in bee honey. Bee honey is the most popular bee product by human [2]. In addition to the polyphenols there are non-phenolic compounds with antioxidant potential, such as proteins, gluconic acid, L-ascorbic acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF), Maillard reaction products, etc. The antioxidant activity of honey largely depends on the content of micro biogenic elements. The aims of this paper are to present the complex role of micro biogenic elements in the human. It is especially important to point out micro biogenic elements that can act both as antioxidants and as pro-oxidants, such as Cu. Cu acts as antioxidant because it is an integral part of some enzymes involved in the antioxidant activity of the organism. Cu in honey also acts as a pro-oxidant through Haber-weis reaction with L-ascorbic acid also present in honey. In addition to being an essential micro-nutrient Cu is potentially very hazardous because of the capacity change in oxidation state leading to the initiation of the reaction in which free radicals are formed. Therefore, the balanced intake of copper and other trace elements in the human body is very important. Therefore, changes in the antioxidant activity of food are the result of chemical changes in antioxidant active compounds present in the food product.