Dr. Turgut Türsoy
Associate Professor,
Department of Banking & Finance, Faculty of Economics & Administrative Sciences, Near East University, TURKEY.

ISBN 978-93-91312-74-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91312-75-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/mpebm/v2

This book covers key areas of economics, business and management. The contributions by the authors include international business theory, international economy, the time of COVID-19, mercantilist tendencies, international trade policy, protectionist pressures, agriculture protection, bilateral agreements, CO2 emissions, fresh and clean water, new and old renewables, coal or oil and gas dependency, opportunism, shirking, pretending, asymmetrical knowledge, public sector, transport infrastructure, employment, Chinese economy, corporate tax rates, Income splitting, transfer pricing, tax jurisdictions, business fluctuations, open economy macroeconomics, financial markets and the macro economy, policy design and consistency, policy coordination, rural income inequality, non-timber forest incomes, income decomposition, business intelligence, entrepreneurship, multiple intelligence, emotional intelligence, future entrepreneurship project, growth management policies, sustainable development, changing marketing environment, corporate diversification, product diversification, agency theory, opportunism, internal capital markets. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of economics, business and management.


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Different positions of the member states of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) especially developed and developing countries and also USA, the European Union and Japan representatives were observed during the Doha Round of trade negotiations under the WTO. The problems of agriculture protection in the developed countries for example in European Union and USA and also in the developing countries, were becoming a serious obstacle during the negotiations. Despite the udeniable benefits of the multilateral WTO forum for trade liberalization, the rapid increase of North-South bilateral and multilateral Free Trade Areas (FTAs) begs a systematic explanation for why some forums are prioritized relative to others. The main aim of the article is the presentation of the some new aspects of the international business theory in the context of international economy - the time of COVID-19. In the article presents the mercantilist tendencies in the international trade policy, the theory of public choice in the foreign trade policy, protectionist pressures in different political systems, the level of protectionist pressures, food producers pressure and conflicts between the tendencies to sustainable international trade liberalisation and environmental protection, the increasing importance bilateral agreements in the foreign trade policy, the time of COVID-19.

Studies on Energy, CO2s and Water on the African Continent

Jan-Erik Lane

Modern Perspectives in Economics, Business and Management Vol. 2, 12 July 2021, Page 18-37

African nations share a common situation in that they pollute little in terms of CO2s globally speaking, but at the same time global warming will likely have terrible consequences for the continent, set to face a sharp population increase. African governments have promised to contribute towards the COP21 objectives of decarbonisation by transforming their energy systems. They have now access to few energy resources, which is conducive to their poverty. New renewables belong to the future (solar, wind, geo-thermal), whereas old renewables -wood, coal-– are a thing of the past. The coal or oil and gas dependent giants must start energy transformation, as must the many countries relying upon traditional biomass, or charcoal. The use of wood coal is simply too large for the survival of the African forests. Africa need lots of energy to handle the coming crisis of potable water, as lakes and rivers are shrinking and degraded by pollution, dams and overfishing.

Recent Development and Studies: Public Sector, Information and Incentives

Jan-Erik Lane

Modern Perspectives in Economics, Business and Management Vol. 2, 12 July 2021, Page 38-44

A democratic regime would find its rationale ultimately with the people of the country. Their needs of government would be decisive for the means and ends of the state. What is true information in today's world? The hunt for information is on, not only in the private sector - market trends and enterprise data ' bur also on the public sector. Information is strongly linked with incentives: leak news and you have an extra rent. This paper tries to model the crucial role of information and it's incentives in government and it started in the public sector. In the history of political thought we encounter two philosophers who are especially relaxant for the principal-agent framework, viz Hobbes and Montesquieu.

This chapter discusses the relationship between transport infrastructure and employment in the Chinese inland provinces directly affecting by “One Belt, One Road” initiative. Authors analyzed the relationship between railways and highways - two key elements of transport infrastructure and employment in five Chinese inland provinces directly affected by “One Belt, One Road” initiative. The data were collected from the National Bureau of Statistics of China and some databases related to “One Belt, One Road” for the period of 2008-2017. Descriptive statistics and graphic description approach were used to ensure the comparability of calculation among provinces and to analyze the data. The findings are that there are unclear relationships between transport infrastructure and employment, there exists a positive effect of transport infrastructure on employment in some provinces or not in other provinces over certain period of time, and therefore, improvement of transport infrastructure as well as other relevant factors should be considered for generating employment in the provinces under study.

Study on Transfer Pricing: A Case of Saudi Arabia

Ali Faya Alhassan

Modern Perspectives in Economics, Business and Management Vol. 2, 12 July 2021, Page 61-73

In the context of the Saudi oil and gas sector, as well as those of numerous other nations(i.e., Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Korea, Japan, Kuwait, Norway, Poland, Sweden, UK and US), this paper explores transfer pricing behaviour for the goal of transferring profits across national tax jurisdictions with varying rates of profit tax. The Bartelsman and Beetsma [1] methodology is proposed as the basis for assessing the hypothesis. The findings of this study reveal that when applied to the Saudi Arabia oil and gas sector, the Bartelsman and Beetsma [1] model fails to detect transfer pricing for the purpose of moving profit. However, when extended to other nations such as Japan, Korea, Norway, Poland, and the United Kingdom, the Bartelsman and Beetsma [1] model yields results that reflect the occurrence of transfer pricing behaviour for the aim of moving profits.

Study on Financial Crises in an African Open Economy

Oluremi Ogun, Olutomilola Makinde

Modern Perspectives in Economics, Business and Management Vol. 2, 12 July 2021, Page 74-87

This study looked into the possible reasons of crises in Nigeria's financial sector from 1960 to 2014. The scope of the study encompassed two distinct phases of the country's financial crises. Both the country's policy and economic environments might have played a significant role in the magnitude of the crises experienced during the various periods.  The empirical model was defined by an analytical approach embedded in allied studies. Preliminary analyzes were conducted on the data used to rule out the possibility of spurious statistical results. Both endogenous and exogenous components were estimated using a regression model. The majority of endogenous factors had extremely consistent signals and importance.  The impact of most exogenous causes and closely related domestic activity found parallels in the country's business cycles. Greater caution in policy design and a lower propensity to borrow externally could help to mitigate the negative effects on the system's growth determinants.

The study used primary data from a survey of 408 rural household heads to answer the question of whether or not Non-Timber Forest Products can contribute to reducing rural income inequality in Cameroon's South-West region. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. To achieve identical results, we used three alternative methodologies: the Gini Coefficient, the Lorenz curve, and the Income Decomposition by Income Sources. The findings demonstrated that income from non-timber forest products greatly reduces rural income disparity in the region's rural areas, and that they play an essential role among the many income sources evaluated. As a result, we advocate processing to increase the value of non-timber forest products. Improved benefits to the community as a whole will result from better management of the forest in general and forest resources in particular, particularly in terms of total income and income inequality.

Analyzing the Procedure of Using Business Intelligence Resources in the Publication of Entrepreneurship Culture: An Applied Study

Rasha H. Abbood, Nagham H. Al- Nama'a

Modern Perspectives in Economics, Business and Management Vol. 2, 12 July 2021, Page 102-107

For both researchers and experts, developing business skills is critical; further, it is included into the earliest years of schooling. As per the Howard Gardner's theory, intelligence is comprised of nine talents that students possess, referred to as Multiple Intelligence (theoretical intelligence, language, spiritual, musical, natural, movable, personal, social and emotional intelligence). These intelligences proven their ability to instruct children in such talents and talents during their school years in order to establish a future business endeavor. This study is seen as a valuable learning opportunity since it allows us to identify possibilities and invest in improving the skills and knowledge needed to serve society today and in the future. These abilities teach students how to negotiate, communicate, and operate in a team, all of which are important aspects of the business entrepreneurial infrastructure.

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of careful implementation of growth management policies and sustainable development on the changing marketing environment. Business exercises and the market environment are associated and depend on one another. The study took a descriptive analytical technique, with a questionnaire serving as the research tool.The questionnaire included three demographic variables and twenty-six items designed to assess the impact of careful implementation of growth management policies and sustainable development on the changing marketing environment. All Senior Managers who work at five-star hotels at the Dead Sea in Amman, Jordan, were included in the study population, which totaled (19) Senior Managers at (6) hotels, and the study sample comprised all (19) managers.  The findings revealed that careful application of growth management policies has a statistically significant impact on the changing marketing environment, as well as that careful application of sustainable development has a statistically significant impact on the changing marketing environment. The analysis revealed that the means and standard deviations of the careful application of growth management policies fields were high, with the Attraction field coming first and the Expansion field coming last. Other findings revealed thatthe total mean and standard deviation of the Coordination field were high, where it had a mean of (3.91) and a standard deviation of (0.51). From the standpoint of the analysis, the means and standard deviations of the sustainable development fields were high, with the Economic Dimension field coming first and the Environmental Dimension field coming last.

Why do Firms Diversify? The Italian Evidence

Maurizio La Rocca, Tiziana La Rocca, Alfio Cariola

Modern Perspectives in Economics, Business and Management Vol. 2, 12 July 2021, Page 126-134

This paper investigates an old-fashioned topic in the Strategic Management: product diversification. In particular, the research question of the paper concerns whether opportunism or the search of financial synergies is at the core of product diversification decisions. Based on a unique panel of Italian firms for a long period of analysis, our results suggest the predominant role of the internal capital market arguments, especially relevant for the decision to diversify in unrelated segments and for unlisted firms. In a country as Italy, with many frictions in the capital market and a poor credit protection and governance, to have an internal capital market is supposed to be beneficial for firms.