Dr. Angelo Mark P Walag
Professor I,
Department of Science Education, University of Science and Technology, Southern Philippines.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-19761-74-6 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19761-19-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/eieges/v1

This book covers key areas of environment, geography and earth science. The contributions by the authors include turbulent flows, atmosphere boundary layer,  wind velocity, atmospheric stability, uniform momentum zones, uniform momentum zones, atmospheric mechanical magnitudes fluctuate, volcanic activity, colima volcanic complex, trenchward displacement, magma chambers, magnetic modeling, gravimetric modeling, middle america trench, aeromagnetic map, air pollution, climate change,  environmental hazards, wave distribution map, west wind season, earth’s circumference, mathematics abstraction, mitigation, urban agriculture, transdisciplinary approach, green infrastructure, biotope area factor, urban heat island, volatile organic compounds, activated carbon, waste water treatment plants, biodiversity, container terminal, biological diversity,  maelstrom, urban planning,  net zero transition. turbulent Change. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of environment, geography and earth science.


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Evaluation of the Integral Scale and Fractal Dimension in Stratified Turbulent Flows

Manuel Tijera , Gregorio Maqueda

Emerging Issues in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 1, 12 September 2023, Page 1-18

The structure of the turbulent flows in the atmosphere boundary layer (ABL) is irregular, with fluid mechanical quantities fluctuate in a disordered manner, with layers of wind that moves at different speeds. The analysis of this structure can be observed in series of wind velocities, the irregular behaviour of these flows is due to the superimposed of waves and turbulence onto a mean wind. These fluctuations are also due to a broad range of scales from the smallest to the largest scales corresponding to the integral scale, where the kinetic energy is maximum. The fractal dimension of wind components determines those flow irregularities and is a turbulent flow characteristic. It is of interest in this work to analyse the correlation between the fractal dimension and integral scale. The mean values of these two magnitudes are related to atmospheric stability and instability. The stratification of the turbulent flow is evaluated with the Bulk Richardson number. We investigate during the diurnal and night cycles how the integral scale and fractal dimension of the components (u') horizontal and (w') vertical velocity influences in stratified turbulent flows. The scales are obtained using sonic anemometer data from three elevations 5.8 m, 13 m and 32 m above the ground measured during the SABLES- 98 field campaign. These components have been calculated using the mean wind direction as framework. The integral scale has been estimated using a method that combines the normalized autocorrelation function and the best Gaussian fit (R2\(\ge\) 0.70). The effects of unstable thermal stratification in diurnal hours increase the average values of the integral scale and fractal dimension of both components. During the nights, the existence of the stable stratification decreases the integral scale with increase in fractal dimension. These variations of the average values for u' horizontal component can be adjusted to the straight regression line and for w' vertical component the average values have fit a quadratic function with R2\(\ge\) 0.80, in most of the fits. The integral scale for the u' component varies between around 100 m on their smaller scales and above 1500 m for their larger scales. The integral scales for w' component are slightly lower than for the u' component between a few tens of meter and 1000 m. Finally, we study the anisotropy of the turbulent flows by comparing the scales of u` and w` velocity components at the same height.

Insights into the Trenchward Displacement of the Volcanic Activity in the Colima Volcanic Complex, Mexico

Román Alvarez , Vsevolod Yutsis

Emerging Issues in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 1, 12 September 2023, Page 19-54

This chapter presents gravimetric and aeromagnetic data in the region of the CVC, as well as the associated anomaly maps, several 2-D models along selected cross-sections, and two inversions, one gravimetric and the other magnetic, of such fields. Geological mapping of areas with potential for volcanic hazards is of high priority. In Mexico, volcanic cartography is in an early stage of development. Volcanological research has been mostly limited to pyroclastic and geochemical studies, with very little attention paid to detailed mapping of active volcanoes. Ancestral Volcán Colima grew on the southern, trenchward flank of the earlier and larger volcano Nevado de Colima. Trenchward collapse was favored by the buttressing effect of Nevado, the rapid elevation drop to the south, and the intrusion of magma into the southern flank of the ancestral volcano. Modeling gravimetric and aeromagnetic data we locate the magma chambers of the Fuego (active) and Nevado (extinct) volcanoes within a 65 mGal negative Bouguer anomaly elongated in a nearly N-S direction. A magnetic high is visible over the southern part of the Fuego volcanic edifice on the accompanying aeromagnetic map. Two further, related formations that we discovered appear to follow the southerly magmatic migration trend and whose abnormalities have not been previously reported. One of them is a collapse structure with a circular topographic expression, and the southernmost is a low-density intrusion ~1 km below sea level, associated with a moderate topographic bulge at the surface that we interpret as a magma body. Gravimetric and magnetic fields are concurrently modeled along five lines that cross the anomalies in order to identify the magmatic bodies. We also perform 3-D gravimetric and magnetic inversions in addition to the 2-D models. Although they are unable to differentiate between the separate chambers of the Nevado and Fuego volcanoes, the results of each inversion sufficiently and independently identify the location of the magmatic chambers. 2-D and 3-D results complement each other and consistently show the locations of potential magmatic regions. The southern borders of the CVC can now be included in the observation on the southward-younging activity. The alignment of the Nevado volcano, Fuego volcano, La Escondida structure, and Southern Magma Chamber suggests that volcanism's southward migration is a dynamic, continuous activity, and their proximity and order favor a shared origin for them. Our models support a multiple, complex magmatic system that appears to continue to spread southwardly, which can pose additional volcanic risks to an already threatened local population.

Discovery of Artificial Photolysis that Influences Air Pollution in Urban Versus Rural Areas in Changing Climate

Uthayan Thurairajah

Emerging Issues in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 1, 12 September 2023, Page 55-79

The study aims to identify what influences the increase in air pollution in an urban area, mitigation methods, and possible sustainable development in a changing global climate. The critical environmental hazards are artificial light at night (ALAN) and air pollution with ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). People use nighttime outdoor environments for their needs, and the nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to urban ALAN during seasonal migration, which could increase the birds' exposure to PM2.5. A comparative study examines PM2.5 concentrations and the spatial correlation between ALAN and PM2.5 within urban versus rural areas. The essence of the research is to find the ALAN influence on PM2.5 concentration. The author used the nighttime data of the artificial light on the Earth's surface and the PM2.5 concentration level to estimate the extent of air pollution associated with PM2.5 in the ground-level atmosphere. The study uses a light meter, a sky quality meter, and a PM2.5 meter to measure the relationship between air and light pollution simultaneously. The significant contributions of this study's findings revealed that the ALAN influences increased PM2.5 concentration in urban Toronto. The results can assist in determining the required PM2.5 control areas and designing and executing environmental conservation planning. The results are not only beneficial to understanding accurately the regional differences of spatiotemporal PM2.5 emission dynamics and helpful for proposing alleviation policies in air pollution control and providing scientific support for regional sustainable development in changing climate. The integrated hazards of ALAN and air pollution are most significant and likely to increase within the urban and decrease within rural areas. This study was undertaken and built upon the context of the academic, scientific, and technological challenges to identify the PM2.5 concentration in urban and rural areas and the expected outcomes. This is the first comparative study to find that artificial photolysis influences air pollution in an urban nocturnal environment. Therefore, this research finding is original, not repetitive, historical, and ground-breaking research in environmental, climate lighting science, and technology. This research will help researchers, scientists, engineers, consultants, architects, lighting designers, and government agencies seeking to improve outdoor lighting for safety, health, well-being, and quality of life in the built environment.

Analysis of the Maximum Average Wave Distribution Map in the Southern Waters of Java Island during the Period 2010-2021

Ninda Barokah , Komang Ngurah Suarbawa , Ketut Putra , Anak Agung Ngurah Gunawan

Emerging Issues in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 1, 12 September 2023, Page 80-98

This study aims to establish the times and seasons when the average maximum wave height occurs as well as the distribution of the average maximum wave height in the southern waters of Java Island. This study was analyzing the map of the distribution of maximum average wave height in the southern waters of Java Island. The study was conducted in Department of Physics, Udayana University, and Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG) Tunggul Wulung Meteorology Station Cilacap, between January 2023 and February 2023. Data on daily maximum wave heights in the southern seas of Java Island, with coordinate limits of 7°S to 12°S and 106°E to 112°E, were collected from January 2010 to December 2021 at 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. Microsoft Excel was used to compute the data, which was then organized by time and season. A map showing the distribution of maximum average wave height was produced using Surfer software after the maximum average wave height data was displayed. The highest maximum wave height was found in the South Indian Ocean from West Java to East Java, the southern waters of Sukabumi-Garut West Java, and the lowest in the southern waters of Pangandaran-Yogyakarta.The highest average maximum wave height occurred during the East wind season (June, July, and August). The average maximum wave height of 4-5 meters occurred in the southern Indian Ocean of West Java-East Java, 3.5-4 meters in the southern waters of Sukabumi-Cianjur West Java, 2-3 meters in the waters of Garut-Pangandaran West Java, and 1-2 meters in the southern waters of Yogyakarta. During the West wind season (December, January, and February), the average maximum wave heights are 3-3.5 meters in the waters of the southern Indian Ocean from West Java to East Java, 2.5-3 meters in the southern waters of Sukabumi to Cianjur in West Java, 1.5-2.5 meters in the southern waters of Garut to Pangandaran in West Java to East Java, and 1-1.5 meters in the southern waters of Yogyakarta. The highest wave height occurred at 18.00 UTC for Transition season I, East wind season, and Transition season II. In the West wind season, the highest wave height occurred at 12.00 UTC. The highest maximum average wave height occurred during the East Wind season. The map of the distribution of maximum average wave height can be used as a consideration for predicting the maximum wave height in the southern waters of Java Island and becomes descriptive information about the distribution of maximum wave heights in the southern waters of Java Island, which is highly needed as a reference for all marine activities.

The Aim of this Chapter discusses about three bold assumptions for mathematical abstraction of Eratosthenes’s experiment for calculating the circumference of the Earth, and justifying all three assumptions from historical perspective for mathematics and science education. Also it is important that the simplicity about the measurement of the earth's circumstance at the history of science. The first accurate estimate of the Earth’s circumference was made by the Hellenism scientist Eratosthenes (276-195 B.C.) in about 240 B.C. The simplicity and elegance of Eratosthenes’ measurement of the circumference of the Earth by mathematics abstraction strategies were an excellent example of ancient Greek ingenuity. Eratosthenes’s success was a triumph of logic and the scientific method, the method required that he assume that Sun was so far away that its light reached Earth along parallel lines. That assumption, however, should be supported by another set of measurements made by the ancient Hellenism, Aristarchus, namely, a rough measurement of the relative diameters and distances of the Sun and Moon. Eratosthenes formulated the simple proportional formula, by mathematic abstraction strategies based on perfect sphere and a simple mathematical rule as well as in the geometry in this world.  The Earth must be a sphere by a logical and empirical argument of Aristotle, based on the Greek word symmetry including harmony and beauty of form.

Mitigation of Urban Impacts: A Transdisciplinary Vision of Green Space Support for Human Well-Being

Teodoro Semeraro , Aurelia Scarano

Emerging Issues in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 1, 12 September 2023, Page 115-130

Within this article, we present an overview of the merits and limitations of employing the ecosystem services approach in the design of green spaces. Amidst the expanding urban land use and its consequent impacts on the overall environment, green spaces emerge as essential providers of ecosystem services, promoting the well-being of the populace. The concept of ecosystem services serves as a unifying framework for comprehending human-environment interactions, amalgamating the facets of biodiversity and abiotic elements. This framework establishes a link between ecological processes, functions, and the well-being of humans. In the urban context, the notion of green infrastructure (GI) accentuates not only the quantiaty but also the caliber of urban and peri-urban green spaces and natural zones. Nonetheless, the role of urban stressors or the urban milieu as driving forces behind urban GI is not universally comprehended. This knowledge gap can be attributed, in part, to the disparity between the ecological and planning scientific approach, which revolves around the relationship between "biodiversity, urban space planning, and human well-being," and the biological scientific approach, which centers on plant responses to environmental stresses that impact human well-being. This divergence can lead to a paradox, as inadequately designed green spaces may not yield the expected effects. The focus of this study is centred on the principal ecosystem services provided by green roofs and urban agriculture, with an emphasis on: (i) The interplay of ecological processes and functions that sustain ecosystem services, (ii) Urban environmental stressors in relation to potential adverse effects (disservices) they may generate for human well-being, (iii) Essential considerations for the planning and design of urban ecosystem services. This innovative, transdisciplinary outlook on urban ecosystem services underscores the imperative of considering GI as an active component in the design of urban spaces within the constructed environment.

An Overview of the Research and Application of Various Activated Carbons and Ash Used in Water Purification Technology

Ajinkya Ravindra Telgote , Satish S. Patil

Emerging Issues in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 1, 12 September 2023, Page 131-150

Water is an essential gift that nature gives to all living individual. In order to keep all life safe on earth, it is necessary to keep the amount of water in the body adequate and sufficient at all times. Water pollution is increasing as a result of various factors such as population growth, large-scale urbanization, deforestation, and unfair activities in rivers and other water sources. Various experts have worked on the production of activated carbon from renewable energy. This comprises cost-effective technology and products in an eco-friendly way for a variety of uses. This review article discusses the various methods used by experts to develop activated carbon in order to minimize water pollution. Peanut shells, Moringa oleifera seeds, Coconut shells, Rice husk, Lemon peel, Pomegranate peel and Banana peel are all excellent raw materials for treating polluted water. It was demonstrated that pollutants such as pH, colour, DO, conductivity, turbidity, chloride, fluoride, TSS, TDS, BOD, COD, nitrate, phosphate, heavy metals, and total coliforms can be isolated from water using physical, mechanical, and biological techniques.

Macroalgae from Container Terminal at the San-Pédro Port (Côte d’Ivoire)

Adon Marie Paulette

Emerging Issues in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 1, 12 September 2023, Page 151-158

An environmental and social impact study of the construction project of a Container Terminal at the San-Pédro Port (CTSP) was carried out in June 2021 with the aim of establishing an additional reference base for the biodiversity assessment and critical habitats. Within this study, the methodology applied consisted at the uprooting of a hydrophyte at 9:55 a.m. with the help of experienced divers at the station S10, 12m deep, a site close to the mouth and the zone intended for accommodate the marine base. The hydrophyte collected was photographed in situ. A fragment of the sample collected was preserved in 10% formalin for cytological analyze by application of the double carmino-green method and morphological description for its identification. The morphological description revealed that this hydrophyte would be the red macroalga Gelidium latifolium (Greville) Bornet & Thuret, 1876 due to its morphology characterized by a thallus with the appearance of comb-toothed bough whose frond and stipe rise to from the stolon. The analyzes results from the thin sections made indicated the impossibility of observing stained tissues after application of the carmino-green double staining method and tissues observed without applying this method. Specific name confirmation of the red macroalga harvested from genetics by applying the barcoding technique could will thus reveal the sequence of the genus-specific DNA fragment.

Net Zero through the Maelstrom: Professional Practice During a Time of Turbulent Change

Peter W. G. Newman

Emerging Issues in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 1, 12 September 2023, Page 159-187

The net zero transition is a rapidly emerging process of technical change that now faces social, economic and political transformations to enable this rapid transition. The Edgar Allan Poe short story, Descent into the Maelstrom, is used to show that jumping off the business-as-usual ship onto barrels is the only way to survive. Suggested barrels for net zero professional practice are new net zero standards reflected in new processes and regulations for business accounting, energy, urban and transport planning, as well as new approaches for the just transition and Indigenous/local engagement. Australian examples are provided to show the beginning of such a maelstrom process to illustrate the significance of this agenda and emerging new professional practice.