Prof (Dr.) Abd Elmoneim Osman Elkhalifa
Professor, Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Applied Medical Sciences,University of Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-19761-21-0 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19761-71-5 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/eias/v8

This book covers key areas of agricultural sciences. The contributions by the authors include dryland management, sustainable food production, soil fertility, agricultural sustainability, sustainable land management, food security, land degradation, farming practices, poor eating habits, oil crops, vegetable crops, genetic diversity, crops breeding, organic production,nutritional quality, rice variety, agronomic biofortification, lateritic soils, low cation exchange capacity, pineapple value chain, economic activities, living organisms, yield performance, mendel's genetics, crop production, women’s empowerment, breeding science of crops, sexual cross-breeding, parasexual recombination, fungul isolates, rice blast, double inoculation, subsurface drainage system, drain water quality, irrigation water quality, salt output. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of agricultural sciences.


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Dryland Management Strategy in Buleleng Regency, Bali Province, Indonesia

Made Sri Sumarniasih , Made Antara

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8, 30 September 2023, Page 1-18

Dry land in Buleleng Regency is still widely available and has the potential to be developed as agricultural land to support food production. The research aims to formulate a sustainable dryland management strategy in Buleleng Regency, Bali Province. The research method is a survey method and formulates strategy management using the SWOT method. The results showed that the SO strategy was (1) Utilizing available dry land to increase the quantity and quality of agricultural production, (2) Utilizing research results from Ministry and University research institutions related to dry land, (3) Attracting investors to invest in dry land use; The ST strategy is (4) Rearrangement of agricultural land inheritance to avoid narrowing agricultural land owners, (5) Application of agricultural technology 4.0 to attract millennials to work in agriculture; The WO strategy is (6) Increasing the productivity of dry land by applying technology produced by research institutes of ministries and universities, (7) Increasing the availability of facilities and infrastructure to support the development of dry land, such as making jubang, drip irrigation, etc., (8) Increasing capital and ease of access to capital, market networks and partnership systems; WT's strategies are (9) Implementing the Perpetual Land Law to prevent land conversion for non-agricultural purposes, and (10) Improving the quality of farmer human resources through training, so that farmers have the ability to utilize existing technology. The novelty of the research is 'Increasing the Productivity of Dry Land in Buleleng Regency Should Apply a SWOT-based Management Strategy'.

A Study on Effects of Sustainable Land Management Practices on Food Security of Beneficiary Households: A Context of Adaptation to Climate Change in the Communes of Malanville and Kouandé in Northern Benin

Ibidon Firmin Akpo , Filikibirou Tassou Zakari , Francis Oninkitan Agani , Kassimou Issaka , Jacob Afouda Yabi

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8, 30 September 2023, Page 19-40

The aim of this present work is to analyze the effect of sustainable land management (SLM) measures on the food security of households benefiting from climate change resilience through the SLM project in Kouandé and Malanville in northern Benin (CCRP-SLM). Food security and food safety are two related concepts to food dangers. Food hazards are numerous traits or events that may indicate possible health issues.  A survey of 305 producers in two communes in northern Benin was used to obtain socioeconomic data. The chi-square test, With and Without, and CARI techniques were employed in STATA 15 softwares to investigate the acceptance rate of the SLM measures communicated, as well as the effects of these measures on beneficiaries' food security. The results demonstrate that four SLM measures were implemented among those distributed by the PRCC-GDT (Integrated Soil Fertility Management, Soil and Water Conservation, Integrated Agriculture and Livestock Management, and Climate Change Adaptation).

CARI's analysis reveals that 66% of PRCC-GDT beneficiaries and 16% of non-beneficiaries are food-secure. As a result, extension services and structures need to step up their actions on these different measures, through activities to strengthen producers on SLM measures in the context of climate change mitigation, in order to guarantee food security. As a result, extension agencies or organizations must prioritize efforts on these various measures via activities to strengthen producers on SLM measures in the context of mitigating the effects of climate change and ensuring food safety.

New Microsatellite Markers for Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton

Ju Kyong Lee

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8, 30 September 2023, Page 41-52

Perilla crop (Perilla frutescens L.) is highly regarded as a health food and traditional food in Korea. However, there is still a lack of Perilla simple sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite primer sets for studying genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among accessions of cultivated and weedy types of Perilla crop from East Asia, especially Korea. In our previous study, we obtained 15,991 SSR loci from transcriptome sequencing by RNA-seq in one cultivated type (PF98095) of P. frutescens var. frutescens. 37 novel Perilla SSR primer sets were created for Perilla species based on RNA sequences obtained from transcriptome research. These novel Perilla SSR markers were used to examine the genetic diversity of 15 farmed and weedy Perilla crop accessions. There were 182 verified alleles in 37 loci, with an average of 4.9 alleles per locus and ranging from 2 to 9 alleles per locus. The major allele frequency (MAF) per locus varied from 0.200 to 0.733, with an average of 0.463. The gene diversity (GD) ranged from 0.391 to 0.853, with an average of 0.670. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.624, ranging from 0.315 to 0.838. The novel Perilla SSR markers presented in this work may provide suitable markers for analyzing the genetic diversity and genetic connections of cultivated and weedy Perilla crop varieties. Furthermore, novel Perilla SSR markers derived from transcriptome analysis can be used for cultivar proof of identity, conservation of Perilla germplasm resources, and genetic mapping and designation of relevant genes/QTLs for future Perilla agricultural breeding efforts.

Breeding the Best Rice (Oryza sativa L) Variety of the World

Ram Chet Chaudhary

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8, 30 September 2023, Page 53-79

A blessing from Lord Buddha some 3,000 years ago, and now a heritage rice of Uttar Pradesh, India, is valued for its aroma, taste and nutritive quality.  Its cultivation declined from 50,000 ha to less than 2,000 ha and was at the verge of extinction. No attention was paid for improving Kalanamak and it survived as landrace due to the mercy of the farmers.  This study was started with the aim of “Saving Kalanamak Rice” from extinction and promote further for the welfare for humanity. PRDF collected, catalogued [36] and conserved 250 accessions of Kalanamak, and the best one, through Pureline selection, was released in 2007 and notified in 2010 as KN 3.  Mutation breeding [59] using gamma rays and EMS gave many academically interesting mutants but no high yielding dwarfs.  Hybridization of KN 3 with Swarna Sub1 and Improved Sambha Mahsuri yielded varieties like Bauna Kalanamak 101, Bauna Kalanamak 102 and Kalanamak Kiran with shorter duration and 50% higher yield, released and notified in years 2016, 2017 and 2019 respectively. Protocol for organic production with higher yield was developed and certification under PGS arranged.  Kalanamak is sugar-free with 49 to 52% Glycemic Index, 11% protein, 3 times higher Iron and 4 times higher Zinc.  It is unique rice to have Vitamin A in form of Beta Carotene. Kalanamak is backed by Geographical Indication and PPV&FRA, and selling at four to five times higher price of common rice tripling farmers’ income [12].  Summarily, compared to Rs. 35,500 / ha net profit from common HYV rice, Kalanamak KN3 will give Rs. 56,875, Bauna Kalanamak (Bauna Kalanamak 101, Bauna Kalanamak 102 and Kalanamak Kiran) Rs. 88,750 and Organic Bauna Kalanamak Rs.1,10,000 net profits per hectare. With the PRDF arranged contract growing, by involving farmers and marketing companies from Kharif 2018, tripling the net profit of the farmers is assured sustainably. Nutritionally, Kalanamak has double amount of protein (11%), triple iron, quadruple Zinc compared to common rice. It is rarest of the rare rice variety to have Vitamin A in form of Beta Carotene. With 49 to 52% Glycemic Index, it is “Sugar Free”, hence suitable even for diabetics. No single variety of rice excels Kalanamak Kiran in the grain and nutritional quality. Thus it can easily be called as the “Best Rice of the World”. Besides the local market, its export is catching fast from 2% to 7% of the total production and soon to have its status as the “Specialty Rice”.

Agronomic Biofortification of Zinc and Boron on Broccoli in Red and Lateritic Soils of India

Shreya Mondal , G. K. Ghosh , Mrinmoy Karmakar

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8, 30 September 2023, Page 80-93

Micronutrients are essential for plant growth because they serve as catalysts for a variety of organic reactions occurring inside the plant. But it is observed that the red, lateritic and associated soils of eastern India are acidic in soil reaction, light textured, low organic matter and P and are often deficient in S and micronutrients like Zn, B, Mo. Bio-fortification is a rapidly emerging strategy to address micronutrient malnutrition, but as an agricultural strategy with health objectives, it faces unique challenges especially when Zinc (Zn) deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake is a global nutritional problem in human populations, especially in developing countries. Agronomic biofortification or ferti-fortification is one such way of incorporating adequate amount of micronutrients in different food crops. Many professional researchers around the world are still working to mitigate this micronutrient deficiencies in crop and human and incorporate micronutrients through dietary intake of vegetable crops.

Performance of the Pineapple Value Chain in South Western Uganda: Implications for Value Addition

Grace Kagoro-Rugunda , Collins Inno Sebuuwufu

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8, 30 September 2023, Page 94-132

The pineapple value chain stands out as one that should be prioritized for promotion and improvement among the key fruit value chains for South Western Uganda as a result of its perennial nature with low pest/disease risk, low land requirement, importance for environmental and natural resources’ sustainability, high profitability and history of having enhanced rural household incomes and non- restrictive to entry of rural poor. Mean monthly pineapple production peaks were bi-anual and matched the rainy season. Pineapple nutrient content revealed that fiber was highest in pineapples from Isingiro (6.29%) producing a significantly greater amount of pulp (mean: 510.4g/1000g of fresh fruit) than Ntungamo (2.03%: mean: 226.15g/1000g of fresh fruit) and Bushenyi (mean: 408.84 g/1000g of fresh fruit). Soil physico-chemical parameters varied significantly across the study sites, at 0.05% level of significance. A Pearson’s correlation test between soil composition and nutrient content of pineapples from the various sites revealed that other than pH, Vitamin C however had a significant correlation with soil Nitrogen (p= 0.02), TDS with Magnesium (p=0.01); and fibre with soil organic matter (p= 0.04), Calcium (p= 0.01) and Magnesium (p= 0.02). Pineapples produced in Isingiro had the greatest percentage composition of crude fiber in dry pineapple pulp (mean: 29.6%) proving that dry pineapple pulp is a reliable source for crude fiber for utilization in product development that focuses on enriching human diet with dietary fiber. The high phosphorus and Total Dissolved Solute content (291.7 ppm) of Isingiro pineapples also gives them a strong flavor and a very sweet taste respectively for processing pineapples into dry sweet products and snacks. Pineapples from Ntungamo were best suited for juice extraction due to their high moisture content. The fresh Pineapple value chain in SW Uganda experiences a mean postharvest loss of 19.86% with highest loss hot spot being transportation. On average Ntungamo incurred significantly higher postharvest losses (26.9%) than the other two study sites. Solar drying of pineapples for the export was an easily adaptable value addition innovation for small scale chain actors alongside other potential value addition avenues such as pineapple wine and juice production for improvement and promotion to enhance pineapple value chain in South western Uganda.

Life Science Study: A Theoretical Approach

Peizhan Tian

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8, 30 September 2023, Page 133-142

The character net system of yield performance was first discovered and established, and the higher plant's life activity and product yield formation secrets were then made public on both an individual and a community level. The fundamental concept of contradiction and its movement between a person's body's capacity to adapt to all environmental stimuli and that capacity's yield capacity (or yield potential) served as the foundation for this theoretical system. It represented a significant advancement for the almost a century-old formula Phonotype = Genotype + Environment. In order for this theory system to succeed, it is necessary to apply a variety of research techniques, including abstracting, generalizing, testing, and axiom-based methodologies. This net system was a integration of all of closely related subject knowledge, and was a life body to be compounded by these science knowledge. It will greatly promote development of these related sub- jects and related applied science and applied technology. Molecular biology, molecular genetics, or molecular physiology will all have this idea as their foundation. It was a major turning point that transformed experience breeding into scientific breeding of living things, as well as a transitional milestone from Mendel's genetics, which could only explain quality characteristics inheritance, into both quality and quantity, from small-scale breeding in workshops to collective engineering of technique systems, and from art to science. It began a revolutionary path toward the breeding of living things.

A Study on Crops Breeding with It’s Varity

Peizhan Tian

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8, 30 September 2023, Page 143-151

Crop breeding is the art and science of improving important agricultural plants for the benefit of humankind. Crop breeders work to make our food, fiber, forage, and industrial crops more productive and nutritious. First, it was determined how breeding practices and expanding germplasm complement one another. In particular, transformation gene breeding was able to use the superfine genes of living things on the planet and produce germplasm resources that could not be obtained through conventional breeding. The source of utilization germplasm expanded from only using variation in a variety to among families, which had an even wider scope. Secondly contradiction and its movement between ecological and yield ability character, among yield ability characters or ecological characters exist all; this verified that ex- plaining all of phenomenon was “net system of character composition of yield performance”, “theoretical genetics and breeding science of crops” theory system setting up by author. Thirdly new concepts, closed breeding and open breeding were put forward on basis of relationship of un- ity of opposition among above characters (genes) and supplying way of necessary energy in cha- racter expressThe idea of closed and open breeding was a generalization of the key distinction for various breeding methods, as well as the theoretical foundation for an accurate assessment of these. It forced people to reject myths based on the premise that relying on closed breeding could produce greater yield varieties, and it forced people to abandon the notion that tradition only had variation and the creation of new varieties. It was decided by openness to sexual cross-breeding, etc., that it would always maintain a footing in an unbeatable position, develop continuously, and be replaced by no other breeding method.

Parasexual Recombination between Two Fungul Isolates in Rice Cultivation

M. A. Monsur , M. Kusaba

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8, 30 September 2023, Page 152-176

This study looked at the possibility of parasexual recombination among the blast fungus obtained from several host plants. If so, the parasexual recombination theory for rice blast fungus would gain a lot of traction. In order to achieve this, crosses between the widely prevalent rice blast fungus (P. oryzae) and the crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris) blast fungus (P. grisea) were created. Although the virulence of rice blast fungus can alter, it does not have a sexual life cycle. It is conceivable that such a flawed fungus has a different method for producing genetic variants. Recent comparative genomics investigations have shown that parasexual recombination may have had a significant impact on rice blast fungus evolution. In this experiment, the twofold inoculation and punch methods of the fungus were used to study the parasexualism of rice blast (Pyricularia oryzae) and crabgrass blast (Pyricularia grisea). A total of 520 isolates collected from the double inoculated lesions was subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS region to identify subcultures of the inocu- lated rice blast isolates. As a result, four isolates from the three double inocu- lated lesions with SA13-1ME and TP106 were identified as subcultures of TP106. To access the recombination genotypes, a total of 17 isolates from the three lesions was subjected to MAGGY-DNA fingerprint analysis. However, recombinant DNA fingerprint patterns between TP106 and SA13-1ME were not detected among the 17 isolates. Although TP022 was not recovered from the double inoculated lesions, the fact that TP106 was recovered from the double inoculated lesion indicates that rice blast fungus can invade and colo- nized in blast lesion on crabgrass. The opportunistic infection on the double inoculated lesions observed in this study potentially provides new insight into the life cycle of rice blast pathogen. An extraordinary manner of DNA exchange within the conidial cell may be provided by opportunistic infection.

The Feasibility of Controlled Subsurface Drainage in Saline Vertisols: A Case Study of the TBP Command Area

Hanamantappa Meti , Dileep K. C. , Rajath E., Kavya D. , Aishwarya Golashetti , Vishwanath J.

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8, 30 September 2023, Page 177-189

As the drain discharge water from various places or facilities will vary in their quality characteristics, surface and subsurface drainage discharge water from irrigated agriculture field is often variable compared with the quality of the canal water supply. As a result, in order to reuse drainage discharge in crop production, feasibility studies or quality assessments of the discharge must be conducted for both the short- and long-term adoption of conventional and controlled SSD under different drain spacing. In the TBP command area, there are no such feasibility studies on the characterization of drain discharge from various subsurface drainage systems.  Therefore, it is suggested that this experiment be done. At the Agricultural Research Station, Gangavati (Karnataka), a plot experiment was carried out in rabi 2021 to investigate the characterisation of drain discharge water for its reuse as irrigation water. An established and controlled subsurface drainage system (SSD) was used for the experiment. According to the treatments, drain discharge under traditional subsurface drainage systems (SSD) ranged from 3.66 to 0.63 compared to 1.38 to 0.42 mm/day under controlled subsurface drainage systems, according to water samples obtained from six different sampling locations. Drain discharge water's electrical conductivity under normal SSD ranged from 3.89 to 1.24 dS/m, whereas it ranged from 1.01 to 0.81 dS/m under controlled SSD. While salt output under conventional conditions ranged from 29.0 to 11.0 kg/ha, it was 16.5 to 2.5 kg/ha under. Finally, the subsurface drainage system drain water samples were not suitable for reuse as irrigation water to paddy in the R/S season as per the classification of irrigation water quality particularly for poorly drained black soils in the TBP command area.