Editor(s)
Dr. Manikant Tripathi
Assistant Professor,
Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-93-5547-075-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-083-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/ctas/v4

This book covers key areas of Agricultural Sciences. The contributions by the authors include agricultural manufacturing, economic growth, kaldor hypotheses, chow  breakpoint test, biodiversity, traditional paddy rice terraces, heteromorphic achenes, seed dispersal, germination, photoblastic effect, plant cell culture, medicinal plants, metabolic engineering, bioactive compounds, Drudgery reducing farm technologies, capacity building training programmes, adoption and awareness, Irrigation water quality, geo-accumulation index, enrichment factor, heavy metals pollution and pollution index, genotypes, physiological traits, Improved soybean technology, supplementation, growth performance, return above feed and chick cost, liquid biofertilizers, traditional cultivars. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Agricultural Sciences.

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### Chapters

##### The Contribution of Agricultural Manufacturing in the Egyptian Economic Growth: An Approach to Kaldor's Hypotheses

Ahmed Abou El-Yazid El-Rasoul, Mai Mustafa Hassan Morsi, Mohamed Ibrahim Younis

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4, 3 December 2021, Page 1-14
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctas/v4/2654E

Agricultural industrialization achieves many goals, including increasing the rate of economic growth, increasing exports, replacing imports, and creating new job opportunities that lead to raising the standard of living. This research uses a Kaldor’s hypotheses to estimate the contribution of the agricultural manufacturing sector to increase the economic growth of the Egyptian agricultural sector during the period 1997-2018. It based on the three "hypotheses" of growth. Kaldor model depends on three hypotheses related to the relationship between the growth of manufacturing sector and the economic growth. The study used the growth rate, dummy variable, Ordinary Least Square (OLS) test, and used CUSUM squares test and Chow breakpoint test. In addition to, testing the stability of time series depended on E-view 11.0. The food, beverage, tobacco industries and textiles industry are the largest two sectors in the Egyptian agricultural manufacturing industries, as they represent about 83.58% of the total value of the agricultural manufacturing industries output during the period 1997-2018. The results shows that the increase of real growth rates of food, beverage, tobacco industries and textile production lead to increasing in the real growth rate of agricultural output. According to CUSUM Sq test and Chow test, the year 2003 is considered as the switch point for the study variables. Also, if the real agricultural manufacturing production growth rate increases, the real agricultural manufacturing labor productivity growth rate will increase. And if the real growth rate of agricultural manufacturing production value increases, the real growth rate of agricultural non- manufacturing labor productivity will increase. The results of the research assist decision-makers in the field of manufacturing industry and agriculture in Egypt, especially in the stages of economic development.

##### Citizen Participation in Conservation Activities Enhances Plant Biodiversity in Rice Terraces in Sengamachi-no-Tanada, Kikugawa, Japan

Inagaki Hidehiro

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4, 3 December 2021, Page 15-21
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctas/v4/2007C

The ridges of traditional paddy rice terraces are important for the conservation of plant species diversity. In order to propose an appropriate conservation management method, in the present study, the author compared the flora of terraced rice ridges managed by farmers and the flora of ridges managed by citizens, including rice terrace owners (membership area) and volunteers (participant area). There was no difference in the number of plant species per ridge, but the number of plant species and diversity index per area were higher in the membership and participant areas than in the farmers’ areas. It is considered this factor is that various mowing by citizens with both  machines and traditional sickles produces the same mowing pressure as like the old way before mechanization and contributes to the maintenance of traditional ridge vegetation. In addition, the number of naturalized plants in the membership and participant areas was lower than that in farmers’ areas. These results suggested that the participation of people other than farmers in paddy rice terrace ridge management contributes to the maintenance of plant diversity in traditional paddy rice terraces.

##### Assessment of Seasonal Changes in the Germination of Heteromorphic Achenes of Bidens pilosa

Inagaki Hidehiro, Kinoshita Takehiro

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4, 3 December 2021, Page 22-29
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctas/v4/2008C

In weed species, asynchronous emergence and lengthy emergence periods are important factors that increase the difficulty of weed management. Seed heteromorphism and polymorphism are one of the causes of asynchronous emergence of weed species. Bidens pilosa is a noxious weed species. Its capitulum are heteromorphic achenes divided into central and peripheral achenes. Central achenes are longer, with thorns facing outward from the capitulum, whereas peripheral achenes are shorter, with thorns facing inward. In the present study, we hypothesized that dimorphic achenes of B. pilosa have different seed dispersal strategies, and we compared the difficulty of their detachment and seasonal changes in their germination in order to identify the differences in these strategies. Our results revealed that central achenes were significantly easier to detach than peripheral achenes, suggesting that central achenes may be used for dispersal to farther areas, and peripheral achenes may be used for dispersal to neighboring areas. Furthermore, central achenes showed relatively higher germination rates than peripheral achenes. Only the central achenes showed high germination in dark conditions at 20°C in May. In contrast, peripheral achenes showed high germination in dark conditions at 20$$^{\circ}$$C and 25$$^{\circ}$$C in July. This suggested that central achenes germinated first (in May), and peripheral achenes germinated later in the summer. Our results also indicated that the achenes of B. pilosa showed seasonal changes in photoblastic germination, i.e., both central and peripheral achenes showed light-induced germination in March and dark-induced germination from May to September. Dimorphic achenes and seasonal change in dormancy and photoblastic germination cause asynchronous emergence of plants, making it difficult to control the spreading of B. pilosa.

##### Plant Tissue Culture Techniques for Conservation of Biodiversity of Some Plants Appropriate for Propgation in Degraded and Temperate Areas

Manoj Kumar Tripathi , Sushma Tiwari, Niraj Tripathi, Gyanendra Tiwari, Deepa Bhatt , Megha Vibhute, Neha Gupta, Nishi Mishra, Prerana Parihar, Purnima Singh, Akash Sharma, Ashok Ahuja, Sharad Tiwari

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4, 3 December 2021, Page 30-60
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctas/v4/2119C

Plant Biotechnology is being employed as a device for conservation of natural habitats and their sustainable utilization for ecological balance,  technologies for cultivation of plants in diverse cropping systems and on the problematic soil, improvement  of state-of-art technologies for extraction, characterization and utilization of necessary bioactive components, generation of scientific and clinical information to support the health entitlements of botanical medicines, elicitation and improving the production of known and novel metabolites using metabolic engineering technology, DNA barcoding : identification and characterization of plant material, design and discovery of  newer molecules  for human and plant health, development of  post-harvest management including establishment of effective partnerships between  different stakeholders. Plant tissue culture can be used to rapidly multiply virus-free planting material in plants suitable for degraded lands and temperate areas by developing micropropagation protocols. Micropropogation is a time and space efficient technique that produces more viral disease-free and elite propagules.  Germplasm storage and conservation is possible through the use of in vitro gene bank technology, in which vegetatively propagated plants can be conserved in cryogene banks, and recalcitrant seeds, embryos, and pollens can be stored in liquid nitrogen for long periods of time. This chapter discusses micropropagation protocols developed in our lab for various plants suitable for cultivation in undulated lands and temperate regions, as well as detection and production of natural compounds found in plants and ex situ conservation methods.  Biotechnology and biodiversity of high value plants can be harnessed together as developmental challenge as well as an economic opportunity in future.

##### Gender Specific Interventions to Mitigate Drudgery While Performing Farm Operations: A Brief Study

Velivelli Vijaya Lakshmi, Swetha Kodali, Deepika Jangeti

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4, 3 December 2021, Page 61-73
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctas/v4/15047D

##### Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution for Cultivated Soils, Irrigated by Several Irrigation Waters Varying in their Qualities in Al-Hassa Oasis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

M. S. Mohammed, A. A. M. Sallam, S. M. Aleid

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4, 3 December 2021, Page 74-89
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctas/v4/4232F

Twenty-four composite surface soil samples (0-30cm depth) representing cultivated soils irrigated for long-term (more than fifteen years) with different irrigation water qualities:(i-ground water (GW), ii-ground water + agricultural drainage water (DW), iii-ground water + tertiary treated wastewater (TTWW) and iv-ground water, (GW) + agricultural drainage water, (DW) + tertiary treated wastewater, (TTWW), were analyzed for their contents, from Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, As and Ni. The results showed that, these contents can be arranged in the following descending order: Fe > Cu >Mn>Zn> Ni >Pb> Co > As > Cd. Generally, the different irrigation water qualities can be arranged according to their effects on total heavy metal contents in the soils in the following order:(GW+DW+TTWW) >(GW+TTWW)> (GW+DW)> (GW). Based on the geo-accumulation index, Igeo values for Mn, Fe, Co, and Cd, the soil irrigated with groundwater is uncontaminated with these elements. On the other hand, Igeo values for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are > 0 and <1, indicating that the soil is uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with these elements. In general, Igeo values for the soil irrigated with (GW+ DW+TTWW) showed patterns of heavy metals contamination similar to those of the soils irrigated with(GW+TTWW) and those irrigated with (GW+DW) but with different levels. Based on the Enrichment factor (EF) the studied soils are significantly contaminated with Cu, Ni, and Zn due to irrigation with, ground water, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the soil irrigated with (GW+DW), Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and As in both soils irrigated with (GW+TTWW) and (GW+ DW+TTWW). The results reveal that the EF mean values of heavy metals in the studied soils irrigated with different irrigation water qualities, can be arranged in the following descending order:(GW+ DW+TTWW)> (GW+TTWW) > (GW+DW) > (GW).

The objectives of the present study were to: (1) assess heavy metal contamination of agriculture cultivated soil irrigated with different irrigation water qualities in Al-Hassa Oasis, Saudi Arabia using three approaches, namely; the geo accumulation index (Igeo), Enrichment Facto (EF) and Pollution Index (PI).

##### Effect of Terminal Water Stress on Phenological, Morpho-Physiological, and Yield and Its Attributing Traits of Bread Wheat Genotypes

Anil Poudel, Surya Kant Ghimire, Barun Dev Achraya, Bishnu Raj Ojha, Dhruba Bahadur Thapa

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4, 3 December 2021, Page 90-107
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctas/v4/5337F

The field experiment with 50 bread genotypes was carried out at the research farm of Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, from December 2014 to April 2015 to determine the morpho-physiological traits, grain yield and its attributing traits in advanced lines and commercial varieties of bread wheat associated with drought tolerance. The field experiment was carried out in alpha lattice design with two replications under irrigated and drought environments. The outcomes of a combined analysis of variance and mean comparisons revealed that all genotypes differed significantly in both conditions and for growing conditions. Mean values of all the morpho-physiological yield and its attributing traits compared decreased performance of genotypes under drought stress conditions compared to irrigated conditions. In drought stress conditions, the genotype WK 2507 yielded the most (2.4 tons/ha), while the genotype WK 2513 yielded the least (0.095 tons/ha). In irrigated conditions, the genotype WK 2437 yielded the most (2.94 tons/ha), while the genotype WK 2523 yielded the least (0.272 tons/ha). However, genotypes WK 2525, WK 2507, Munal#1, and WK 2437 outperformed others in terms of grain yield in both drought and irrigated conditions. WK 2507, WK 2503, and WK 2524 were promising lines for drought conditions. Correlation studies under drought conditions showed the grain yield has a significant positive correlation with thousand- grain weight. It has a significant negative correlation with days to heading and flag leaf senescence under both drought and irrigated conditions.

##### Determination of Changes in Yield and Profitability of Improved Soybean Production in Guinea Nigeria: A Case Study of Borno and Kaduna States

R. C. Wakawa

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4, 3 December 2021, Page 108-114
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctas/v4/4883F

The study analyzed the profitability of improved soybean technology due to changes in yield among farming households in Guinea Nigeria. It mainly assessed the soybean yield before and after adopting the adopting the improved soybean technology; evaluate the cost and returns associated with the changes among the producers and examine the constraints of using the improved soybean technology in the study area. Using a multistage sampling technique, primary data has been collected from 162 respondents in the (Tropical Legume II) TL II and non-TL II communities in the study area. The results of the double difference (DD) estimate revealed a significant difference in crop yields before and after the project. According to the results of the gross margin analysis, the mean gross income of the TL II participants was N36,770.5 higher than that of the non-TL II participants, indicating that improved crop production is profitable in the study area. According to descriptive statistics, the major constraints faced by respondents include pests and diseases, a lack of a market, and a low price for soybeans, among other things. In view of the above, it is recommended that the TL II project be replicated by the governments of Borno and Kaduna, as well as other interested parties. Farmers who do not have TL II should learn from the improved soybean farmers. Farmers should be properly linked to existing soybean markets, and the TL II project should create more to consume the surplus. The TL II project must train farmers on soybean management practises and how to control pests and diseases.

##### Fermented Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk) Juice: It’s Potential as Water Supplement on the Production Performance of Growing Japanese Quails

Keiven Mark B. Ampode

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4, 3 December 2021, Page 115-121
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctas/v4/1620A

Quail raising is said to be the business venture of those with limited capital but who look for high returns in a short period of time. The meat and eggs of these birds are readily available for human consumption due to their high reproduction capability. A feeding trial to assess the growth performance and economic benefits of Japanese quails supplemented with varying levels of fermented kangkong juice through the drinking water was conducted using 120 female Japanese quails at the Department of Animal Science-College of Agriculture and Food Science, Visayas State University, Visca, Baybay City, Leyte, Philippines from January to February 2016. The Japanese quails were randomly assigned to four treatments and replicated three times with ten birds per replication laid out in a Completely Randomized Design set-up. Data gathered were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0 software. Supplementation of fermented kangkong juice (FKJ) into the drinking water of Japanese quails did not significantly affect the growth performance in terms of the results on bi-weekly weight gain, average daily gain, bi-weekly voluntary feed intake, and cumulative feed conversion ratio. However, the overall result on return above feed and chick cost (RAFCC) disclosed a bright prospect of FKJ supplementation for raising Japanese quails.

##### Determining the Importance of Liquid Biofertilizers in Rice Cultivation under Organic Farming

V. Dhanushkodi, G. Anand, V. Alex Albert, S. Nithila, N. Tamilselvan

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4, 3 December 2021, Page 122-130
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctas/v4/1552B

Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important staple cereal foods in Asian continent. The day to day advances in science and technology have increased the rice production capacity to feed the world population, which is increasing rapidly year after year. On other hand, the farmers are gradually switching over to organic farming coupled with traditional rice due to emerging demand among the consumers for traditional rice cultivars. The non-judicious use of inorganic fertilizers over years by the rice growers has become a threat to the farmers inclined to organic farming. Therefore, it becomes imperative to explore the most effective organic nutrient sources for sustaining the soil fertility and rice productivity. Keeping this in view, Front Line Demonstration (FLD) was organized in 10 locations of Tiruchirappalli district of Tamil Nadu to popularize TNAU liquid biofertilizers viz., Azospirillum, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria, K Solubilizer, Zn solubilizers, PPFM under two different traditional rice growing ecosystem during Rabi 2020. The results revealed that application of liquid biofertilizer offered more productive tillers (13.7 & 14.9 numbers), additional grain yield ( 9.9 and 12.6 %) and straw yield (10.5 & 10.2%) in both the traditional rice cultivars viz., Karuppu kavuni (5100 kg/ha) and Mapillai samba (5350kg/ha) respectively. Similarly, a quantum leap in net return was observed as a result of use of recommended biofertilizer. The study revealed that, Rs.157350/ha and Rs.63100/ha followed by a benefit cost ratio of 3.8 and 2.2 were observed in Karuppu kavuni and Mapillai samba respectively while using the recommended liquid biofertilizers. The use of liquid biofertilizer favorably increased the availability of soil nutrient status by converting the non-available form of nutrients to available form. Finally, it can be concluded that, for obtaining higher potential yield and economic returns from traditional rice cultivars, the application of recommended liquid bio-fertilizers is highly essential. Further, promoting the practice of biofertilizer application by the traditional rice growers may pave way for enhanced nutritional security among rural mass.

##### Involvement of APMC Women Labourers in Post-Harvest Activities of Dry Chilli- A Comparative Study in Guntur and Byadgi APMCs

Bojjagani Jhansi, Annapurna N. Kalal, Shobha Nagnur, Mahantesh R. Nayak, Bojjagani Babitha

Current Topics in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4, 3 December 2021, Page 131-138
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctas/v4/11014D

Throughout India, agriculture determines family tradition, social relationships and gender roles. Women’s role and contribution is no longer a matter of contention because in rural India the percentage of women who depend for their livelihood on agriculture is more than 80 per cent. Demographically, agriculture is the largest economic field and plays a significant role in India’s entire socio-economic structure. Nearly 70 – 75 per cent of the rural household, directly or indirectly depends on agriculture for their livelihood.