Dr. Vlasta Hus
Department of Elementary Teacher Education, University of Maribor, Slovenia.


ISBN 978-93-5547-170-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-171-0 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/crlle/v1


This book covers key areas of Language, Literature and Education. The contributions by the authors include occupational stress, burnout syndrome, primary education teacher, Lifelong learning, design principles, development of study programs, academy-industry collaboration, challenges for lifelong learning, action design research, pharmacy, psychology, learning media, career cards, thematic learning, career guidance in primary school, Palestinian-Israeli women, social status, economic independence, professional identity, Distance e-learning, Reflexive actions in solving problems, non-academic program, extracurricular classes, theory of education management process, intramural quality management, socio-pragmatics, performative act, communicative, silence, classroom management, Teacher's classroom language, Teacher's responsibilities and criticism, evaluation of teacher's performance. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Language, Literature and Education.


Media Promotion:


Occupational stress of school teachers occupied scholars in the second half of the 20th century, mainly due to its impact on their mental and physical health, aiming at its effective management. It was stressed that since teachers have taken on a humanitarian profession, they experience stressful situations ending up in work exhaustion. The purpose of the research was to examine the perceptions of primary education teachers on what causes the burnout syndrome, as well as the steps taken by the principal to cope it. The objective of the research was to examine the teachers' perceptions concerning both their burnout level and their principal's attitude as well as his/her leadership contribution to school effectiveness. The research was carried out between February 2019 and April 2019 using an anonymous self-completing questionnaire. All teachers working in school units, regardless of their specialty, were selected from the schools belonging to the Regional Unit of Kavala in Greece. A random number was assigned to each unit, which was then recorded in a statistical table. From this particular table, thirty numbers were randomly selected representing thirty different schools, irrespective of their location and organisation. The sample of the research consists of 324 Primary Education teachers. The findings revealed that teachers do not feel professionally or emotionally exhausted due to their profession, but instead they feel creative, believe that their goals are achieved and are willing to carry out their educational work - duty. Furthermore, as far as the feeling of personal achievement and satisfaction that teachers feel is concerned, both the attitude of the principal and his/her contribution to the effectiveness of the educational leadership seem to play an important role.

Lifelong Learning: Challenges and Principles

Stefan Cronholm

Current Research in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 1, 9 November 2021, Page 14-40

Aim/Purpose: The concept of lifelong learning has attracted a lot of interest for several years. One reason is the rapid development of digital technology. The purpose of this paper is to create knowledge supporting the development of education for lifelong learning.

Background: On meeting the growing demand for lifelong learning, universities face several challenges. One challenge is that the curriculum seldom is designed for lifelong learning. At the same time, several universities want to be attractive education partners for adult students with work experiences. There is a lack of normative and prescriptive support that can guide the development of education concerning lifelong learning.

Methodology: Design science research, interviews, grounded theory and root-cause analysis.

Contribution:    Contribution to practice: A master program in Information Systems that supports lifelong learning. Contribution to theory: Advancements on design knowledge that can guide the development of education programs concerning rapid advancements in digital technology.

Findings: Five design principles: consider rapid development of digital technology, balance time-consuming bureaucratic procedures with companies’ demands for speedy access to new modern courses, simplify procedures for students applying with work experience qualifications, implement plans for competence development of teachers, and base courses on rigour and relevance. The main conclusion is that the rapid technological development causes universities to face a strategic imperative to broaden access to lifelong learning. We can also conclude that close academic-practitioner collaboration will support the design of lifelong learning.

Impact on Society: Lifelong learning improves social inclusion, active citizenship, personal development, competitiveness, and employability.

Future Research: Further validation of the design principles in order to create knowledge that can support the development of education for lifelong learning.

Integrated Approach and Teamwork among Students in a University Educational Setting: Reflecting the Collaborative Bonding Akin to a Malaysian “Keluarga”

Shahril Bin Mohamed Haniffa, Srikumar Chakravarthi, Barani Karikalan

Current Research in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 1, 9 November 2021, Page 41-46

Medical education in the current century warrants extensive multidisciplinary problem solving skills, just like multiple members in a Malaysian Keluarga (family in Bahasa Melayu) join together to solve problems in daily life, that ensure delivering cost-effective quality health care. Yet medical schools seem to be still educating their medical and health sciences students in a segregated fashion with little or no interaction with the other healthcare disciplines. In order to try to address this problem, MAHSA University and Perdana University introduced their medical students to a range of allied health professionals they are likely to team up with during patient care in future. These health care professions included nursing, biomedical science, pharmacy, psychology, from MAHSA University and occupational therapy from Perdana University. During a two hour teaching session, a simulated case-based approach was used to increase medical school students' awareness of the significance of multidisciplinary interaction and collaboration. Faculty from each of the disciplines facilitated the session by giving a brief note of their profession, including their scope of practice and academic requirements and, then proceeded to guide the students in solving issues related to patient care of the case presented. Participants were asked to answer a brief 12-item feedback survey questionnaire at the end of the session to evaluate the experience. Even though this was only a short, explorative project, feedback survey results indicated that participants were able to understand the importance of other healthcare professions in overall patient care, and also understood when to refer to and collaborate with these professions. Outcomes from this pilot project can help in optimizing future initiatives of this type.

Learning Media of Pakakala Boardgame Can Increase Student Learning Motivation

Kamaruddin Hasan, Zaid Zainal, Suhadjerah .

Current Research in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 1, 9 November 2021, Page 47-55

This study aims to develop a learning media in the form of boardgame Learning Media (Optional Board and Career Cards) to improve students’ career knowledge in a fun, interactive and active learning under. This research uses Research and Development Method, with The phases in this research consist of; (1) product analysis, (2) developing products, (3) validation and revision, (4) play-trials and final products. Data collection techniques using interviews and questionnaires. Feasibility check and assessment by theory expert, learning media expert and users using Likert scale with the value used are 5 to 1. The results of the validation by theory expert get score 5 with a very worthy category, while the validation by media expert gets score 4.89 with the very worthy category. Whereas in the usage test by users or students and teacher response as an education practitioner showed very worthy category with scores 4.53 and 5 respectively. Learning media supposed to be more interactive and attracted for students in case to gain their learning experience. The researchers succeeded in developing a game based learning in boardgame type to extend the way teacher in primary school teaching. As a result, the developed pakakala boardgame for year 4 students at SDN 84 Parepare  is suitable to use in teaching theme 4 concerning various occupations.

In the Israeli society, English language is considered a prestigious language and a gateway to higher education [1]. The high status accorded to English acquisition by the Israeli community can lead to parental pressure for English instruction at home, and a willingness to pay extra for private lessons to improve proficiency [2]. In this article, I analyze the association between English teaching as a profession and the social status of female Palestinian-Israeli English teachers.

In particular, I examine how these English teachers experience their social status in their work contexts and communities, and their profession’s relation to economic independence and professional development. The research sample was composed of 12 Palestinian-Israeli women who are English teachers at three schools in the Northern Triangle in Israel. The main tool used in this qualitative research was the semi-structured oral interview. By analyzing the women's talk, I found that being an English teacher played a significant role in raising the social status of the investigated teachers. Additionally, it helped them create a professional identity, and positively affected them economically and psychologically. An important point highlighted in this study is that perseverance, a strong will, and self-confidence can enable a woman to overcome her inferior status in Palestinian-Israeli society.

Perception of Nigerians on Integrating Distance E-Learning into the Nigerian Education Curriculum

Zubaida Hassan, Aisha Shitu Sai’d, Adamu Mohammed Hassan

Current Research in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 1, 9 November 2021, Page 75-85

COVID-19 Pandemic leads to closure of schools in a bit to curtail and contain the outbreak in Nigeria. However, this has resulted in a complete halt to formal education which primarily affects the teachers, students, and parents. The objective of the study was to investigate the views of Nigerians on integrating distance e-learning into the Nigerian education curriculum. Distance e-learning, the alternative learning method adopted in many countries to rescue formal education, suffers in Nigeria. The significance of distance e-learning and its positive impact on learners’ academic achievements cannot be overstated, especially at a higher level of education. Nigeria has the experience of using distance e-learning, for example, the National Open University of Nigeria`s academic programs (both undergraduate and postgraduate).  Nigerians are ready to adapt this learning method as a viable option during any emergency in the country. However, there are many concerns about accepting the learning method. These include recognition of the certificate obtained, and the access to infrastructures needed: computers, printers, scanners, internet etc. The country shall leverage the successes recorded by the National Open University of Nigeria to integrate distance e-learning into the National curriculum. Policymakers, especially in the education sector, shall provide the enabling environment (policies and infrastructures) needed to integrate distance e-learning into the Nigerian educational curriculum. The motivation and reward system shall be institutionalised at all levels to encourage adequate participation of stakeholders. This chapter highlights new insights for policymakers to ensure successful adaption and integration of distance e-learning into the Nigerian curriculum.

The Condition of Intensive Formation of Metacognitive Skills in Elementary School

Anatoly Zak

Current Research in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 1, 9 November 2021, Page 86-100

Metacognitive skills associated with reflexive actions in solving problems are an essential condition for the successful mastering of school programs and a strong indicator of the intellectual development of primary school-aged children. The purpose of this empirical research is to study the influence of the author’s program of non-educational content, “Reflexion 1”, on the formation of reflexive actions in solving problems for children aged 9 years. In addition, it was important to find out the capabilities of younger students in solving cryptoarithmetic problems. Thirty-two classes were conducted (once a week, outside school hours) with the experimental group of students from September to May, according to the specified program. The results show that the lessons in the “Reflexion 1” program contribute to a significant increase in the number of children aged 9 years with substantial reflexive actions in solving problems.

Determining the Concept “Theory of Education Management Process” at the Level of Intramural Quality Management

N. K. Karpova, V. I. Mareev, N. P. Petrova, A. P. Uvarovsky

Current Research in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 1, 9 November 2021, Page 101-114

The paper presents original methodology for the concept of "theory of education management process." The concept's yardstick is innovation. The scope of the concept "theory of education management process" of an innovative character is covered in this article. As part of the research, the authors define the terms "innovation," "innovative process," "innovative management," and "modernization." Under modernization conditions, the concept "theory of education management process" is represented by a set of interconnected components-processes characterised by the modern education development strategy. The theory of education management method is described as an analogue model of certain strategies/tactics of modern education development. Theory of education management process can be considered methodological premises for conceptual model of intramural quality management in higher educational establishments. The study provides a logic matrix of a conceptual model of management in higher education, reflecting a strategic approach to quality in education. The authors provide an outline of the system of principles for adjusting the functioning of the quality management model in modern Russian higher educational institutions.

The complexity of human language as a semiotic system has led to considerable debates about linguistic expressions in conversational discourse and in particular on the various forms of silence or a pause as a communicative act in narrative texts. This debate largely reflects contrasting views on non-verbal utterances and their meaning in speech. Where verbal language is often used, the non-verbal aspect is regarded as inarticulate and uncommunicative. However, Asong Linus, in his novel ‘The Crown of Thorns’ [1], makes effective use of the various forms of silence as a more powerful style of expression than words. Few writers have succeeded to use this technique of communicative silence effectively the way Asong Linus does in this novel, to develop the plot, characters and his craftsmanship. The aim of this paper to highlight on the significance of silence as an effective tool in communication that is no less powerful than speech or writing. It attempts to demonstrate how verbal language sometimes fails to communicate and that silence becomes a more effective communicative means in conveying otherwise profound relevant thoughts and emotions. Silence, pauses and hesitation forms become complementary alternative for verbal language. The study of how one can say and mean a lot by not uttering a word and, yet create a greater impact is the objective of this investigation. Pragmatics paves the way of understanding how language is used in context and more precisely the way context can influence our understanding of certain linguistic utterances. To achieve this end, various forms of non-verbal communicative silence acts were collected after several readings of the novel, examined, and analysed in order to highlight their significance in different instances of use described as communicative acts.

Particular focus is on instances of silence, the short and long pauses employed by some major characters to communicate deep seated reality and emotions. To analyse this data, a combination of theories could be relevant, notably, the Critical Discourse Analysis, Sperber, Wilson’s Relevance (RT) theory, and Austin’s Speech Act (SA) theory, have proven adequate and useful approaches capable of handling and understanding how members of the Nweh community use silence, pauses and hesitation as linguistic utterances to effectively communicate deep feelings within the Nweh social and cultural contexts. After the analysis, several findings can be highlighted, notably, that silence and/or pauses as a stylistic device reveal the psychological state of speakers and demonstrate either awkwardness, appalling, embarrassment, defense, uncertainty and fear associated with deep feelings of frustration, anxiety, as well as a barrier that shuts down communication, but equally move the conversational objectives forward establishing confidence, comfort, reflection, a degree of peace, respect, and self-mastery on the part of the respondent. In conclusion, communicative silence is a helpful tool to shroud intentionality, and by being silent, the speaker expresses another kind of emotional reality, thoughts, empathy promoting and maintaining the existing social relationship. It further reveals that faced with new challenges, silence comes in spontaneously as a response that gives a speaker the chance to reflect in order to provide an appropriate response, and insure that what is said and done is on target, intelligent, and useful. In this text, silence speaks louder than words.

Classroom Management: The Effective Roles of EFL Teacher

Mohammed Hassan Abdel Rahman Ibrahim

Current Research in Language, Literature and Education Vol. 1, 9 November 2021, Page 146-160

Classroom management is one of the most difficult challenges for EFL teachers. Difficulties including unclear instructions, lack of activities for kinesthetic students, time constraints, different learners' levels and discussing topics irrelevant to the lesson could reduce students' learning abilities. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effective roles of EFL teacher in classroom management and the learners' achievement in El-Ula Branch, Taibah University. Teacher's roles take account of teacher's classroom language, teacher's responsibilities and the criticism and the evaluation of teacher's performance. The study asserted that the teacher who makes great activation of his roles in the classroom tends to be the top and the most first factor that improves classroom management and enriches students knowledge. The study employed a quantitative research design. A total of 25 English teachers (18 males and 7 females) were selected from El Ula Branch, Taibah University and a questionnaire was prepared and given to teachers to identify their views about the importance of teacher's roles on classroom management. To analyze the data, graphs were used for teacher's language, responsibilities and performance and the tables were designed for correlations among items. The study findings revealed that the teacher's successful roles had made remarkable progress in classroom management and students' learning achievements.