Dr. Triki Mohamed Amine,
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery,  Sahloul University Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia.

ISBN 978-93-5547-707-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-712-5 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/codhr/v2

This book covers key areas of Disease and Health Research. The contributions by the authors include L-thyroxin, ovary, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, testis, Enteric fever, Acalculous cholecystitis, Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, Ultrasonography, hemoculture, Widal test, Blood glucose, euglycaemia, eumetabolism, dysmetabolism, diabetes, chronic stress, Clavicle, nutrient foramen, foramen index, sternal end, bone grafting, Bladder cancer, thermotherapy, non-muscle invasive, chemohyperthermia, recirculating, intravesical chemotherapy, Exfoliative buccal mucosa cells, exfoliative cytology, buccal micronucleus cytome, buccal epithelial cells, cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay, antibiotic sensitivity, histology, clarithromycin , levofloxacin, Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions, cyclosporine,  CUSCORE method, Bernoulli CUSUM,  COVID-19, Parkinson’s disease, neurological symptoms, neurodegeneration, Parkinsonism prevention, Ionizing radiation, radioprotection, chromosomal aberration, cytochalasin-B blocked micronuclei, histamine H2 receptor antagonist, famotidine, ranitidine, human lymphocytes,  Arterial Blood Gas , and  chronic disease. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Disease and Health Research.

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Can Thyroid Gland Impact Your Fertility?

Ehab Tousson, Manal Elbandrawy

Current Overview on Disease and Health Research Vol. 2, 18 July 2022, Page 1-13

Thyroid disease is the second most common endocrine condition in human of childbearing age. It has since been largely confirmed that significant associations do exist between thyroid disorders and abnormalities of the reproductive system: both primary hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in males and females have been well documented to produce variable degrees of gonadal dysfunction (oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, lack of sperms or infertility). Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism both affect testicular functions and influence neuroendocrine regulations over reproductive functions via the crosstalk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The alterations in the male reproductive hormonal milieu by thyroid hormones may lead to reduced testosterone levels and deterioration of semen quality. Thyroid disorders are involved in the control of menstrual cycle and in achieving infertility affecting the actions of follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) on steroid biosynthesis by specific triiodothyronine (T3) sites on oocytes, therefore affect all aspects of reproduction.

Usefulness of Sonography in Enteric Fever of Paediatrics Age Group in India

B. B. Sharma, Shashi Sharma , Monu Dewan , Kumar Raju , . Pradhuman , . Gagandeep , Mansi Sheoran , Surabhi Lathwal , . Tushant

Current Overview on Disease and Health Research Vol. 2, 18 July 2022, Page 14-28

The present study was aimed at elucidating the usefulness of ultrasonography (USG) over the routine Widal test, Typhi dot IgM and hemoculture in the diagnosis of enteric fever. The study included 100 paediatric patients ranging in age from one to fifteen years. All of them had enteric fever, which was confirmed by typhi dot-IgM tests in the hospital's paediatric department. The purpose of the USG was to assess the relevant findings. Blood samples for CBC, LFT and blood culture were taken on the same day as that of USG evaluation. USG evaluation of confirmed enteric fever cases revealed that 25% had gall bladder findings, 23% had hepato-splenomegaly, 11% had hepatomegaly, 1% had enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and 3% had thickened caecum wall and ileocaecal junction. Many abnormalities associated to enteric fever can be diagnosed by USG, which is beneficial in initiating early therapy. Hemoculture and other tests may cause treatment to be delayed, resulting in a variety of problems.

More Reliable Approach than Blood Glucose Value is Needed in Assessment of Cell Metabolism

Kornel Simon, Istvan Wittmann

Current Overview on Disease and Health Research Vol. 2, 18 July 2022, Page 29-47

We studied the relationship between blood glucose values and metabolic states in various pathological conditions. In clinical guidelines, near-normoglycaemia is recommended as the basic therapeutic target in diabetes mellitus. This proposal suggests that euglycaemia is associated with eumetabolism and that hyperglycaemia is an indicator of dysmetabolism. The authors conclude that the blood glucose value can only be accepted as a general metabolic parameter with marked limitations. The main points of this statement are that euglycemia is not always associated with eumetabolism and that acute hyperglycemia is not always associated with dysmetabolism. Different biochemical energy-producing mechanisms associated with identical blood glucose levels can support identical cell metabolic performance. At the same blood glucose level, both positive and negative metabolic balance of cell metabolism can occur. The acute stress state can be characterized by normal or elevated blood glucose values. This means that the increased metabolic activity is not reflected by the simultaneous frequently normal blood glucose measurements, i.e., there is no mandatory association between the actual blood glucose value and the metabolic state. Another finding is that chronic hyperglycemia acts as both a marker and a cause of dysmetabolism; thus, achieving near normoglycemia remains the primary therapeutic goal in diabetes treatment. Insulin administration can have a positive impact on dysmetabolic states of various origins. The central role of chronic stress in the evolution and interrelationships of various dysmetabolic states is emphasised. The transporter nature of blood glucose values substantiates discrepancies between blood glucose values and cellular metabolism; this value reflects the result of bidirectional glucose movement into and out of tissues.

Neurovascular Foramina of the Human Clavicle: Clinical Significance and diagnosis

Sreepreeti Champatyray, Sarthak Ranjan Nayak , Tapaswini Mishra, Saurjya Ranjan Das

Current Overview on Disease and Health Research Vol. 2, 18 July 2022, Page 48-58

The present study aims to determine the number, position, direction, of nutrient foramen and the foraminal index. The clavicle is a bone in the upper limb that distributes body weight to the axial skeleton. One nutrition foramen is usually situated on the shaft of the clavicle, away from the developing end, and permits the major nutrient artery to flow through. The vascularized clavicle is primarily used in joint allograft and bone grafting procedures.

The current study was conducted on 62 clavicles of unidentified age and sex, out of them, 34 belong to right and 28 belong to left side. The bones were collected from the museum of Department of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, IMS and SUM HOSPITAL, Bhubaneswar, India. The number, location and direction of nutrient foramina was documented and compared with the investigations done by the preceding authors. Mean foramen index was calculated by applying Hughes formula.

Total 92 nutrient foramina were observed in 62 bones. Out of them single foramina was detected in 42 (67.74%) and double foramina in 12 (19.35%). More than 2 nutrient foramina were found in 8 (12.89%) clavicles. Location of the foramina was more common on posterior surface (76%) than on the inferior surface (24%). 65.21% of the foramina were present in middle 1/3rd of the clavicle. All are directed away from the growing end of the bones. Our study shows the average distance of the foramen from the sternal end was 67.9mm and the mean foramen index was 53.80.

Conclusion: For vascularized bone grafts, internal fixation placement, and microsurgical vascularized bone transplantation, nutritional foramina must be recognized. During radiation therapy, it also maintains vascular supply. The study will also give an idea to the biomedical engineers for designing the clavicle bone model. Understanding of the nutrient foramina is also requisite to the vascularity during radiation therapy.

A Current and Future Perspective on Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Recirculating Chemohyperthermia as a Treatment for Intermediate-High Risk NMIBC

Juan Leon-Mata, Daniel Sousa-Gonzalez, Maria Alvarez-Casal, Javier Flores-Carbajal, Alejandro Sousa-Escandón

Current Overview on Disease and Health Research Vol. 2, 18 July 2022, Page 59-74

Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) accounts for around 75% of all bladder cancer diagnoses, with more than half of them relapsing following transurethral resection of the bladder tumour. Adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy with mitomycin C (MMC) and immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) are traditionally used to prevent recurrences. Unfortunately, many patients relapse after getting these treatments, and a large percentage of them will require surgery. T1G3 tumours had a risk of advancement of over 19 percent after one to three years of BCG maintenance. To improve the effectiveness of adjuvant intravesical therapy, many innovative treatment techniques are being researched. Chemohyperthermia (CHT), a combination of intravesical chemotherapy and hyperthermia, is one of the newer treatments for intermediate and high-risk NMIBC. The objective of this article is to review the mechanism of action, current status and indications, results and future perspectives of recirculating chemohyperthermia as a treatment for intermediate-high risk NMIBC.

The study is aimed to investigate and compare the baseline frequency of the micronucleus in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells (BE cells) and peripheral blood lymphocytes of the same subjects in random human population of nuclear research centre. The need of the hour is for a noninvasive way to evaluate radiation and mutagen exposure. The buccal epithelial micronuclei assay was assessed for this purpose by monitoring staff of our nuclear research centre, those who came in for their annual medical examination. The micronucleus assay is a sensitive indicator that measures chromosomal breakage, damage, and loss. . A study was undertaken for evaluating 50 random individuals working in nuclear research centre, to compare baseline micronuclei frequency in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells and lymphocyte micronuclei. Buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMNcyt) and blood lymphocyte cytokinesis blocked micronuclei assay (CBMN) was performed on slides stained with Geimsa’s stain. We report the mean frequency of spontaneous micronuclei in buccal epithelial cells and blood lymphocytes. The mean Frequency of micronuclei (MN) observed in buccal epithelial cells of females 0.99 ± 0.21 ‰ (range 0.09 to 2.92) and of males 0.49 ± 0.10 ‰ (range 0.00 to 2.06). MN frequency in buccal epithelial cells was 0.66 ± 0.10 ‰ (range 0.00 to 2.92). The MN frequencies in human peripheral blood lymphocytes of same donors were found to be 8.61 ± 0.10 ‰ (range 3.00 to 17.00) in females and 9.15 ± 1.00 ‰ (range 3.00 to 22.00) in males. A total MN frequency in cytokinesis blocked lymphocytes was 8.96 ± 0.73 ‰ Bi-nucleated (BN) cells (Range: 3.00 to 22.00). The observed baseline frequency of spontaneous micronuclei in buccal epithelial cell and in human peripheral blood lymphocytes are correlating. Therefore  buccal epithelial cell micronuclei are a good noninvasive bio-monitoring assay.

Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Helicobacter pylori in Dyspeptic Patients in Kano, Nigeria

Ahmad K. Bello, Mohammad M. Borodo , Ahmad M. Yakasai , Abubakar D. Tukur

Current Overview on Disease and Health Research Vol. 2, 18 July 2022, Page 91-113

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are common and believed to infect half of the world’s population. H. pylori eradication dramatically affects the natural history of peptic ulcer and gastric lymphoma; however, antibiotic resistance is recognised increasingly as a contributing factor in a number of patients who fail H. pylori eradication therapy. Numerous diseases associated with H. pylori have been well established; therefore it is important that the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of H. pylori be evaluated to allow for effective eradication of the organism in appropriate patient population. Questionnaires were administered to obtain relevant biodata. During endoscopy gastric biopsy specimens were obtained and cultured using Columbia blood agar media (Oxoid Ltd, England) incubated at 37°C for H. pylori identification. The sensitivity pattern of isolates was assessed using the disc diffusion method. Each patient's pre- and post-treatment stool samples were taken for the H. pylori faecal antigen test to determine the eradication rate. H. pylori was 100% sensitive to levofloxacin and clarithromycin, but only 9.2% sensitive to amoxicillin. Other tested antibiotics were found to be 100% resistant. The prevalence of H. pylori was 81.7% using histology. This study revealed a significant amoxicillin resistance rate; however, clarithromycin and levofloxacin exhibited high sensitivity (100 %). We suggested that levofloxacin be adopted in preference to amoxicillin as part of triple therapy for H. pylori eradiation in Nigeria.

Cyclosporine – in the Management of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions

V. Anandan, Afthab Jameela Wahab , P. S. Mohana Sundari, Yoga Nandhini, Ragini Rajan

Current Overview on Disease and Health Research Vol. 2, 18 July 2022, Page 114-127

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of cyclosporine in treating Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (sCADR). A three-year retrospective study was conducted in department of dermato-venereo-leprology at a tertiary care centre in South India. Twenty patients who met the inclusion criteria (one DRESS, ten SJS, and nine TEN patients) were chosen for the study out of the 34 in-patients who experienced adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The offending drug(s) were withheld, routine investigations were conducted, and the severity was evaluated based on SCORTEN. Fixed drug eruption and TEN with multiorgan failure were also excluded. Dexamethasone injections at a dose of 1 mg/kg per day were used to start the course of treatment. If not contraindicated, oral cyclosporine was administered at a dose of 100 mg daily for two weeks, decreased by 50 mg/week, and discontinued once the lesions had healed in those who had not responded well in three days. The average number of stabilisation days, the rate of cutaneous re-epithelialization, and the length of hospitalisation were used to evaluate cyclosporine's effectiveness. Patients stabilised more quickly with the use of cyclosporine, and re-epithelialization happened sooner; concurrent treatment with steroids assisted with the early tapering of steroid dose. The length of the hospital stay and the recovery period were reduced. There was no mortality associated with cyclosporine, and there was no apparent toxicity.

A Brief Overview on Surveillance Methods for the Rare Health Events

Sasikumar Ramaraj, Bangusha Devi Subramanian

Current Overview on Disease and Health Research Vol. 2, 18 July 2022, Page 128-137

There is a problem for monitoring the incidence rate of an event of interest where the baseline probability of the event is small arises in industrial, medical and other fields. There are only few statistical methods for use in formal approaches to the problem of the investigation of rare health events. The CUSUM method, which was used to spot tiny shifts in the process, is the foundation of the most well-known surveillance procedures, with the exception of the first quality control chart introduced by Shewhart. However, this graph fails to show a rise in rate when the event's baseline probability is extremely low. Some of the other methods were developed to carry out this problem like Sets method, CUSCORE (Cumulative Score) method and CUSUM (Cumulative Sum) method based on Bernoulli distribution. A detailed review of these three methods in the field of health science discussed with the help of earlier literatures and also the role of essential of these methods in the same field are discussed.

Apart from common respiratory symptoms, neurological symptoms are prevalent among patients with COVID-19. Research has shown that infection with SARS-CoV-2 accelerated alpha-synuclein aggregation, induced Lewy-body-like pathology, caused dopaminergic neuron senescence, and worsened symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). In addition, SARS-CoV-2 infection can induce neuroinflammation and facilitate subsequent neurodegeneration in long COVID, and increase individual vulnerability to PD or parkinsonism. These findings suggest that a post-COVID-19 parkinsonism might follow the current COVID-19 pandemic. To prevent a possible post-COVID-19 parkinsonism, this paper reviewed neurological symptoms and related findings of COVID-19, related infectious diseases (influenza, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and prion disease) and neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer’s disease, PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis), and discussed potential mechanisms underlying the neurological symptoms and the relationship between the infectious diseases and the neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the therapeutic and preventive implications in neurodegenerative disorders. Infections with a relay of microbes (SARS-CoV-2, influenza A viruses, gut bacteria, etc.) and alpha-synuclein “prions” over time may synergize to induce PD. Therefore, a systematic approach that targets these pathogens and the pathogen-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration may provide cures for neurodegenerative disorders. Further, antiviral/antimicrobial drugs, vaccines, immunotherapies and new therapies (e.g., stem cell therapy) need to work together to treat, manage or prevent these disorders. As medical science and technology advances, it is anticipated that better vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 variants, new antiviral/antimicrobial drugs, effective immunotherapies (alpha-synuclein antibodies, vaccines for PD or parkinsonism, etc.), as well as new therapies will be developed and made available in the near future, which will help prevent a possible post-COVID-19 parkinsonism in the 21st century.

The present study is conducted using metaphase chromosome for chromosome aberration and micronuclei analysis in order to examine the radioprotective effects of histamine H2 receptor antagonists on gamma rays induced clastogenic effects in vitro on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Histamine H2 receptor antagonists are used to treat peptic ulcers in the clinic. Famotidine and Ranitidine were tested for their influence on 60Cobalt gamma-ray generated clastogenic effects using in vitro metaphase analysis and micronucleus assays. Six healthy participants provided heparinised whole blood, which was then gamma irradiated with 3Gy. In the present investigation, evaluation of radioprotective effects of Histamine H2 receptor antagonists is comprehensively investigated; Famotidine and Ranitidine on gamma-ray induced chromosome aberration and Micronuclei in vitro in human lymphocytes of six donors. Lymphocyte cultures were initiated and aqueous solution of Famotidine (150µg/ml) & Ranitidine (500µg/ml) was added at 0h and 24h. Cultures were harvested & processed at 48h & 72h for chromosome aberrations and micronucleus analysis respectively. At 0h & 24h after 3Gy gamma irradiation, cultures treated with Famotidine & Ranitidine independently showed significant decrease (p < 0.0001) in the frequency of chromosome aberration. At 0h & 24h Famotidine induced 60.91% & 56.42% inhibition in dicentrics & 59.39% & 56.21% inhibition was observed in total aberrations where as Ranitidine induce 52.11% & 43.54% inhibition in dicentrics and 53.06% & 46.66% inhibition in total aberrations at 0h & 24h. Significant decrease in the frequency of micronuclei was observed with Famotidine treatment after 3Gy of gamma irradiation, which induced inhibition of 48.83% (p < 0.0001) at 0hr & 5.02% (p < 0.016) at 24h. Reduction of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the lymphocytes treated with Famotidine and Ranitidine at 0h and 24h after irradiation with gamma ray (3Gy) indicate that drugs might reduce the clastogenic effect of radiation via radical scavenging mechanism and famotidine is more effective than the ranitidine – histamine H2 receptor antagonists studied. Radio protective effects of Histamine H2 receptor antagonists Famotidine and Ranitidine was observed on exposure to gamma-ray.

COVID-19 Infection as a Chronic Disease: Factors and Medication Perspectives

Mario G. Balzanelli, Pietro Distratis, Rita Lazzaro, Angelo Cefalo, Giuseppe D’angela, Orrazio Catucci, Davide Palaz- zo, Felice Amatulli, Diego Tomassone , Van H. Pham, Sergey Aityan, Ciro Isacco Gargiulo, Kieu C. D. Nguyen

Current Overview on Disease and Health Research Vol. 2, 18 July 2022, Page 199-203

Although extremely transmissible due to its highly infectious nature, because a vast percentage of cases are asymptomatic or moderate, self-awareness facilitates the disease's global spread. To avoid the two viruses infecting each other, public health measures against the Corona virus should minimise the number of persons afflicted with influenza. The successful combination of using antiretroviral therapy and antibiotics in several inflammation in multi organs with supportive therapiesin this case report in region Puglia ASL Taranto, PPI 118- emergency department and pneumonia department in SaintGiuseppe Moscati hospital, Taranto - Italy todevelop achronic disease care model for “POST-COVID-19 “and taking epidemic preventing action for the winter season 2020 is coming. The symptoms associated with acute respiratory failure was confirmed by X-Ray and lung CT scan positive with bilateral ground glass opacity that showed a significant increase in alveolar capillary permeability and subsequent interstitial edema. It was confirmed pulmonary embolism located with a chronic diffuse bronchopathy with emphysematous configurations. It was observed in the right lung the presence of extensive areas of parenchymal consolidation, irregularly distributed, mainly affecting the lower lobe and the apical and dorsal segments of the upper lobe.

Yoga and PTSD: Improving Emotion-Regulation

Jennifer N. Ross, Jerrilyn Cambron

Current Overview on Disease and Health Research Vol. 2, 18 July 2022, Page 204-219

This narrative review presents a high-level overview of the beneficial properties derived by practicing yoga, the specific physiological challenges associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the medically significant relationship between yoga, PTSD diagnosis and PTSD symptoms as evidenced by published medical studies.
Yoga practice is shown to improve emotion-regulation and decrease avoidance and emotional suppression. Yoga participants with PTSD show an improved ability to manage intense emotions while remaining focused on the present moment. These enhanced capabilities reduce the conditioned fear response, which is considered a crucial development in eliminating post-traumatic stress disorder.
The focus of this review is primarily placed on a 10-week randomized control trial, 20-week case-series, and two long-term follow-up studies. These qualitative and quantitative studies specifically evaluate the effects of trauma-sensitive yoga practice on treatment-resistant PTSD. The three quantitative studies vary in treatment length and result in statistically significant outcomes. Special emphasis is placed on yoga practice frequency and duration in relation to the symptoms and diagnosis of treatment-resistant PTSD.
Given that traditional treatment models for PTSD have high drop-out rates and can contribute to symptom worsening, the promising results shown by yoga treatment for complex post-traumatic stress disorder are particularly notable and worthy of further research.