Dr. Essam A. Makky
Associate Professor,
Faculty of Industrial Sciences & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Malaysia.

ISBN 978-93-91312-29-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91312-30-5 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/castr/v6

This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include postcolonialism, alienation, retributive justice,, colonization, carbohydrates, progenitor cells, oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, inter-molecular interactions and cascade regulatory pathways, channel modeling, routing protocols, channel flexibility, wireless body area network, biofilm, microliter plate assay, absorption, macronutrients, digestive tract, enterocytes, freshwater fish conservation, species distribution model, eco morphological study, protected area network, energy consumption, global warming, heating and cooling, machine learning, back-propagation artificial neural network, radial basis neural network, two-tailed student’s t-test, average ranking listening, auditory perception, auditory cognition, audio based learning, podcast, visual communication, visual resource, perceptual psychology, biogenic amines, multi-parametric sensor, food quality, food safety, lane changing behavior, lane utilization, driver behaviour. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology research.


Media Promotion:


Postcolonial Concerns of Africans in “The Gentlemen of the Jungle”

Edward Owusu

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 10 June 2021, Page 1-6

After Africans attained independence from their former colonial masters, one big question arises: ‘What is the new identity? Currently, most Africans are faced with several instances of cultural clash because they are too much exposed to the colonizer’s way of life. The identity of most Africans is gradually eroded as there is proliferation of Westernization. This paper employs Jomo Kenyatta’s short story, ‘The Gentlemen of the Jungle’, by examining the main theme, postcolonialism, from four sub-perspectives – alienation and exclusion, retributive justice, the colonizer’s language as a tool of dominance, and double standard and abuse of power. The significance of this paper is to facilitate the shaping of new identities in African communities after extermination of colonialism and European imperialism. The paper is structured into four main parts – introduction, the method, the themes, and the conclusion.

Investigating the Practices of Supplements as Performance Enhancing Substances among Kenyan Elite Middle and Long Distance Runners

Elizabeth Mse, Edwin K. Wamukoya, Roselyne A. Odiango, Victor O. Ashiali

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 10 June 2021, Page 7-16

Research has demonstrated that elite athletes use supplements to enhance performance. The purpose of the study was to assess the current practices on the use of banned substances among elite athletes. The study hypothesized that there would be no significant difference in the use of supplements by Kenyan elite middle and long distance runners. This study was guided by the descriptive survey research design. The target population consisted of 1960 elite athletes registered with Athletics Kenya (AK), coaches and managers. Stratified sampling technique gave 600 participants based on age and gender. Data was collected using a questionnaire that featured WADA Code 2011. ANOVA and Independent T-test determined statistical significance level at p< 0.05. Results revealed that most athletes consumed supplements containing carbohydrates and proteins. There were no marked differences in overall practices in the use of supplements by Kenyan elite distance athletes at p>305. Hence, the null hypothesis was retained. This study recommended a balanced diet to meet the needs of elite athletes and further research on gender and experience of athletes.

Investigations on the biology of the stem cells are directed particularly on their self-renewal and differentiation abilities. These features give possibilities for application of the stem cells in different fields of medical practice, for various regenerative procedures, taking in consideration their capability to differentiate to respective mature cellular lineages. For prevention of malignant cellular transformation on the one hand, as well as of degenerative changes on the other, of key importance is balanced activity between oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, as well as of the protein products, coded by genes of the two types, on both cellular and organism levels, in in vitro- and in vivo-conditions. It is important, however, the functions of the oncogenes and coded by them oncoproteins, to be activated by ways, by which to be escaped eventual neo-plastic cellular transformations and metastatic process, respectively, by generation, for instance, of adequate anti-malignant immune response on the influence of the protein products of oncogenes in their role of active antigens. Analogically, the functions of tumor-suppressor genes and coded by them proteins, to be activated by ways, by which, besides tumor-suppressor functions, they also protect against various degenerative processes (instead activating them, which is characteristic for the most of them in the ageing process). For this goal, as very important is proved bounded small ions and/or molecules to respective tumor-suppressor protein. In this way, the so bounded small ions and molecules could help of the respective tumor-suppressor protein to suppress the functions of unlocking degenerative processes bio-molecules, by various intra- and extra-cellular inter-molecular interactions and cascade regulatory pathways.

A Review of the Channel Modeling Characteristics and Techniques for Body Area Network

Ahmed Mohammed Q. AL-Asadi, Ahmed Ghanim Wadday

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 10 June 2021, Page 34-50

Human voxel phantoms communications presently a committed fielded for wireless body area network (WBAN). Channel flexibility and characteristics depend on the required environments and the situations of the body. There are many challenges to employing the sensors to the patient concerning the telecom techniques during the use of simulation such as the position of antennas on the body surface and inside the human. It causes inaccuracies and uncertainty in the system. There are several numerical solutions convenient for employ in wireless body networks and modeling the simulation. The synopsis of this paper is based on neoteric searches in the techniques used for the WBA communication channel. Routing classification, wireless technologies, advantages, and disadvantages foremost acceptable application techniques are demonstrated and compared.

Evaluation of Biofilm Formation by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SRS05-GRD

Suganthi Ramasamy, M. S. Jebil

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 10 June 2021, Page 51-61

Biofilm formation is triggered by unfavourable external conditions that modify the expression of several genes. Biofilm, in turn, alters the microenvironment of its inhabitants that leads to alteration of gene expression and maturation of biofilm.  Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an aerobic, glucose non-fermentative, Gram-negative bacterium wide spread in the environment. The present study reports the isolation, identification, genotypic and phenotypic characterization, of the Stenotrophomonas strains isolated from the industrial effluent sample and the ability of Stenotrophomonas maltophiliaSRS05-GRD (KF558319) for biofilm formation is evaluated using different substrates and different medium. Based on the graphical representation of optical density values obtained by incorporating various substrates in Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB), glass was found to support high biofilm formation of  Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SRS05-GRD. The results obtained indicate that the commercial media (TSB with glucose and soybean meal at pH 7) shows optimum biofilm formation. This study has, therefore, confirmed the potential of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SRS05-GRD to form biofilm. Optimum medium and dilution of the culture was also determined that yield effective biofilm formation.

Absorption of Macronutrients in Teleost

Sanjeet Debnath, Sangeeta Roy, Surjya Kumar Saikia

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 10 June 2021, Page 62-68

Teleost efficiently uses macronutrients to sustain growth, metabolism and development. Generally, the small and solubilized nutrients that have been released during digestion of compound dietary assets within the digestive lumen are successively transported across the brush border membrane following a concentration gradient either by simple diffusion or by the help of specific transporters that can carry nutrients across the membrane, independent of the concentration gradient. From the enterocytes nutrients subsequently travel across the basolateral membrane to the circulatory system. The aim of the present article is to assemble the existing knowledge under one umbrella focusing on the nutrient transporter systems of the intestinal absorptive enterocytes of different teleost fishes. It was found that the whole digestive tract of the fish was not equally capable of absorbing nutrients. Moreover, there are several internal physiological as well as external chemical and environmental factors that can affect the absorption of macronutrients in teleost.

Threats to Freshwater Fish and Application of Community Ecology Studies in Conservation

Sangeeta Roy, Sanjeet Debnath, Surjya Kumar Saikia

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 10 June 2021, Page 69-76

Freshwater fish species diversity and distribution is comprised of different ecological and geographical factors. Their restricted distribution and limits to dispersal cause spatial isolation and make them more vulnerable in nature than their terrestrial and marine counterparts. The study has shown the role of community ecology, a cross-disciplinary field, in explaining the spatio-temporal structure and dynamics of ecological communities. The knowledge about predicted potential distribution zones and the environmental factors regulating distribution can be used for creating protected areas for freshwater fish conservation. Therefore, scientific information is needed to prioritize the areas for the conservation and restoration of freshwater fish.

A Comprehensive Comparative Analysis of Machine Learning Models for Predicting Heating and Cooling Loads

Eslam Mohammed Abdelkader, Abobakr Al-Sakkaf, Reem Ahmed

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 10 June 2021, Page 77-92

The continuous increase in energy consumption has brought worldwide attention to its significant environmental effect, which is triggered by the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, and rapid climate change. As such, more energy efficient buildings are required to minimize the energy consumption of heating and cooling. The present study introduces a set of machine learning-based models to predict the heating and cooling loads in buildings. This includes back-propagation artificial neural network, generalized regression neural network, radial basis neural network, radial kernel support vector machines and ANOVA kernel support vector machines. The comparisons were conducted as per mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute error (MAE), relative absolute error (RAE), root relative squared error (RRSE) and root-mean squared error (RMSE). The significances of the capacities of the machine learning models are evaluated using two-tailed student’s t-tests. Eventually, a holistic evaluation of the machine learning models is conducted using average ranking algorithm. Results demonstrate that the radial basis function network outperformed the afore-mentioned machine learning models significantly.

Drawbacks of Audiobooks for Learning and Cognition

Milena Tsvetkova

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 10 June 2021, Page 93-107

This study is about the nature and distinctive features of audiobooks, as well as about the effect of listening as a cognitive practice. The paper investigates and analyzes the different aspects and manifestations of audio media features, of radio as a basis for audiobooks, and of radio in terms of its similarity to ear-reading. Research methods: logical approach to prior research on the evolution of radio and audio media, discursive and desktop analysis of documents, studies and monographs on the psychology of auditory perception; systematic review of research into the characteristics of listening for learning and cognition. Three conclusions can be drawn: first, the growing popularity of audio reading materials results from human nostalgia for “hot” media channels and primeval “orality”; second, a key catalyst in the culture pyramid mediamorphoses of the “post-writing era” is radio which, decades earlier than the computer, simply made possible the emergence of radio’s planetary extension – podcasts on the internet; third, auditory reception has minimal effect in learning, i.e. in the process of acquiring new knowledge and skills. The conclusions refer to the need for heightened attention to the promotion of the benefits of audiobooks for improving the quality of the multimodal culture of reading.

Reading Medium with Pictorial Content: An Approach towards Communication Analysis

Milena Tsvetkova

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 10 June 2021, Page 108-122

This study is dedicated to the possibilities offered by reading mediums without textual information, letterless books and picture books. The purpose of the present study is to expand the subject of the science of reading to include alternative reading modalities, i.e. reading beyond the lettered text. The author believes that this is a constructive approach to a broader and more contemporary definition of reading, which corresponds to the present multimodal and transmedia environment. The method of collecting primary data has been applied to 11 empirical objects. The historical examination identified four paradigmatic examples of reading media without textual content: “Les songes drolatiques de Pantagruel” (“The Drolatic Dreams of Pantagruel”), “Mutus Liber”, “Wordless Book” and “Codex Seraphinianus”. In the present study, “mute”, or “silent”, books, eccentric books “for watching”, visual, or picture, books have all been brought together under the umbrella term “silent books”. The cinematographic and storyboard approaches in the “optical” book-making are examples of vindicating the visual communication modality in the art of book publishing. A parallel process takes place in media sciences in which iconicity is emancipated as the object of reading. Just like narratives of lettered text, pictorial narratives too require reading literacy. This is a new, holistic type of literacy, or transliteracy, for communication using texts in multiple modality, with prevalent imagery and iconicity. The review performed has proved that the process of defining a new kind of transliteracy for coping in a polyglotic and transmedia environment must obligatorily extend in the direction of non-letter perception and competence in visual reading. A definition of reading as a receptive process of obtaining information in an indirect (medium-based) way which does not depend on letter symbols or the reader’s visual analyzer has been proposed.

Fast Determination of Biogenic Amines by the Application of Multiparametric Sensor for Food Quality

Giuliana Vinci, Lucia Maddaloni, Sabrina A. Prencipe, Marco Ruggeri

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 10 June 2021, Page 123-130

Food quality and safety are the primary focus of this research in food production. To this purpose, European legislation identifies particular markers that can be used to check healthiness of food for this purpose. Biogenic amines are a class of ubiquitous compounds that can be essential or harmful to human health. They're known as a quality index since they go through qualitative and quantitative changes during the spoiling, processing, and storage of food. The multiparametric sensor proved to be an accurate way for determining specific quality markers. As a result, the goal of this study was to see how a multiparametric liquid sensor could be used to assess the presence of BAs in fish, where Cadaverine, Histamine, and Tyramine have the most impact on the storage period, and in chocolate, where - \(\beta\)-Phenylethylamine (2.7–7.4 mg/Kg) and Tyramine (2.1–12.0 mg/Kg) were the most abundant amines.  

Some Traffic Characteristics of Rural Roads in Iraq

Hamid Athab Al-Jameel, Ali Jihad Kadhim

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 10 June 2021, Page 131-141

Nowadays, modeling traffic characteristics are significant in evaluating traffic facilitates such as normal section, weaving and merging sections. Lane changing and lane utilization are important traffic characteristics that are widely studied. This study therefore is focused on both of these characteristics. The lane-changing behavior affects the capacity and safety of roads. The distribution of vehicles among lanes of roadway is important in terms of different aspects such as safety, traffic management, and even the structural design of roads.  Field data have been collected from different rural roads. Two types of roads were studied; two-lane section and three-lane section. The results of analysis for collected data indicate that the driver behavior is different in terms of lane utilization in Iraq from other countries and the same behavior was found for lane changes also. Compared to other countries, Iraq has the lowest lane utilization and highest frequency of lane changes. These data are urgently needed nowadays for calibrating and validating sophisticated programs such as simulated microscopic programs. These data are significant to mimic the reality for driver behaviors in rural roadways.