Editor(s)

Dr. Anuj Kumar Goel
Associate Professor, Electronics and communication engineering Department, University Institute of Engineering, Chandigarh University, Mohali, Punjab, India.

ISBN 978-93-91215-58-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91215-59-0 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/castr/v3

This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include environmental protection, pollution, trace metals, indicator, heavy metal, township and pollution, Automatic adjustment, compensation method, irradiation, metallic environment, mobile antennas, putrefaction, aborted fetuses, dead young parents, aborted blood, contraceptive menstrual blood, splitting of the earth, spontaneous combustion of environment, mandatory live humans, baby boom, environmental monitoring, Crack detection, image processing, genetic algorithm, deep learning, glycine max, flavonoid, herbivory, mechanical damage, secondary metabolite, atmospheric emissivity, atmospheric radiation, ceilometer, cloud parameterization , imperialism, Minna society's evolution, stratified random sampling with optimum allocation, rural population, forest bioenergy, cloud feedback, pyranometer, pyrgeometer, ventilation system, steady state solution, simulations and probability, E-Commerce, M-Commerce, consumer behavior, semi-Markov process, sales completion time. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology research.

 

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Chapters


Assessment of Trace Metals in the Leaves of Adansonia digitata and Eucalyptus globulus along Dutsinma Road in Batagarawa Local Government Area of Katsina State

A. Fowotade Sulayman, Hamisu Abdu, A. Abdullah Saidu, Fadhila Ahmad, J. Zainab Suleiman, Saleh, Isyaku

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 3, 27 May 2021, Page 1-8
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v3/8343D

Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the burdens of seven trace metals, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Fe, were studied in the leaves of two tree plant species in the region of Batagarawa Local Government Area in Katsina State. The tree plants were Adansonia digitata (Baobab) and Eucalyptus globulus (Gum tree). The results showed the levels of metals (µgg-1 per dry weight) in baobab leaves to be 46.00 (Mn), 23.50 (Zn), 2.00 (Pb), 12.50 (Cr), 12.00 (Co), 2.00 (Ni), 5.00 (Cu), and 82.50 (Fe) while  in gum tree leaves the metal concentration are as follows, 43.00 (Mn), 22.50 (Zn), 3.00 (Pb), 6.50(Cr), 16.00(Co), 2.00 (Ni), 2.50 (Cu) and 57.50 (Fe). Fe, Mn, and Zn were found to be highly concentrated in the leaves of both plant species, while Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Co were found to be moderately concentrated. The results showed that baobab leaves had a higher concentration of trace metals than gum tree leaves. The findings also revealed that the amounts of cobalt and lead recorded were higher than the WHO's maximum permissible limit, but the levels of Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu were lower. To verify the reported higher levels, a continuous environmental protection update could be used. This finding suggests that both plants' leaves could be used to monitor trace metal pollution.

Bark of Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica) as Bioindicator for Deposition of Heavy Metals around Katsina Steel Rolling Company in Katsina Township

A. Fowotade Sulayman, Hamisu Abdu, A. Abdullah Saidu, Fadhila Ahmad, J. Zainab Suleiman, Saleh, Isyaku

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 3, 27 May 2021, Page 9-18
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v3/8344D

The bark of neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is used in this study as bio-indicator to monitor heavy metal pollution in Katsina township. Plants can take-up heavy metals from the soil and water via their roots and from the atmosphere via the leaves. The uptake, accumulation and translocation of heavy metals in plants may vary in different species due to anatomical and physiological differences. Barks are sampled from four sites in Katsina township, which include; Katsina Steel Rolling Company Round-about (Site A), Kofar Kwaya Round-about (Site B), Kofar Yandaka Round-about (Site C) and neem tree plantation opposite Nigeria Army Barrack, Natsinta (Site D). The samples are analyzed for Iron, Manganese, Copper, Lead, Cobalt, Chromium, Nickel and Zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The results obtained reveal heavy metal levels (µgg– 1) ranging from 52.50 – 196.25 (Fe), 19.50 – 34.25 (Mn), 2.41 – 8.43(Zn), <0.01 – 18.75(Cr), 3.01 – 11.50(Co), <0.01 – 3.50 (Pb), 1.00 – 4.25(Ni) and 0.13 – 2.75(Cu) across the four sites. The results also show the concentrations of iron correlating significantly with distance from the Steel Rolling Company which equally doubles as the source of contamination. The heavy metal burdens from site A are the highest while those from site D are the least, thus displaying a somewhat correlation between heavy metal loads and site distance from contamination point with the concentration of Cu, Pb and Zn as the only exception. Amidst the heavy metal analyzed, Fe has the highest concentration while Cu has the least level. It is concluded that neem bark is a good bio-monitor for air quality monitoring.

Struggle with Environmental Influences

Boris Levin

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 3, 27 May 2021, Page 19-27
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v3/2207F

The influence of external actions (intensive external disturbance) on the operation of a complicated structure of radiators is considered. As an example, the impact of metallic objects, nearing to the antenna system, in which it is realized the minimal irradiation of user’s body, is analyzed.  In order to counteract the disturbance of the system operation due to presence of different metallic objects in close proximity to the radiators, two methods based on two information sources, namely antennas driving currents and antennas fields at a given point, are studied. It is shown that under conditions of severe external actions the second method based on the measurement of the fields demonstrates a higher efficiency. A block scheme for automatic structure adjustment is suggested.

Spontaneous combustion of skies leading to forest fires, earth bursting, and sewage tank cleaners dying from toxic gas inhalation are increasingly reported; newer varieties of creeping, flying insects of larger size with stings have been observed in the last decade. As a result, an altruistic analysis based on observation and correlation with pathogenesis is carried out. For the past 15 years, an analysis of the above incidence has been conducted in correlation with global implementation of contraception abortion. Mortality by all causes was studied in 350 people classified as with and without contraception, who were randomly selected from the community and hospital and were separated into three age groups: 20-35 years, >35 years, and >50 years. Over the last decade, there has been a 4-9 fold increase in spontaneous combustion of the skies, resulting in forest fires, earth breaking with explosion, connected with tsunami, death of sewage tank cleaners, and the introduction of newer insects.4-7 fold increase in mortality [p value<0.0005] was noticed, for contracepted couples among 20- >50 years.

863,000,000 reported surgical abortions till 2010 1; 1989,375,754 women of reproductive age group made to menstruate 200 months 2 more, by small family norms, forcibly declining fertility rates; global hypoxia 3 of air, water secondary to aborted blood, contraceptive menstrual blood pollution depleting oxygen, which cannot be replaced by plants, unlike mandatory live humans with their emissions, of God ordained self-sustaining ecology, leads to lakhs of fish, water living washed ashore dead, birds disappearance and resulting in robust growth of 4 anaerobic, aerobic microbes including corona virus with virulence, locusts.

The concept is intentionally acquired aetiology of innumerable contraception, abortion as described above, destroys human lives, water living, birds, living organisms, and enable, massive putrefaction in the bodies of millions of aborted foetuses and millions of contracepted young parents with acquired early demise like flies, contracepted menstrual and aborted blood, releasing toxic gases in the environment of soil, water, air namely sewage tanks, earth`s hollow areas, including coastal ocean beds, which can be lethal, resulting in further increased death of water living, fish, humans; toxic gases are explosive with spontaneous combustion of the skies or combustion with associated thunder lightning resulting in increased thunder bolt struck mortality unexplained forest fire, oil tanker vessel fire and emergence of stinging newer larger, insects, mites, wasps; how much more will not the toxic gases of putrefaction swirl up the oceanic bed producing hiked up waves, split, rupture the earth producing tsunamis-entry of sea over the coastal regions?; how much more will not the toxic gases other than depleting oxygen of the environment including waters, be harmful to all life in the water supplies, including oceans, even if the stores of oxygen and sustenance for life as ordained by the creator were hugely sufficient prior to the era of contraception? Whereas God ordained Live humans with their excreta, waste food items existing in nature are degraded to make biogas, bio methane that may be used to fuel a car or supply energy, a reminder of God designed self-sustaining ecosystem that exists to maintain the living, creation, which is agonisingly disturbed by achieving contraception, abortion - i.e. acquired profound mortality [death, diseases] in the name of family welfare, specially fetuses, children and young parents.

Assessment of Atmospheric Metal Pollution Biomonitoring Potential by Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica) Leaves in Katsina Metropolitan Area of Katsina State, Nigeria

A. Fowotade Sulayman, Hamisu Abdu, A. Abdullah Saidu, Fadhila Ahmad, J. Zainab Suleiman, Saleh, Isyaku

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 3, 27 May 2021, Page 37-45
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v3/8345D

The determination of trace metal concentrations in plants and animals has been used as indicator of environmental monitoring. Heavy metals from soil enter plants primarily through the roots system. In general plant roots are the most important site for uptake of chemicals from soil. In this study, the leaves of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) were used as a bio-indicator to track trace metal levels in the Katsina metropolis. Leaves were sampled from four sites in Katsina metropolis, which include; Site A (Katsina Steel Rolling Company Round-about), Site B (Kofar Kwaya Round-about), Site C (Kofar Yandaka Roundabout) and Site D (Army Barrack, Natsinta). The samples were analyzed for iron, manganese, copper, lead, cobalt, chromium, nickel and zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained across the four sites on the average showed relatively show high levels of iron [93.44 µgg–1], manganese [28.97 µgg–1] and zinc [13.28 µgg–1] over chromium [8.07 µgg–1], cobalt [5.79 µgg–1], lead [2.50 µgg–1], nickel [2.13 µgg–1] and copper [1.70 µgg–1].  The concentrations of iron were also shown to correlate significantly with distance from the Steel Rolling Company. The highest metal loading came from site A, while the lowest came from site D. The results also indicated a somewhat correlation between the metal concentration and distance of each site from the source of contamination (Steel Rolling Company)- Among the trace metal analyzed iron has the highest level while copper has the least. According to the findings, the trace metal burden in Katsina metropolis and its environs poses no imminent hazard to residents or other lives.

Research on Automatic Crack Detection for Concrete Infrastructures Using Image Processing and Deep Learning

Cuong Nguyen Kim, Kei Kawamura, Hideaki Nakamura, Amir Tarighat

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 3, 27 May 2021, Page 46-55
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v3/9438D

Automatic crack detection is a main task in a crack map generation of the existing concrete infrastructure inspection. This paper presents an automatic crack detection and classification method based on genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the parameters of image processing techniques (IPTs). The crack detection results of concrete infrastructure surface images under various complex photometric conditions still remain noise pixels. Next, a deep convolution neural network (CNN) method is applied to classify crack candidates and non-crack candidates automatically. Moreover, the proposed method is compared with the state-of-the-art methods for crack detection. The experimental results validate the reasonable accuracy in practical application. The final purpose was to create crack map therefore requiring the pixel-level accuracy automatically.

Does Mechanical Damage on Soybean Induces the Production of Flavonoids?

Neilier Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Rafael Almeida Barros, Yaremis Beatriz Meriño-Cabrera, Maria Goreti de Almeida Oliveira

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 3, 27 May 2021, Page 56-66
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v3/2325F

The response of plants to grazing includes the production of chemical defense compounds such as proteases inhibitors and secondary metabolites as flavonoids, which makes them less palatable to feeding and negatively affecting the physiology of insects. This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical response of soybean cultivars Glycine max resistant (IAC-17, IAC-24) and susceptible (IAC-P1) to insects after mechanical damage. These cultivars were mechanically injured, and after 24 hours samples of these plants were analyzed by HPLC to identify and quantify flavonoids. The flavonoids daidzein, quercetin, and rutin were quantified, with the highest concentration of daidzin in soybean cultivars after mechanical damage. Rutin was biosynthesized by IAC-24. The cultivars IAC-PL1, IAC-17, and IAC-24 did not show a flavonoid response to mechanical damage. The soybean cultivars are not dependent on mechanical damage to produce flavonoids.

This article addresses the application of pyrgeometers, pyranometers and some basic weather parameters to evaluate cloud base height, cloud base temperature, and cloud coverage at local scale throughout the year. The ground-based laser beam ceilometers are used at the Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) in major airports in the U.S. to measure the cloud base height and report the sky conditions on an hourly basis or at shorter intervals. These laser ceilometers are fixed-type whose transmitters and receivers point straight up at the cloud (if any) base. They are unable to detect clouds that are not above the sensor. To report cloudiness at the local scale, many of these types of ceilometers are needed. A single cloud hanging over the sensor will cause overcast readings, whereas, a hole in the clouds above the sensor could cause a clear reading to be reported. To overcome this problem, we have set up a ventilated radiation station at Logan - Cache airport, Utah, U.S .A., since 1995. This airport is equipped with one of the above-mentioned ceilometers.

This radiation station (composed of pyranometers, pyrgeometers with fields of view of 150o), and net radiometer provide continuous measurements of incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation and net radiation throughout the year. Considering the additional longwave radiation captured by the facing-up pyrgeometer during cloudy skies, coming from the cloud in the wave band (8-13 ?m) which the gaseous emission lacks, we developed an algorithm which provides the continuous cloud information (cloud base height, cloud base temperature, and percent of skies covered by cloud) at local scale during the day and night throughout the year.

Comparisons between the ASOS and the model data during the period June, 2004, are reported in this article. The proposed algorithm is a promising approach for evaluation of the cloud base temperature and height, and percent of skies covered by cloud and its effects on aviation throughout the year. Having enough pyrgeometers and the necessary surface weather parameters, the study can be expanded to regional scale for continuous evaluation of clouds.

A Brief Overview of Gbagyi Beyekpe (Education) and Imperialism in Minna 1928 – 1960

Idris, Abubakar Zakari, Umar, Alhaji Bako

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 3, 27 May 2021, Page 80-87
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v3/7966D

The present chapter discussed the Gbagyi Beyekpe (education) and imperialism in Minna, 1928-1960. The contact of the Gbagyi in Minna with imperialism dates back to the early part of the twentieth century.  

As a result of the Gbagyi's interaction with imperial power, a new system of knowledge substituted the Gbagyi's Beyekpe (education), which was a process of educating the children and every individual for happy and productive living and to create the Gbagyi individual who will be honest, responsible, skilled, cooperative, and adhere to the social order of the day.This new order which was explicitly designed to restructure the social pattern of the Gbagyi and his society began in 1928 and by 1960 had replaced the Gbagyi Beyekpe (education). According to the study, this development ushered in the dependency syndrome that characterised Gbagyi modernity and continues to obstruct Gbagyi and his Minna society's evolution. The paper illustrated the influence of this alien knowledge system on the Gbagyi in Minna and argued for a redefinition of the Gbagyi knowledge system that is distinct from the western educational tradition, which stresses superiority as a measure of educational attainment holistically.

In this paper, a methodology analysis was carried out for the application of stratified random sampling with optimum allocation in the case of a research topic involving the rural population and exhibiting high differentiations among the three strata into which this population could be classified. The rural population of Evros Prefecture (Greece) was classified into three strata based on the mean altitude of settlements for the estimation of mean consumption of forest fuelwood for covering heating and cooking needs in households in these three strata. The quantitative variable used to form strata is in the case of this study the family income that is called a factor. With this stratification we expect to have more homogeneity within the strata so that we need a smaller size of sample and the application of stratified random sampling to be more economic than the simple random sampling. The analysis of this methodology includes a) determining the total size of the sample for the entire rural population and allocating it to the various strata; b) investigating the effectiveness of stratification using the technique of analysis of variance (One-Way ANOVA); and c) going to conduct sampling research with the realization of face-to-face interviews in selected households and d) the control of forms of the questionnaire and the analysis of data by using the statistical package for social sciences, SPSS for Windows. All data for the analysis of this methodology and its practical application were collected through pilot sampling in each stratum. The review of literature did not turn up any relative papers.

The Evaluation of Cloud Feedback at Local Scale either Cooling or Warming

Esmaiel Malek

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 3, 27 May 2021, Page 101-112
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v3/2297F

Clouds influence the climate through both positive and negative feedback. To study these effects at local scale, a radiation station was set up, which used two CM21 Kipp & Zonen pyranometers (one inverted), and two CG1 Kipp & Zonen pyrgeometers (one inverted) in Logan, Utah, USA. Four CV2 Kipp & Zonen ventilation systems were used to ventilate the pyranometers and pyrgeometers. The ventilation of pyranometers and pyrgeometers prevent dew, frost and snow accumulation, which would otherwise disrupt the measurement. Knowing that available energy (Rn) as Rn = Rsi ? Rso + Rli ? Rlo where Rsi and Rso are downward and upward solar radiation, respectively, and Rli and Rlo as atmospheric and terrestrial, respectively, on a daily and annual basis, the consequences of cloudiness were assessed. The findings indicate that for the partly cloudy days of 4 and 5 September, 2007, cloudiness caused less available energy (Rn) in the amounts of -1.83 MJ·m-2·d-1 and -3.83 MJ·m-2·d-1 on these days, respectively. Because of the cloudiness at the experimental site, as illustrated,, the net radiation loss was 2,804 ? 4,055 = -1,251 MJ·m-2·y-1, As a result of the cloudiness, this implies a negative feedback.

Device to Device Mobile Communication with Novel Key Exchange Protocol

S. M. Asha Banu, D. Mohana Geetha, V. Nandalal

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 3, 27 May 2021, Page 113-123
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v3/9388D

The model decomposition and some iteration techniques in Stochastic Petri Nets (SPNs) to derive its approximate steady state solution, which is used to obtain the approximate performance metrics of the D2D communications in terms of average queue length, mean throughput, average packet delay and packet dropping probability of each link. Simulations are performed to verify the analytical results under different traffic loads and interference conditions. The protocol that we use here is Novel Key Exchange protocol. The goal of this technique is to present advances on the current 3GPP LTE-advanced system related to Device-to-Device (D2D).

With the support of a new generation of mobile devices, e-commerce is being transformed into m-commerce. While traditional fixed PC Internet access remains crucial, mobile Internet connection looks to be attracting more consumers due to its flexibility. The goal of this study is to develop and assess a mathematical model that captures how mobile Access to the internet affects e-commerce performance. The original paper by Sumita and Yoshii [1] is enhanced for better reality. Traditional e-commerce, which requires a fixed PC, is contrasted with m-commerce, which allows for both fixed and mobile access. The explicit distributions of the number of items purchased by time t and the time required to sell K products are derived. The behavioural contrasts between m-commerce and regular e-commerce users are illustrated with numerical examples.