Editor(s)
Dr. Mustafa Turkmen
Professor, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science & Arts, Giresun University, Turkey.

ISBN 978-93-5547-674-6 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-753-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/cagees/v6

This book covers key areas of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences. The contributions by the authors include greenhouse gases, carbon taxation, world population levels , Aquatic ecosystem, toxic water body, electronic pulse technique for decomposition esters, photosensitization for decomposition of organic matters, floating eco-islands, immobilized nitrogen cycle bacteria, Magnetosphere, radiation belts, neutral atom imaging, South Atlantic anomaly, space weather forecast, spatial object management,  geographic information systems, water management, Aeration,   root morphology, urea hydrogen peroxide, Teledensity,     carbon footprint,  Flood,  Climate change, weather parameters, food security, and agricultural commodity forecast. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences.

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### Chapters

##### The Emerging Climate Crisis: Thoughts of a Quaker Scientist and Possible Ways Forward

Richard Tuckett

Current Advances in Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 6, 17 September 2022, Page 1-20
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cagees/v6/16818D

The evidence that anthropogenic carbon emissions are contributing to the increasing temperature of the Earth grows stronger by the year. Whilst impossible to prove, it is suggested that the correlation between carbon dioxide, CO2, concentrations and the temperature of the planet is as strong as it ever can be. It follows that immediate actions both by individuals and governments around the world are absolutely essential to protect everyone against the rising temperatures that are almost inevitable. The data for greenhouse gases are brought up to date to the end of 2020, and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on carbon emissions are highlighted since the start of that year. It is increasingly believed that methane, CH4, could prove to be as serious a secondary greenhouse gas as CO2. Possible changes in legislation and lifestyle are suggested for the UK. At a global level and in the hope that such subjects are brought into the open, taxation policies based on excess use of carbon, food and its production, and levels of population in the world are discussed. The author is a practicing member of the Quaker (Society of Friends) religion, and throughout he comes to this problem from a moral viewpoint. Specifically, how the six Quaker Testimonies (i.e. ways we should lead our lives) on Truth and Integrity, Social Justice, Equality, Simplicity, Peace and Sustainability lead him in certain personal directions, and what advice he might give to Governments and World organisations (e.g. the United Nations). A concise explanation of the Quaker religion in the UK in the 21st century is written elsewhere by Rowlands; much of it may surprise many readers.

##### Determining the Strategy & Techniques for Restoration of Healthy Aqua-ecosystem from Toxic Super Eutrophic Water Body

Peimin Pu , Jiangping Pu

Current Advances in Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 6, 17 September 2022, Page 21-31
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cagees/v6/3441A

There are complex river-lake systems in the Taihu Lake catchment with total water surface area of 6174.7 km2, and population density of 1079/km2, including Taihu Lake water surface area of 2338 km2. The water systems in this catchment have healthy aqua-ecosystems during long history. However, the waters have been polluted with various levels. We should transform the pollutants by Physic Ecological Engineering (PEEN) into mainly bio-resources for use and form healthy water agriculture (HWA) and Bio-Environmental Enterprise (BEE) from local water segments step by step to whole catchment. As an example, we performed engineering in an “acute toxicity for higher organisms” and over standards for many heavy metal elements segment, where there were no any living plants and macro organisms in the water body and in sediments. The objective is how can we remediate this kind river-let segments in an as small as possible space/time scale into healthy aqua-ecosystem with clear water and abound plants and higher organisms output? The main strategy and techniques are: 1) soft-wall technique for controlling mass exchange between waters with different quality; 2) floating/suspending eco-island technique by using which can mosaic culture any plant which can be cultured in water; 3) immobilized nitrogen cycle bacteria (INCB) technique; 4) electronic pulse technique and photosensitization technique for tattering esters and other big-molecule organic chemicals; 5) mist spray facility technique for improving dissolved oxygen in deep water layers; 6) technique for buffering and suppressing H2S release from water; 7) the floating islands may connect on net system with about 1/3 portion of surface with cultured plant to the total water surface area, where might sustainable restore submerged plants. These technologies might be use for purifying various waters into raw water standard of drinking water.

##### Close-up Imaging Simulation of Low-Altitude ENA Emission by a Sun-Synchronous Satellite

Li Lu, Qing-Long Yu, Qi Lu

Current Advances in Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 6, 17 September 2022, Page 32-46
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cagees/v6/7546F

A two-dimensional ENA coded modulation imager is simulated on a sun-synchronous satellite to achieve high spatio-temporal resolution ENA imaging measurements. The present simulation results show that: (1) Sun-synchronous satellites can approach ENA emission sources from inside and outside the inner radiation belt.  The time resolution of ENA image reduce to 5 s, which enable us to observe the evolution process of energetic ion events; (2) The propagation distance of energetic particles can be determined using the time difference of the ENA energy spectrum response of various energy channels to identify the energetic particle trigger source of the substorm ; (3) The ENA imager will react to medium and small-magnitude substorm signals because of the proximity of the ENA emission source, which will aid in sampling constant collection and statistical analysis of massive data under numerous geomagnetic actions and provide crucial data support for space weather predictions.

##### Spatial Objects Management Method for Geodatabases

Current Advances in Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 6, 17 September 2022, Page 47-65
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cagees/v6/15635D

Integrating geo-spatial datasets through merging, sometimes layers are unable to perfectly-overlay each other. In most cases, the cause of misalignment is the cartographic variation of objects forming features in the datasets. Either this could be due to actual changes on ground, collection, or storage approaches used leading to overlapping or openings between objects. This chapter presents an alignment method that uses updating and adjustment algorithms to manipulate the geometry of objects that form features within a dataset or complementary adjacent datasets in geodatabases so that they can align to achieve perfect integration. The method identifies every unique spatial instance in datasets and their spatial points that define all their geometry, the differences are compared and used to compute the alignment parameters. The method was tested by coding algorithms in MatLab for each required function. The point-to-point primitive correspondence between datasets help to avoid several iterations during alignment while maintaining topology and attributes. The method was able update, adjust and align objects in 14 datasets that were chosen due to their geometrical type, composition, characteristics, errors, precision, and attributes variation as per requirements. This provides a uniform geo-spatial features’ alignment that minimizes geometrical errors by taking into consideration changes in the different datasets being integrated without affecting the topology and attributes. This will facilitate setting up spatial data infrastructures and lead to more use of spatial information in decision-making. The method is recommended for updating the many geodatabases that have remained static because of technical difficulties in handling varying features.

##### Integral Environmental Study "Parana Islands" Ex El Rico Reserve (Santa Fe, Argentina)

Current Advances in Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 6, 17 September 2022, Page 66-73
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cagees/v6/3704A

The islands under study are located in the New National Park called "Islas del Paraná" and an interdisciplinary evaluation was carried out in which the historical situation was compared with the current situation. During the 1960s and 1970s, this area was an experimental field belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture of the Province of Santa Fe. There, for many years, trials of native plants and fauna were carried out, but then it was abandoned and used for cattle ranching by the settlers. In 2010, the National Park "Islas de Santa Fe" was created and "El Rico" became part of that space. The valuable thing about El Rico is that it is the only island studied in detail at the level of vegetation in the eighties, so we have accurate data. Information was extracted from satellite images, river height and rainfall for 30 years to compare three different sources and develop strategies for water management. Maps of the water situation were produced using a Geographic Information System and trend lines were drawn to show the situation.

##### Determining the Association between Aeration in the Rhizosphere and P-Acquisition Strategies: Constructing Efficient Vegetable Root Morphology

Rui Wang, Weiming Shi, Yilin Li

Current Advances in Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 6, 17 September 2022, Page 74-96
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cagees/v6/2991C

A low P absorption and utilization rate is one of the important obstacles restricting vegetable production. The characteristics of the vegetable shallow root system and immobility of P in the soil aggravated the contradiction between P demand and supply in the vegetable rhizosphere. Therefore, a large amount of phosphate fertilizer applied in vegetable fields to maintain high P content in the root zone, led to the deterioration of the vegetable rhizosphere environment, especially the soil O2 environment, which had a feedback effect on the root morphological structure and vegetable yield. Nevertheless, the interaction between root morphology and rhizosphere oxygen environment responses to vegetable P utilization are rarely reported. In order to explore the impact on root morphology, P adsorption, and its mechanism, we conducted an experiment using varying concentrations of O2 generator, 10%, 30%, 50%, and 80% urea hydrogen peroxide (as pure nitrogen) instead of urea as a top dressing in the rhizosphere. We discovered that the rhizosphere had O2- and P-deficient zones, and that oxygenation might reduce the roots' rhizosphere O2 and P consumption. The features of the root morphology and enhanced availability of P in the rhizosphere jointly contributed to high P absorption and use, and in the 30% urea hydrogen peroxide treatment compared to CK, the P use efficiency was improved by 9.3% and the shoot P accumulation by 10.9%. Additionally, this procedure increased quality and yield, as well as the amount of vitamin C and soluble sugar. However, vegetable development showed O2 damage at a higher O2 level (260.8 $$\mu$$mol L-1), leading in a lower yield and lower quality. Our research offered fresh perspectives on designing effective root morphology by controlling the rhizosphere's O2 environment to boost P usage efficiency in vegetable fields and raise vegetable output and quality.

##### Application of Solar Power in Telecom Tower to Reduce Environmental Pollution

Current Advances in Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 6, 17 September 2022, Page 97-107
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cagees/v6/3203C

During the last decade, the significant problem resulting from the increase in energetic consumption and the environmental "emergency" caused by the emission of greenhouse gases pushed people to find new solutions and new technologies for the production of primary energy suitable for meeting the urging and growing energetic demand. Climate change is one of the most pressing global issues of our day. The average temperature has risen significantly. This temperature increase is linked to the influence of global warming, which has resulted in the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. The reason for the growth in GHG, mostly carbon dioxide (CO2), is increased energy use, which results in pollutant emissions. As a result, developing telecommunication infrastructure necessitates an increasing amount of electricity to power it, and hence we choose our topic title as fitting. This paper explores how an effective energy management system along with energy and environmental auditing pave the path for Green telecom in terms of green telecom network, green telecom equipment maintenance, environmentally friendly telecom building design, and shape telecom waste disposal. The discussion focused on the usage of solar energy in telecom towers, as well as research conducted through case studies and government directives to meet the necessity of strategic fit compliances for environmental protection.

##### Climate Change and Increasing Flood Frequency in Kashmir [1815-2015 A.D.]

Shahid Nabi Wani

Current Advances in Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 6, 17 September 2022, Page 108-118
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cagees/v6/3223C

Floods have been occurring in Kashmir right from its very origin. The frequency has drastically increased from 1890s. The likelihood of disasters has grown due to climate change, according to several scientists today. In order to determine whether there has been any climate change in Kashmir over this time and, if so, whether it has increased the frequency of floods in Kashmir, the researcher examined the primary sources of Kashmir history from the previous 200 years. Another dimension, which the researcher looked into was the post flood diseases and to see if there was any link between climate change and post-flood related diseases. According to the research, in the last decades of the nineteenth century, the climate in Kashmir began to become milder, and this change occurred abruptly. There has also been an increase in the frequency of floods in comparison to earlier centuries. Furthermore, since 1960 A.D., there has been an increase in post-flood related diseases. Thus, all of the facts point to climate change in Kashmir over the last two centuries, which has had an impact on floods and post-flood diseases.

##### Recent Advances in Agricultural Commodity Forecast Techniques in the Purview of Climate Change

Rahul Banerjee, Pankaj Das, . Bharti, Bulbul Ahmed

Current Advances in Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 6, 17 September 2022, Page 119-132
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cagees/v6/3331C

In most of the developing and third world countries and India being no exception to it agriculture truly serves as the spine of the nation’s economy with a major percentage of the population directly involved in farming for livelihood. Climate plays one of the most significant role in almost every aspect of crop production starting from crop growth, crop development to eventually the yield of the crop.  Climate also influences outbreak of crop pests and diseases and the water uptake of the crops. Possible changes in weather parameters like precipitation, temperature and CO2 concentration are anticipated to have a crucial impact on the crop growth process. Prediction of crop yield changes in the purview of changing climatic conditions can prove beneficial to the farmers in terms of devising a synchronized crop production activity as per changes in the climatic conditions. Thereby, bringing out suitable policy changes benefitting the farming community as well as the nation as a whole. In this book chapter an overview of all the statistical models and methodologies has been outlined that helps to forecast agricultural commodities under changing climatic conditions. The recent developments in the same field has also been enlisted.