Dr. M.V.N.L.Chaitanya
Assistant professor,
Dilla University, College of health sciences Pharmacy (pharmacognosy), Dilla, Ethiopia.

ISBN 978-93-91473-52-5 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91473-53-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/tipr/v8

This book covers key areas of pharmaceutical research. The contributions by the authors include dexmedetomidine, magnesium sulphate, bupivacaine, anti-asthmatic drugs, cost variation, Siddha system, nano-technology, nano-medicine and single medicine multiple application, medicinal plants, DPPH assay, block co-polymers, lyophillisation, solid dispersion, bioavailability, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatic steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, antioxidants, PUFA, hypolipidemic drugs, insulin resistance, insulin sensitizers, postpartum stress, interpartum events, anemia, drug utilization, pregnancy, WHO core drug prescribing indicators, motivational factors, hypertension, pre-diabetes, fasting blood sugar, glycosylated haemoglobin, comorbidities, metabolic syndrome, adiponectin, ACE inhibitors, antibacterial activity, single electron transfer reduction, indole-derivatives, microdilution technique, liposomes, artificial vesicles, hydration, multiple lipid bilayer, chemical modifiers, radioprotective agents, radiation biology, therapeutic ratio, radiotherapy, swallowing, antimicrobial agents, aminoglycosides, acid-base indictor, alkalinity. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of pharmaceutical research.


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Experimental Studies on Efficacy of Dexmeditomidine and Magnesium as Adjuncts to Epidural Bupivacaine for Upper Abdominal Surgeries

Tantry Tariq Gani, Abdul Waheed Mir, Mohamad Akbar Shah, Farooq Ahmad Ganie, Shazia Naz, Mohd Iqbal Dar

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 8, 8 July 2021, Page 1-9

Background: The goal of this prospective, randomised, double-blind research was to see how adding magnesium or dexmedetomidine to epidural bupivacaine in upper abdomen procedures affected the outcome.

Materials and Methods: Sixty ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) class I and II patients undergoing upper abdominal procedures were randomly assigned to either magnesium sulphate (Group M) or dexmedetomidine (Group D) as well as epidural bupivacaine for surgical anaesthesia. All of the trial participants were given an epidural anaesthetic with 8 ml of 0.5 percent bupivacaine and either 50 mg MgSO4 (Group M) or 1 g/kg dexmedetomidine (Group D). Duration of analgesia, total rescue analgesic requirement, hemodynamic parameters and any adverse events were monitored.

Results: Analgesia in the postoperative phase was better in Group BD, as was the need for rescue analgesics. Sedation was more common in Group BD.

Conclusion: Dexmeditomidine prolongs the duration of analgesia and produces significant sedation. As a result, combining dexemedetomidine with epidural bupivacaine may provide greater analgesia and arousable sedation.

Elaborated Cost Variation Study of Various Brands of Anti-Asthmatic Drugs Available in Indian Market

Jyoti B. Gadhade, Yogesh B. Magar, Rajesh S. Hiray, Balasaheb B. Ghongane

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 8, 8 July 2021, Page 10-18

Objective: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that affects people of all ages and is a major cause of morbidity and death across the world. It need ongoing medical attention. High and exorbitant prescription prices are one of the most common causes of non-compliance and treatment failure. The cost of pharmaceuticals has a significant impact on patient treatment, particularly in underdeveloped nations. It has been shown that the cost of different brands of the same generic medicine varies greatly. If doctors are unaware, they may prescribe expensive brands, which will result in non-adherence. The purpose of this study was to determine the cost differences between several anti-asthmatic medicine brands.

Methods: From the newest edition of Drug Today 2017, the least and highest cost in Rupees (INR) of a certain anti-asthmatic agent made by several pharmaceutical firms in the same strength were listed. Each brand's cost ratio and percentage cost variance were recorded

Results: The costs of anti-asthmatic medications varied significantly in this investigation. The highest percent cost variation was found for Doxophylline 400 mg (3100%), followed Deflazacort 6 mg (1300%), Methylprednisolone 4 mg (1104%), Combination of Formoterol and Budesonide (444%), Salbutamol 4 mg caps (363%), Theophylline and Salbutamol combination(236%), Ketotifen      1 mg (217%). Fluticasone 50 mcg (0.4%), Cromolyn 20 mg (2%), Formoterol 12 mcg (11.5%), Tiotropium 18 mcg (11.5%), Ipratropium 20 mcg/200 mdi (19%), and others were determined to have the lowest percent cost fluctuations.

Conclusion: The government should look at the pricing control strategy for anti-asthmatic pharmaceuticals made by various Indian firms, so that the prices of different brands stay consistent, quality assured, and cheap. Doctors must prescribe logically, selecting cost-effective drugs depending on the health state of the country.

A Critical Review on Siddha System and Nano Technology

R. Manickavasagam, C. Senthamil Rajam

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 8, 8 July 2021, Page 19-23

Nowadays, the name "nanotechnology" conjures up images of a mystical world. Almost all disciplines, such as information technology, civil engineering, and the medical system, are ruled by this growing science. in technological applications. Recent advancements in nanomedical technology are assisting in the detection and treatment of some life-threatening disorders such as cancer and other cellular illnesses. The Siddha system of medicine is one of the world's oldest traditional medical systems. This technique is prevalent throughout South India, particularly in Tamil Nadu. The Siddha system is an ancient medical tradition founded by Siddhars, extraordinary sages. Varmam, Alchemistry, Yogic practices are the some of unique specialties in Siddha system. Biotechnology, Nanotechnology, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, and other modern scientific concepts are abundantly found in the Siddha system. This article discusses nanotechnology concepts in Siddha medical pharmacology, with references to Siddha literature.

Evaluation and Determination of the Antioxidant Capacity of the Crude Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants

Hassan B. Yesufu, Ibrahim Iliya, Fanna I. Abdulrahman

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 8, 8 July 2021, Page 24-35

The antioxidant properties of ten (10) plant species from various Nigerian states were assessed utilising the DPPH, H2O2, and FRAP test techniques . In the DPPH assay, Piliostigma reticulatum exhibited the best scavenging property at the lowest concentration (6.25 g/ml), whereas C. accuminata exhibited the best scavenging property at the greatest concentration (100 g/ml) . The following is the trend at the lowest concentration:; P. reticulatum> A. digitata> T. indica> C. accuminata> V. paradoxa> B. diezelli> S. longipediculata> A. squamosa> P. biglobosa> S. singueana. While the trend at the highest concentration is as follows; C. accuminata> B. diezelli> T. indica> P. biglobosa> A. digitata> V. paradoxa> A. squamosa> P. reticulatum> S. longipediculata> S. singueana.  The H2O2 experiment revealed that B diezelli had the best scavenging ability at both the lowest (6.25) and highest concentrations (100).In addition, the following is the current trend:; B. diezelli> A. squamosa> S. longipediculata> S. singueana> V. paradoxa> P. bigloosa> C. accuminata> A. digitata> T. indica> P. reticulatum at the least concentration. While at the highest, the trend is as follows; B. diezelli>S. longipediculata> S. singueana> V. paradoxa> P. biglobosa> P. reticulatum> C. accuminata> A. digitata> T. indica. According to the FRAP assay, S. longipediculata had the most scavenging activity at the lowest concentration (6.25) while C. accuminata had the highest activity at the highest concentration. The following is the trend at the lowest concentration:; S. longipediculata> C. accuminata> T. indica> A. digitata> V. paradoxa> A. squamosa> P. reticulatum> P. biglobosa> S. singueana> B. diezelli. While at the highest concentration the trend is; C. accuminata> S. longipediculata> T. indica> A. digitata> A. squamosa> V. paradoxa> P. reticulatum> P. biglobosa> S. singueana> B. diezelli. In the FRAP assay, five (5) crude extracts (S. longepedicunlata, T. indica, A. digitata, A. squamosa, C. accuminata) were more active than the standard drug (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl anisole) at higher concentrations. The methanol crude extract of Piliostigma reticulatum was more active in the DPPH assay than all other plants material. Annona squamosa and Parkia biglobosa methanol crude extracts were most active than the other extracts in the hydrogen peroxide assay.

The present research work deals with pre-formulation and formulation studies for development of solid dispersions with enhanced oral bioavailability. Gliclazide (GLC), an oral hypoglycemic agent, is characterized by low solubility in gastric fluid, low dissolution rate and inter-individual variability in bioavailability. The objective of this study was therefore to design optimized solid dispersions (SD) of GLC with a hydrophilic carrier viz., poloxamer 407 (PXM) by lyophillisation method in an attempt to enhance the aqueous solubility and therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Phase solubility study with increasing PXM concentrations (0.5 to 10% w/v) was done to study the influence of polymer concentration on solubility of GLC. SD’s of GLC and PXM in 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5w/w ratios were prepared by physical mixing and lyophillisation (freeze drying) method, followed by dissolution studies. A comparative in vivo study between optimized SD and GLC was conducted on twelve healthy New Zealand rabbits. The dissolution rate of GLC from the lyophilized dispersions was greatly enhanced as compared to those from physical mixtures and pure drug. The in-vivo studies indicated that the pharmacokinetic parameters following oral administration of the optimized SD and pure GLC were significantly different (P < 0.05). The peak serum concentration (Cmax) for the lyophilized SD and GLC were found to be 3.01±0.42 µg/mL and 2.27 ± 0.39 µg/mL respectively, whereas the time required to reach the peak serum concentration (Tmax) for the optimized SD was significantly shorter (2.16±0.41h) compared to that for GLC (4.33±0.52h). The relative bioavailability of the SD under in-vivo test was found to be 158.52%. These results demonstrate that the use of a suitable hydrophilic carrier like PXM to formulate SDs by the lyophillisation technique can rapidly accelerate the solubility and in vitro dissolution of a lipophilic drug like GLC. The suggested method provides good signs of improvement in the rate of absorption as well as bioavailability of gliclazide following oral administration and can be explored for other hydrophobic drug moities.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent condition that can lead to major liver diseases such as hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The most common etiology is a sedentary lifestyle and taking a high-calorie diet. Presently there is no US FDA-approved drug available to treat NAFLD, and only dietary measures, increased physical activity, exercise, antioxidants are the options. In December 2020, the Drug Controller General of India (DGCI) had approved New Drug Application (NDA) for Saroglitazar Mg to treat NAFLD in India. This review describes in detail the pathophysiology, diagnostic methods, and potential targets for NAFLD prevention and treatment.

Perceived Post Partum Stress and Coping Strategies among Postnatal Mothers

Rachel Margret Mathew, Anju Philip T., Sreejamol M. G.

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 8, 8 July 2021, Page 63-70

Background: Postpartum stress is defined as a constraining force produced by postpartum stressors. Postnatal period is the period with increased vulnerability to psychiatric illness, if the mother fails to adopt positive coping strategies. Postpartum period is associated with intense physical and emotional changes leading to anxiety.

Objectives: The present study aimed to identify the perceived postpartum stress among postnatal mothers, identify coping strategies adopted by postnatal mothers, find out correlation between the level of perceived postpartum stress and coping strategies among postnatal mothers and find out the association between the level of perceived postpartum stress and demographic variables.

Methods: A quantitative descriptive study was conducted among 100 postnatal mothers. Convenience sampling technique was used. Hung postpartum stress scale and coping strategies inventory short form were used for the assessment of postpartum stress and coping strategies.

Results: Among the 100 participants, 63% of the postnatal mothers had mild stress, 33% had moderate stress, and only 4% had severe stress. Majority of the mothers were used problem-focused engagement as a coping strategy. There was a positive correlation found between the level of perceived postpartum stress and coping strategies such as emotion-focused engagement and emotion-focused disengagement. There was significant association found between the level of perceived postpartum stress and demographic variables such as age, education, length of marriage, status of pregnancy, method of baby feeding, pregnancy events, intrapartum events, birth weight of baby, child birth experience, status of newborn, and postpartum events.

Conclusion: The high proportion and severity of postpartum stress observed among this study group proves that postpartum stress is common and cannot be ignored.

Morbidity and Drug Utilization Pattern among Pregnant Admitted Anemic Women and to Find Out Rationality of Drug by Using Indian Guidelines

Harsh M. Joshi, Jayun M. Joshi, Kamlesh P. Patel, Kartik N. Shah, Varsha J. Patel

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 8, 8 July 2021, Page 71-82

Background: Pregnancy represents a special physiological state during which the use of drug is of growing concern due to risk of teratogenicity. Anemia is common threat to mother. Therefore, our aim was to study the drug utilization, teratogenic risk among patients of anemia in pregnancy and check rationality of prescriptions.

Materials and Methods: An observational, prospective study was carried out in 150 indoor patients in the tertiary care hospital. Protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB). The data were collected in a pre-designed proforma. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 Software.

Results: Among 150 patients, 23, 111 and 16 were of less than 20, 20 to 30 and more than 30 years of age respectively. Among anemic patients Pregnancy induced hypertension (18.7%), antepartum haemorrhage (12.7%) were common. About 71% women have complaint of weakness followed by headache. Iron (93.3%) and calcium (86.0%) were the commonest drugs prescribed. Iron sucrose and packed cell volume given in severe anemia. Drug Risk Category, Category-A (90.21%) was most frequently prescribed which is followed by Category-B (8.0%) and category-C (1.8%). Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name and from essential drug list were 70.3 and 89.2. Overall prescribing habit was rational according to Indian guideline.

Conclusion: Iron, Calcium and Folic acid were most commonly prescribed drugs in anemic patients. No teratogenic risk was found out during drug use. Drug and dose of the drug was rational and appropriate. There is lesser number of drugs prescribed by generic name and hospital supply.

Study on Attitudes and Barriers of Medical Students towards Conducting Research in a Medical College

Manjunath G. Narasimhaiah, Swamy R. Mallikarjuna, Riyaj A. Kalaburgi

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 8, 8 July 2021, Page 83-90

Background: It is well known that evidence-based medicine is the rule for clinical practice. This can be enhanced by conducting good research. Medical students, being the future doctors, should contribute significantly, but research among medical students is very poor with respect to presentations and publications.

Objectives: To identify the various barriers, motivational factors and attitude for conducting research.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study involving 3 different batches of medical students by giving a semi-structured questionnaire.

Results: The response among the participants to involve in research was only 30%. Among them, the overall attitude and barrier score were 3.69±0.29 and 3.63±0.42, respectively, with statistical significance being shown between genders and not between batches. The biggest barrier was a lack of previous research experience (91.67%). The most common motivational factor was self-interest (90.7%).

Conclusions: If given sufficient training and facilities provided, we should be able to get more research done by the medical students.

Background: Hypertension, a common cardiovascular disease, is being increasingly associated with other co-morbid conditions like Diabetes mellitus, worsening its outcome. Both telmisartan and ramipril are effective anti hypertensive agents. The present study compares the efficacy of telmisartan and ramipril in controlling or preventing the progression of pre-diabetes to diabetes in stage 1 hypertensive patients. It also aims at assessing the effect of Telmisartan and Ramipril on FBS and HbA1C over 12 months treatment period in males and females and compare it.

Methods: A prospective, randomised, single centre, comparative observational study is conducted over a period of 12 months on stage 1 hypertensive patients with pre-diabetes. 60 patients are recruited and randomised into two treatment groups. They received the assigned drug for a period of 12 months and are followed up. At each visit, blood pressure was measured and diabetic profile was tested.

Results: This study showed that both telmisartan and ramipril controlled the blood pressure effectively. Telmisartan controlled the progression of fasting blood sugar and glycosylated haemoglobin better than ramipril in stage 1 hypertensive patients with pre diabetes.

Conclusions: Both telmisartan and ramipril were affecting in controlling the blood pressures. Telmisartan has a statistically significant effect in preventing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes mellitus in stage 1 hypertensive patients with pre diabetes when compared with ramipril.

An Evaluation of Single Electron Transfer Reduction Products of 3-Oxoindoles as Antibacterial Agents

Debasish Bandyopadhyay, Irani Biswas, Subrata Laskar, Bidyut Basak

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 8, 8 July 2021, Page 99-108

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is growing quickly throughout the world due to extensive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Reduction of indole derivatives comprises a very important and interesting branch of synthetic organic chemistry as these reactions are utilized in the synthesis of several drugs, dyes, agrochemicals and higher alkaloids.

Objective: The objective of the present study is to assess the antibacterial properties of six indole derivatives viz, 3-(Naphth-1-y - methyl) –indole (II), 3-(1-Naphthylcarbonyl – indole (III), 3,3' –diformyl-2,2' –bis indole (IV), 1,4- (3,3' –di indolyl) – 1,4-dioxobutane (V), 3-benzoyl indole (VI) and 1,1 – bis – (3-indolyl)- ethane (VII) synthesized by single electron transfer reduction of 3-formylindole (I) against two Gram +ve and two Gram –ve bacteria which usually cause human infections.

Methods: Synthesis of 3-formyl indole from which the indole derivatives were prepared were further characterized by IR and NMR analysis. The six synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity by agar diffusion method and the activities were further confirmed by determining their MIC values by microdilution technique.

Results: All of the compounds more or less showed activity against different bacterial species except compound IV which showed activity only against B. subtilis. Compound II exhibited the most potent activity with lower MIC values against two Gram –ve and one Gram +ve bacteria of which the Gram –ve ones are known to be responsible for nosocomial and community acquired infections.

Conclusion: Compound II being the most potent active compound may serve as leads for further optimization most likely to contribute as a broad spectrum antibiotic.

Nano Liposome: Tools for Target Drug Delivery

Biswaranjan Ray

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 8, 8 July 2021, Page 109-116

Liposomes are nano size artificial vesicles of spherical shape that can be produced from natural phospholipids and cholesterol. Liposomes are defined as spherical Micro- or Nano-sized particles that contain an internal water pool surrounded by a bilaminar membrane. The building blocks of the membrane are phospholipid molecules or a combination of phospholipids with sterols, such as cholesterol, or with other surface -active ingredients. Liposomes are nano-scale spheroid vesicles composed of one or multiple lipid bilayer (s) enclosing an aqueous core. Liposomes can be manufactured using several methods, including thin-film hydration, reverse phase evaporation, and microfluidic mixing. Liposomal preparation reduce the roughness because of its interaction with corneocytes, the intracellular lipid resulting in skin softening and smoothing. Various liposome based products for facial and body care, make-up, mascara & foundation, haircare, sunscreen products & perfumes are in market.

Radioprotective Agents in Radiotherapy: An Overview

Ugrappa Sridevi, Ajay Jain

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 8, 8 July 2021, Page 117-128

Cancer stands as one of the most common causes for death of the individual worldwide. Radiotherapy is one of the treatment modalities in cancer where, exposure of the normal tissue to these ionizing radiations, results in mutagenesis and cell death. Several modalities and clinical approaches have been made to reduce these early and late complications of the radiotherapies and one among them is, by the means of pharmacological agents. Many experimental and clinical studies have given rise to new concepts of chemical and molecular pharmacological agents as Radioprotective agents. These have been used to prevent damage to the tissues from the radiations that have been produced while diagnostic and treatment phases of carcinomas. To reduce the significant complications in irradiated patients, the clinical implication of these radioprotective agents have emerged as potential drugs and with anti-tumour effect in the radiotherapy of various cancers including oral carcinomas.

Chlorpheniramine Maleate Pediatric Oral Strip: Methodology and Characterization

Sura Zuhair Mahmood, Hiba Sabah Sabry, Nora Zawar Yousif, Zeina D. Salman

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 8, 8 July 2021, Page 129-143

Objective: The goal of performing this study is to prepare an oral strip, especially designed for pediatric use that provides fast onset of action with ease of swallowing particularly for young individuals who suffer from difficulty of swallowing, in addition provides maximum therapeutic effectiveness by reducing the first pass effect.

Materials and methods: The oral strip was prepared by solvent casting technique through using different sole polymers (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose [HPMC] 15cp, HPMC 50cp, polyvinyl alcohol, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose). Maltodextrin (MD) was added as the secondary polymer in different ratios to optimize the release parameters, and disintegration time (DT), three different plasticizers were employed (propylene glycol, dibutyl phthalate, and glycerin) to boost the film forming polymer characteristics.

Results: From this study, it is obvious that F10 which composed of HPMC as a main polymer and MD as a secondary polymer in ratio 2:1, respectively, provides adequate physicochemical characteristics, in-vitro/ in-vivo DT (40/36 s), respectively, nevertheless a satisfactory release parameter as (59.9%) released at 2 min and 80% of drug released at 14.8 min.

Conclusion: The optimized formula is pretty encouraging to originate an oral strip that provides ease of administration, fast onset of action with wide acceptance for the pediatric population.

Background: This prospective observational study was done to know the current prescription trend of antimicrobial agents in the post-operative ward. To evaluate the current pattern of antimicrobial agents in the post-operative surgical cases of a tertiary care teaching hospital.

Aims: The present study was aimed to analyse the resistance pattern of culture isolates to antimicrobial agents in the post-operative general surgery cases. To assess the rationale for changing over from one antimicrobial agent to another.

Methods: The study was carried out in collaboration with the Department of General Surgery and Department of Pharmacology during April 2013 to March 2014. All parameters like demographic data, antimicrobials agents prescribed by surgeons, dose, frequency, duration, route, formulation, brand or generic drugs, adverse events were collected in the specially structured case proforma. Descriptive statistics was applied using SPSS version 17.0.

Results: During the study period, 513 patient case records were analysed in which males are higher than females. A total of 816 drugs were used in 484 patients during the study period. 162 were on a single drug, 190 were on two drugs, 42 were on three drugs and 90 were on fixed dose combination. Brand name of the drugs and parenteral route of administration were preferred in the study. Cephalosporins (52.32%) and metronidazole (34.38%) were the most commonly prescribed group of antimicrobials followed by penicillin (0.9%), aminoglycosides (6.58%), quinolones (5.23%), macrolides (0.45%) and tetracycline (0.14%). Totally 135 (27.89%) patients received drugs which are not included in the essential medicine list of WHO and 112 (23.14%) patients received drugs which are not from national EML.

Conclusions: The maximum prescribed antimicrobial agent in the post-operative ward was third generation cephalosporins. Rational prescribing of antibiotics would help avoid polypharmacy and prevent drug resistances. There is a clear need for the development of prescribing guidelines & educational initiatives to encourage the appropriate use of drugs in Surgery. Our study will help in promoting knowledge about essential medicine list among clinicians

Presently, the conduct of acid-base chemical interactions necessitates the use of industrially produced indicators, which are linked to contamination of the environment. This circumstance necessitates the exploration of natural sources for further acid-base indicators. The purpose of this research was to investigate at the acid-base indicating capacity of Synadenium glaucescens extracts. To investigate S. glaucescens' indicating capacity, extracts from the leaves, stems, and root barks were tested for colour change, reversibility, pH range, and effectiveness during titration using strong and weak acids and bases. The findings revealed that only the indicators derived from stem and root bark extracts had indicating capacity, since they were able to change colour due to pH change. The pH range of the two indicators was 2.9 to 12.7, indicating that they were more universal indicators. While in acidity and alkalinity circumstances, both indications could be clearly inverted. At the end points of the titration, the colour changed significantly. The mean titre of the two indicators were ranging from 24.3 ± 0.31 to 25.4 ± 0.75 and 18.9 ± 0.17 to 24.1 ± 0.05, respectively with their colour change from brick red to colourless and orange to colourless, respectively. The end points acquired by stem and root bark indicators correspond to the end points obtained by phenolphthalein and methyl orange, which are standard indicators. As a result, the stem and root bark extracts can be used as an acid-base indicator. More research might be done to make paper indicators and extract the pure compound that is responsible for S. glaucescens' signalling capacity.