Dr. Manikant Tripathi
Assistant Professor,
Department of Microbiology, Dr. Rammanohar Lohia Avadh University, India.
Profile Link: https://stm.bookpi.org/RPMB-V7/manikant-tripathi

ISBN 978-93-91473-04-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91473-47-1 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rpmb/v7

This book covers key areas of microbiology and biotechnology. The contributions by the authors include antimicrobial resistance, bacterial diseases, global problem, protozoa, fungi, pollution abatement, potential pathogens, portability of water, microbial contamination, microbiota, microbiome, metagenomics, intestinal homeostasis, microbial symbiosis, industrial additives, antioxidant activity, DEAE cellulose, bioactive potentiality, aquatic pathogens, gastro-intestinal parasites, VNTR genotyping, cluster analysis, molecular epidemiology, phylogeography, phylogenetics, somatoform disorders, anti-Inflammatory cytokines, phagocytes, dendritic Cells and T Cells, CD4, CD8, humoral immunity, B cells, memory cells, tropical eosinophilia, immune response, immunoglobulin’s, macrophages, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxane, SARS-CoV-2, accurate and rapid identification, bioluminescence in real-time, reverse transcriptase loop-mediated amplification protocols, digital PCR system, digital, loop-mediated amplification approach. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of microbiology and biotechnology.


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Antimicrobial Resistance- Combining the Sciences of Microbiology and Public Health: A Theoretical Approach

S. M. Kadri, Melissa Trapp-Petty

Recent Progress in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 7, 20 July 2021, Page 1-4

Antimicrobial resistance is the evolutionary result that occurs when selective pressure is exerted on bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi. However, there is more concern with bacterial resistance due to their rapid evolution, the abundance of bacteria, the abundance of bacterial diseases, disinfectant use, environmental pollutants, and the abuse of antibacterial drugs. There is a global call and new initiative for a multi-pronged approach to the problem of antimicrobial resistance, surely one that combines the sciences of microbiology and public health. It is the current situation that 80% of new research and development of antibiotics are coming from small drug companies, research hospitals, and universities. biological surveillance and use of rapid diagnostic testing where feasible, especially in rural environments, would fulfill the criterion for cross-discipline advancements. As antimicrobial resistance is a global problem with such a large scope, it is only fitting that everyone gets involved.

Study on Assessment and Monitoring of Microbial Pollution in Certain Drinking and Bathing Water Ponds in and Around Sivagangai, India

R. Kasinatha Durai, R. Nambu Mahalakshmi, S. V. S. Amanullah Hameed

Recent Progress in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 7, 20 July 2021, Page 5-12

Microbiological examination of water sample is usually undertaken to ensure that the water is safe to drink and bath in. Many potential pathogens could be associated with the water. In this juncture it is very important to protect and conserve the surface and ground water from the microbial contamination. The successful microbial pollution abatement depends not only on treatment and control but also on efficient monitoring of drinking and bathing water resources. For this, research approaches are very important for providing potable and safe drinking and bathing water to the humanity. 

New Interpretations of Nutrigenomics and Microbiomics

Bruno Riccardi, Sergio Resta, Roberto Fabbroni

Recent Progress in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 7, 20 July 2021, Page 13-28

In this work we analyze the current interpretations based on the studies of Nutrigenomica and Microbiomics, according to which, at the base of many pathological and dismetabolic manifestations, there would be or variations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (Snps), in the Nutrigenomic vision, or changes of the normal gut microbiota , in the Microbiomic conception.

In particular, we analyze critically, the singular pathogenic coincidence, which for the same pathologies calls into question or Snps mutations or the presence of specific modifications of the Microbiota.

Other possible causes of observed diseases are thus neglected.

On the basis of the literature examined, we present a different interpretation of pathogenic causes. The Nutrigenomic investigates only the variations of the genetic polymorfisms , the Microbiomic studies only the modifications of the intestinal Microbiom , in the research of their effects on the health conditions.

Study on Bioactive Potential of Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Alga Ulva lactuca L. in Tuticorin from Southeast Coast of India

S. Palpperumal, B. Harinathan, S. Sankaralingam, S. Mahendran

Recent Progress in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 7, 20 July 2021, Page 29-40

To study the bioactive potential of sulfated polysaccharide from green alga Ulva lactuca in Tuticorin coast. The isolated green alga was identified based on the morphological characters for the extraction of sulphated polysaccharide. The bioactive potential sulfated polysaccharide was determined using ABTS, free radical scavenging, antioxidant and its antibacterial activity was also evaluated. Sulfated polysaccharide (5.5 ± 0.6%) was extracted from green alga Ulva lactuca through the ethanol precipitation and purified through DEAE cellulose column and sephadex G -50. The superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity of sulfated polysaccharide was 71.74 ± 0.20% and 61.23 ± 0.48%, respectively. These results suggested that the in vitro antioxidant activity of sulfated polysaccharide obtained from Ulva lactuca can be employed for food industry. In addition to that, it possesses antibacterial activity against aquatic pathogens. This may also justify the frequent use of natural antioxidants in a variety of food products.

This study reports on detection and prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in Port Harcourt, the capital city of Rivers State, Nigeria. Stool samples were collected from 100(46.5%) males and 115(53.5%) females. Microscopic examination of both thin and thick films of the stool sample were done. In all, three intestinal helminthes were identified. The overall prevalence was 30.7% and this was predominantly among male school children (37.0%) than in females (25.2%) from both locations. Of the three parasite species observed, T. trichiura (39.4%) was the most predominant helminthes in this study. This was closely followed by A. lumbricoides (33.3%) and hook worm (27.3%) was the least. Generally, intestinal helminthes was most predominant in samples from Emohua State Primary School (ESPS), Emohua (90.9%) than those from University Demonstration Primary School (UDPS) in Choba (9.1%)]. Intestinal helminthes were most predominant among children aged 10-15 years (57.6%) than those within age group 5-9 years (42.4%) of age from both locations. It further showed that among the male school children, A. lumbricoides (63.6%) was most predominant, followed by hook worms (55.6%) and T. trichiura (50.0%) was least predominant. There were no incidence or prevalence of multiple infections of any of the three helminthes in the study. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by parasitic protozoa and worms and reinforces the need for an urgent effort to check the unnecessary and avoidable heavy parasites load. [Odu NN, Okonko IO, and Erhi O. Study of Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs): Gastro-Intestinal Helminthes among school children in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Report and Opinion 2011;3(9):6-16]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

A Comparative Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Isolates from Southern Russia

Vladimir Mihajlovich Sorokin, Ruslan Vjacheslavovich Pisanov, Elena Vadimovna Golubkina, Elena Aleksandrovna Bereznyak, Lubov Aleksandrovna Prozorova

Recent Progress in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 7, 20 July 2021, Page 55-61

High genetic diversity and rapid microevolution are a peculiarity of genomes Helicobacter pylori, a phenomenon that is proposed to play a functional role in persistence and colonisation of diverse human populations. Isolates of H. pylori can be classified phylogeographically. To characterise diverse strains of this pathogen in different human populations, we compare MLVA genotypes of 48  H. pylori strains isolated from different regions in the South of Russia. Cluster analysis identified 48 individual MLVA types (MTs) and revealed the possible belonging the greatest part of the strains to hpEurope, and two strains to hpEastAsia population, when compared to the 4 publically available genomes. MLVA typing is a faster and more standardized method for studying the genetic relatedness and is available for every standard PCR laboratory. The proposed method may be successfully used in molecular epidemiology and possibly for population identification of H. pylori. A similar study was conducted in Russia and Europe for the first time.  

New Tool for Phylogenetic Analysis of Helicobacter pylori: An Advanced Study

Vladimir Mihajlovich Sorokin, Ruslan Vjacheslavovich Pisanov, Aleksej Sergeevich Vodop'janov, Elena Vadimovna Golubkina

Recent Progress in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 7, 20 July 2021, Page 62-70

The aim of this study was to detect canonical insertion/deletion (INDEL) markers in the genome of Helicobacter pylori and offer INDEL-typing method for differentiation of H. pylori strains. For comparative analysis of the genomes of H. pylori presented in the GenBank database, a local database of nucleotide sequences of 69 H. pylori strains was created. For detecting all INDEL markers with a preset size of 6-20 bp a pairwise comparison of more than 1500 open reading frames (ORF) in the genomes of local database strains was performed. Ten loci containing INDEL markers were founded. The five most variable loci were tested in silico with 21 strains with known geographical origin from the most common populations of hpEurope, hspWAfrica, and hspEAsia. Fifteen individual genotypes with a high diversity index (DI=0.95) were identified. For cluster analysis, the minimal spanning tree (MST) method was used, which demonstrated a clear distribution of clusters according to the geographical origin of the strains tested. INDEL-typing of 21 regional strains from the Astrakhan region was performed in vitro. It was shown that an extensive majority of them belong to the population hpEurope. The findings in this study indicate that the proposed INDEL-typing method almost perfectly reflects the geographical distribution of H. pylori strains determined by the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method, despite the fact that the primary object of research is completely different genes. Further research is needed to determine the geographical origin of H. pylori strains in Russia.

Introduction: Patients with somatoform abnormalities experience severe emotional suffering, and clinicians face a difficult task. Women tend to be more susceptible to somatization disorder than males. They are said to be more common in rural regions and among those with less education. Materials and Methods: 270 patients with any of the subtypes of somatoform disorders were recruited from the out-patient and in-patient services of the Department of Psychiatry, which is linked with the AVBRH, a tertiary care hospital in Vidarbha. It was a cross- sectional study carried out from October 2010 to July 2012.

Results: The study found the greatest number of patients in the 60 to 80 year old age group (48.88 percent), followed by the 40 to 60 year old age group (27.77 percent), with a slight female preponderance (56.67 percent). Females experienced a somatoform condition for a longer period of time than males (4.48 years vs. 3.97 years). In our study, majority of patients with somatization disorder were married (88.9%) followed by widow/widower (7.4%); single (4.1%) and separated (1.9%). Also, majority of patients in our study were Illiterate (20.0%); followed by primary educated (10.0%); secondary educated (40%) and 30% patients were graduates.

Conclusion: Females in their forties and fifties are more likely to be afflicted by somatoform diseases, and they suffer for a much longer amount of time.

Immunity in Medically Important Parasitic Infections: An Overview

M. V. R. Rao, M. Khaleel, V. K. Chennamchetty, S. Rao, A. Khan, T. Calvo, A. M. Nisanth, R. Kudari, Dilip Mathai, M. K. Verma

Recent Progress in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 7, 20 July 2021, Page 78-92

Immunity is the rule. It is often incomplete and takes many years to develop and fade away quickly. Immunity is concerned with resistance to infection.  Human life is a battlefield in which we are like soldiers attacked from all sides by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Our body is bestowed with a defence mechanism in the form of an immune system It has long been recognized that infections with parasites, such as intestinal worms, are often accompanied by blood eosinophilia, and this is due to an immunological process. Conditions in which blood eosinophilia is common include intestinal infections with Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuristrichiura, various forms of Wuchereria bancroft, Brugiamalayi, loaloa, Dracunculus medinensis, mite infection of the lungs (including at least some cases of tropical eosinophilia);and hydrated disease is due to Echinococcus granulosus. Eosinophilia, in large numbers invades tissues in which antigen-antibody reaction has taken place. They appear to be attracted by some product of the antigen-antibody reaction and it has been shown that if tissues from sensitized guinea -pigs mixed with antigen in vitro, or tissues from guinea-pigs which have died from anaphylaxis, are transferred to the peritoneal cavity of normal guinea-pigs, the recipient develops very marked eosinophilia within 24 hours. The active agent has not been infected, but it is probably not histamine. The eosinophils of rodents are very actively phagocytic, and ingest cellular debris, mast cell granules, etc, but it is not certain whether this is true of eosinophils from other species, nor it is known what functions the eosinophils serve in these reactions. A multitude of defensive mechanisms are involved in parasitic infection. A humoral response develops when parasites invade blood stream (Malaria, Trypanosoma), whereas cell-mediated immunity is elicited by parasites that grow within the tissues (Eg: Cutaneous leishmaniasis). Humoral immunity is a function of B cells, memory cells and antibodies. In protozoal infections, IgG, and IgM are produced. In Addition, IgA also produced in intestinal infection. With helminthic infections, IgG, IgM and IgE antibodies are produced.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which first emerged in December 2019, represents an ongoing global public health emergency. Here, we developed an improved and highly sensitive approach to SARS-CoV-2 detection via coupling bioluminescence in real-time (BART) and reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated amplification (RT-LAMP) protocols (RT-LAMP- BART) and was also compatible with a digital LAMP system (Rainsuit), which did not allow for real-time quantification but did, nonetheless, facilitate absolute quantification with a comparable detection limit of 104 copies/mL. Through improving RNA availability in samples to ensure the target RNA present in reaction, we additionally developed a simulated digital RT-LAMP approach using this same principle to enlarge the overall reaction volume and to achieve real-time detection with a limit of detection of 10 copies/mL, and with further improvements in the overall dynamic range of this assay system being achieved through additional optimization. The novel approach in this study is of greatsignificance in accurate detection and sequencing of various viruses.