Dr. Belisario Dominguez-Mancera
Laboratory of Cell Biology and Radioimmunoassay, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University Veracruz, Mexico.

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ISBN 978-93-5547-857-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-858-0 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rabs/v8

This book covers key areas of Biological Science. The contributions by the authors include Enterococci, antibiotic susceptibility testing, FTIR spectroscopy, Macrophage, inflammation, nosocomial infections, circadian rhythm, circadian clock, Chronic exposure, acute exposure, digestive tubule, epithelium height,  cavity-type nesting site, noncavity type nesting site, Human African Trypanosomiasis, Annonaceous acetogenins, biocides,  Hemovigilance, blood system, quality system management, and quality culture. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Biological Science.

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Determination of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) Typing an Enterococcus sp.

Mohammad I. Abu Taha, Hatem K. Eideh, Sameeh M. Saed, Hazem Jaber

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 8, 8 September 2022, Page 1-18

In the present work, the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy [FTIR] was used to type Enterococcus sp. that was isolated from a hospital in an attempt to develop a standardized procedure for the differentiation and characterization of Enterococci. A rapid and inexpensive method to characterise chemical cell properties and identify the functional groupspresent in the cell wall is Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Infrared spectroscopy is a well-established technique to identify functional groups in organic molecules based on their vibration modes atdifferent infrared wave numbers. One of the main causes of nosocomial infections, Enterococcus species are challenging to treat due to the emergence of vancomycin resistance. It is crucial for epidemiological research to conduct studies on Enterococcus isolates. Enterococci are frequently typed using both genotypic and phenotypic approaches. In this study, an unique phenotypic method for typing Enterococci is Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy results compared to antibiotic susceptibility testing and PCR amplification of Vancomycin gene results; the analysis showed that, 6 isolates were positive for Van gene (4 of VanA, 1 of VanB and 1 VanA plus VanB). Three of VanA and VanA plus VanB were resistant to all antibiotic tested (Ampicillin, Teicoplamin and Vancomycin) and VanB was found to be sensitive. FTIR spectroscopy (first deriv- atives) divided the isolates into 8 groups. 3 groups of VanA (4 isolates), one of VanB (one isolate), one of VanA plus VanB (one isolate) and the other 13 Enterococcus isolates were divided into 3 clusters. In order to analyze the various molecules and organic chemicals that make up the cell structure, it is possible to ascertain specific physical and chemical properties. The study suggests that certain Enterococci bacterial species produce organic substances that can be used to determine their kind, and it is thought that FTIR has a lot of potential in this area of clinical microbiology.

Circadian Clock Regulation of Macrophage Functions

Ken Shirato, Shogo Sato

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 8, 8 September 2022, Page 19-57

Macrophages mediate circadian regulation of systemic inflammation. At the molecular level, macrophage functions are directly governed by the circadian clock, and thus the circadian misalignment remodels the phenotype of macrophages from a ‘protective’ mode toward a ‘killer’ mode. Importantly, the pro-inflammatory macrophages induce systemic and chronic inflammation, leading to the development of a wide range of chronic diseases and the dampened immune defensive machinery against infectious diseases such as COVID-19. The development of inflammatory and infectious diseases as well as cancer, metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and the acceleration of aging, is exacerbated under chronic circadian rhythm misalignment through the functional remodeling of immune cells, including macrophages. Accumulating evidence unveils the molecular mechanisms underlying the circadian clock regulation of macrophage functions and the role of circadian rhythms in the development of inflammatory and infectious diseases. This chapter aims to summarize the latest insights from circadian regulation of macrophage functions and discuss the potential implications of circadian system-targeting macrophage rejuvenation.

The objective of this study was to determine the quantitative changes in the hepatopancreas cells of Batissa violaceae. Clams from the Catubig River in Northern Samar were employed as a bioindicator of pollution. For quantitative studies, hepatopancreas was pooled from the chronically exposed group, the depurated laboratory control group, and the clams that were returned to the river and plunged for 72 hours. Hepatopancreas samples were histologically prepared and were examined by Ken-a- vision microprojector microscope. The epithelium height of tubules of the hepatopancreas cells during the low flow period site 1 was reduced in size compared to that of the high flow period site 1. Also, the mean number of tubules during the high flow period revealed that there was a significant increase in the number in depurated control. Generally, quantitative changes found in the hepatopancreas cells after acute and chronic exposures could function as a biomarker of exposure to contaminants.

Nowadays, human-dependent birds are declining in heavily populated areas, in general. House sparrows are one of the common urban birds that are well-known for their tendency to live near humans. However, the disappearance of this species has been reported widely in India. According to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), the sparrow population in Andhra Pradesh has dropped by 80% and in Kerala, Gujarat, and Rajasthan it has declined by 20%, while the decline in coastal areas of India was as sharp as 70% to 80%. The decline in house sparrow numbers should therefore be examined in relation to human activity patterns over time. Hence, the objective of this study is to determine the distribution of the house sparrow population in the Madurai District as well as identify its natural nesting sites according to their structural preferences and distribution along rural, suburban, and urban gradients. A line-transect method was used to survey the 169 study sites in the Madurai District and house sparrow nesting behavior was documented in photographs and videos. Based on the data, sparrows were found in 109 places, wherein 80% of the population was found in urban habitats and 62% in rural habitats. The 53 types of natural nesting sites identified were classified as Cavity-type nesting sites in Building structures (CB), Cavity-type nesting sites in non-Building structures (CNB), and Non-Cavity type nesting sites in non-Building structures  (NCNB). A total of 1820 natural nests were discovered, of which 1338 were located in nesting sites of the CB type, which came in 19 different varieties, 253 in those of the CNB type, which came in 15 variations, and 229 in those of the NCNB type, which came in 19 types. The most preferred nesting site in each of the groups was identified to be the space between wooden joists in buildings (CB), pipe holes in highway bridges (CNB), and electric meter boxes (NCNB). Along the rural, suburban, and urban gradients, it was discovered that CB-type nesting sites were the most favoured nesting locations. A high positive association between the population of house sparrows and the amount of accessible natural nesting places was discovered (R = 0.99). Being opportunistic secondary cavity-nesters, house sparrows exhibit flexibility in choosing nesting sites, in the absence of cavity-type nests. Therefore, it can be concluded that, by providing suitable nesting sites, this species could be conserved in areas with a declining population index.

A Review of the Past and the Present Cases of Human African Trypanosomiasis in South Sudan

Yatta S. Lukou, Erneo B. Ochi

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 8, 8 September 2022, Page 114-125

Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a lethal parasitic disease transmitted by tsetse flies. It was first reported in Southern Sudan, in the early 1900s and most likely introduced into Southern Sudan during the colonial era. South Sudan seceded from Sudan in 2011. The Country infrastructures were destroyed during the war and South Sudan is now rebuilding its health infrastructure. The World Health Organization set a road map for elimination of Human African Trypanosomiasis in all the endemic countries. South Sudan’s National Ministry of Health and its international partners consecrate a lot of efforts to control and eliminate Human African Trypanosomiasis, but cases continue to be reported. The aim of this paper is to review cases of Human African Trypanosomiasis, shading light on the past and the present cases and elucidating causes that might have led to persistence of the disease in some known foci in the country. Data on Human African Trypanosomiasis cases were gathered from a number of pertinent sources, including disease reports from the World Health Organization (WHO) from 1956 to 2018. HAT events were thus classified into the following four historical eras: The First Civil War (1955-1972); the post-Addis Ababa Accord (1973-1982); the Second Civil War (1983-2004); and the post-Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) as of 2005- 2018. The highest HAT cases of 16,539 (52.3%) occurred during the Second Civil War, followed by 7,708 (24.37%) cases in post Addis Ababa Accord; 5,164 (16.33%) cases in post-CPA, and 2,215 (7.0%) cases during the First Civil War totaling ton 31,626 cases. Low HAT prevalence in the 1950s and 1960s might be due to deployment of effective control measures. HAT high prevalence rate during the Second Civil War could be ascribed to political disruptions, instability and civil unrest. At present, no HAT cases reported from Akobo and Pachalla foci in Jonglei State of South Sudan. All HAT past foci of South Sudan are still active with exception of Raga in Western Bahr El-Ghazal State. 

A Semi-field Test with Natural and Analogous Acetogenins as Bioinsecticide

José Ruiz Hidalgo, Adriana Neske

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 8, 8 September 2022, Page 126-140

This work set out to find the ideal concentration and screening new natural insecticides against second instar larvae of S. frugiperda, under glasshouse conditions on Zea mays L. Spodoptera frugiperda is a pest that affects corn crops among others and has a great capacity to develop resistance to traditional insecticides, which represents enough reasons for the search, of new alternatives for their control. Natural products were evaluated, annonaceous acetogenins and some acetylated and methoxy methylated ACG derivatives and the commercial product Lambda-cyhalotrin (LC).
Percent mortalities of S. frugiperda larvae in glasshouse settings were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours of treatment administration. The findings demonstrated that the tested acetogenins significantly (P < 0.05) differed from the untreated control in terms of insect mortality. After 72 h of treatment application the highest percent mortalities were obtained with the mixture of two natural products, rolliniastatin-2 (5) (100 \(\mu\)g/mL) + squamocin (6) (100 \(\mu\)g/mL) + LC (50 \(\mu\)g/mL) that proved the most effective and gave (100%), while rolliniastatin-2 (5) at 100 \(\mu\)g/mL alone, gave lowest percent mortality (65%), followed by squamocin (6) at 100 \(\mu\)g/mL (55%) and LC at 50 \(\mu\)g/mL (30%). The acetylated and methoxy methylated ACGs derivatives caused very low mortality (25 - 35%). It is recommended the mixture of components for integrated pest management. The results allow us to infer that the addition of natural ACGs synergizes the insecticidal activity of the commercial product. Finding for insect control, a new ecological alternative.

Hemovigilance Today - The Facts and the Fictions

Cees Th. Smit Sibinga

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 8, 8 September 2022, Page 141-148

Total quality management in blood collection and transfusion requires monitoring risks from ‘vein-to-vein’ i.e., from blood collector and manufacturer to transfusion at the bedside and back. Hemovigilance is a set of surveillance procedures covering the entire transfusion chain from the follow-up of recipients of transfusions to the donation of blood and its components as a total quality management assessment tool. Hemovigilance was initiated in Japan in 1993 and in France in 1994 and has been adopted since in many countries throughout the world. Some of these systems reside within and are mandated by a national ministry of health, while others are primarily organized through professional societies or the country’s blood system. The main objective should be sharing of data to all concerned.
A good hemovigilance system should include data collection (including both numerators and denominators), analysis by experts, production of recommendations to improve practice, communication back to the front line, and education. Clear definitions are essential, and it is critical that experts examine each reported case carefully. Well-established systems have demonstrated, in various ways, how hemovigilance data can improve outcomes for patients. The ability to monitor outcomes of interventions is critical in improving safety. Likewise, donor systems can assist in reducing errors and accidents in the donation process. As a matter of fact, hemovigilance should be an integral part of the system wherever transfusion medicine is practiced, and should also be expanded to include biovigilance for other substances of human origin such as cells, tissues and organs. It is a fiction to believe that simple registration of adverse transfusion effects is hemovigilance, in the absence of a mature quality system and related quality system management.