Editor(s)

Associate Professor,
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kano University of Science and Technology (KUST) Wudil, Nigeria.

ISBN 978-93-91595-72-2 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91595-80-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1

This book covers key areas of science and technology. The contributions by the authors include electromagnetism, axiomatics, unity of classical physics, Lorentz force, Helmholtz force, Lipschitz force, Poisson equation, Yukawa equation, Klein-Gordon equation, cognitive communication, cortical lesion, subcortical lesion, network security, cloud security, cybersecurity, securing work-from-home, COVID-19, SWOT analysis, Cameroonian mining code, ethnomethodology, inappropriate laws, extractive field, hybridization, DNA fingerprinting, physical properties, mechanical properties, wood modification, elasticity, economic analysis, grain quality, general physical uncertainty relations, heisenberg uncertainity principle, heisenberg uncertainity relations, lorentz transformations, planck constant, theory of special relativity, ZnO nanoparticles, graphite, bandgap and electrical conductivity, fuzzy sets, entropy, intutionistic fuzzy sets, intutionistic fuzzy divergence, multi-attribute decision making tool, glycosaminoglycans, hydrolysis, GAGs content, bio compounds, hydrophilic and negatively charged surface, amphoteric articular cartilage, interfacial energy, friction coefficient, model of hydrophilic lubrication, voice recognition, wireless communication, Bluetooth connectivity, infrared, microcontroller, assistive technology. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology.

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### Chapters

##### The Mechanical Roots of Hehl & Obuchov’s Principles of Electromagnetism - A Contribution to the Unity of Classical Physics

Peter Enders

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 1-17
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/11842D

I examine the relationships of Hehl & Obuchov’s principles of electromagnetism to classical mechanics and show that the most important ones can be reduced to point-mechanical principles as established by Newton, Euler, Lagrange and Helmholtz. This means that the Maxwell-Lorentz equations and the Lorentz force are largely determined by, or at least connected with the laws of classical pointmechanics. This is hopefully a significant step towards the unity of classical physics. A mechanical model of electromagnetic phenomena is not sought for.

##### Determination of Cognitive Communicative Deficits in Adults with Stroke

V. Jaya, R. Johnsi Rani, V. Monish

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 18-25
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/3604F

Aim:  To compare the cognitive communicative performance of Stroke patients with that of normal subjects and also, to compare the cognitive communicative performance across stroke subgroups of cortical lesion and subcortical lesion.

Materials and Methods: 15 stroke patients (experimental group) and 15 neurologically healthy individuals (control group) were taken. In the experimental group, 7 had cortical and 8 had subcortical  lesion. Scale of Cognitive and Communicative Ability for Neurorehabilitation (SCCAN) test was used for assessing cognitive communicative abilities of all the subjects.

Results: The stroke patients as a group performed significantly poorer when compared to that of control group on SCCAN. The performance of stroke patients was more impaired on memory scale compared to other scales of SCCAN. The cognitive communicative performance of patients within the experimental group showed that subcortical stroke patients performed poorer when compared to the cortical stroke patients  on SCCAN.

Conclusion: This study highlights on the nature of cognitive communicative deficits in stroke patients.

##### A Study on Rapid Adoption of Zero Trust Network Architectures by Global Organizations Due to COVID-19 Pandemic

Aniket Deshpande

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 26-33
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/3640F

As organizations evaluate different methods to improve data security, they must shift to find the best alternative means to secure the servers. Zero Trust Network Architecture (ZTNA) has become the focus of many institutions to prevent data loss, especially from the employees working remotely due to the spread of COVID-19, requiring people to keep social distance minimize risks of an attack. Zero trust employs a multifactor authentication process that requires all users to verify their identity or the device they are using before using a network. This security procedure has been useful in eliminating the castle-and-moat concept's weaknesses that were initially used and could allow an individual to navigate freely through a network once they penetrated the firewall. The Zero trust does not allow the penetration and further segment of different materials; therefore, an individual cannot access all materials once in a network. This cybersecurity method will be advantageous post COVID-19 to deliver a simplified user experience enabling them to manage and find the contents with ease. For the customers, the architecture creates a uniform platform that can be used to amplify the security. The technology is a must for cost-benefit analysis for every organization considering its potential to help avoid potential security and financial losses. Hence this article aims to study the overall motivations including challenges and benefits for organizations that have either adopted or in midst of evaluating different options including ZTNA to rapidly enable their workforce to work-from-home in a secure efficient manner.

##### The effects of Rainfall and Discharge on Aquifers in Iran

Dariush Rahimi, Mohsen poorkhosravani

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 34-45
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/10422D

Due to overuse and precipitation changes, the world's most important supply of fresh water, ground water, is experiencing a quantitative and qualitative decrease. These issues are particularly evident in some dry, low-precipitation locations, such as Iran.  Because of its physiographic qualities and concentration of developable lands, Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari province, which provides around 10% of Iran's water resources, is also reliant on groundwater resources (more than 85% of consumed water).This condition has resulted in a significant drop in groundwater levels and quality. The water levels and quality of groundwater in the Javanmardi region, which serves as the province's agricultural and habitation poles, are rapidly dwindling.We will evaluate hydro-climatological aspects to find the major reasons of this problem in this research. The results show that water levels are influenced by precipitation changes and the natural logarithm of annual flows, and that there is a substantial relationship between the two (0.28 and 0.744 for rainfall and discharge).These two elements in the third space account for more than 56% of the examined region's water table level changes. We also used SWOT analysis to come up with some strategic options for preventing this. In addition, the finding indictor that water surface and runoff can regenerate aquifers.

##### Study on Long-term effects on Political-Administrative Incompetence Dissimulated in the Miner Code in Cameroon

Salomon Bissohong

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 46-57
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/10309D

If most countries in the world that are amongst the most influential can swagger because of their economic, military, socio-political, more over strategic powers, Cameroon’s case is quite different. In fact, the principal objective of this article remained that extractive wealth in which the State of Cameroon should draw its power, proof of its self-determination lags behind to open out. In this country precisely, our framework made up of the localities Dompta, Belel and Belabo, the mining code which could indicate this honorable profile remains unfortunately filled with impertinent with regard to locale population welfare. We also note a hypothesis of conscious absence of ingenuity of its politico-administrative bodies, resulting of inappropriate character of the laws witch contrast with the requirements needs for the residents of the aforesaid activities. The ethnomethodology of Harold Garfinkel which takes into account the « co-construction » the social actors are able for a better explanation of social by (the accountability), has been adopted as sociological method. The following instruments for data collection were used: documentary observations, (direct and indirect) observation, have become relevant for the realization of this work. The results obtained at the end of this sociological investigation revealed that after several decades of its use, and its lots of amendments, 1- this exclusive legal instrument of business has till date never produced the desired welfare. 2- The country illustrates more of itself instead as a burden, a dead load geostrategic to more than a title, in spite of its economic vitality and the pride it has. 3- The limelight the origins of these disagreements.

##### Application of RAPD-PCR for DNA-Fingerprinting of Egyptian Tilapia

H. Soufy, A. M. Laila, M. K. A. Iman

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 58-63
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/10607D

In this investigation, RAPD-PCR was used to examine the DNA-fingerprint and the similarity among three tilapia fish in Egypt, Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Tilapia zilli. Evaluate of common patterns of genetic variations or similarities among three species of tillapine through the DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed in this study using RAPD-PCR (Random amplified polymerase chain reaction) using 10 arbitrary primers, out of 10 primers used, 7 primers gave strong sharp distinct bands. The 7 primers produced atotalof 15, 13, 16, 14, 18, 14 and 17 bands respectively. Depending on the similarity coefficient through the used primers, the similarity between Oreochromis niloticus and Oreochromis galilaius was 95% and between Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zilli was 80% and between Oreochromis galilaius and Tilapia zilli was 75%. The values of the genetic distances obtained were utilized to generate a distance matrix to construct a dendrogram which linked the studied species. The results of DNA fingerprinting of the studied fishes can be taken into consideration as a joint patterns of similarity and probability of Hybridization between the very closed species to improve the genetic characters. It can be concluded also that, RAPD-PCR could prove to be a useful tool for estimating the genetic variability and degree of similarity among fish species.

##### Properties of the Oil Heat-Treated 10 and 15 Years-old Cultivated Tectona Grandis

Nasihah Mokhtar, Taharah Edin, Razak Wahab, Ros Syazmini Mohd Ghani, Mohamad Saiful Sulaiman, Muhammad Haziq Razak, Sofiyah Mohd Razali

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 64-84
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/3846F

Ten (10and fifteen (15) years-old cultivated Tectona grandis (teak) were oil heat-treated to studied their properties improvement. The middle portion of T. grandis was selected and treated at 160ºC, 200ºC, and 240ºC for 2 hours. The study investigated the effectiveness of treated and non-treated T. grandis based on their physical and mechanical properties. The physical tests performed included the moisture content, maximum density, basic density, and volumetric shrinkage. In the mechanical test, the strength in the static bending focused on the modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR). The compression test carried out based on parallel to the grain (MOR) of the wood. The oil heat-treated T. grandis possess better physical properties than untreated wood, but their mechanical properties decrease slightly. Ten-year-old T. grandis shows better physical and mechanical properties than 15 year’s old T. grandis. The heartwood possesses an overall better physical and mechanical characteristic. Broadly, the oil-heat treatment improves cultivated teak properties and made it suitable for various high-value applications.

##### Investigating the effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Application on Yield Attributes, Grain Yield and Quality of Rain Fed Rice (NERICA-3) in Gambella, Southwestern Ethiopia

Shiferaw Nesgea, Heluf Gebrekidan, J. J. Sharma, Tareke Berhe

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 85-102
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/10823D

A field experiment was carried out during the 2008 and 2009 crop seasons at Imla, Gambella Zuria District, Gambella, southwestern Ethiopia, to establish the application rates of N and P fertilizers for rice variety NERICA-3 (Oryza sativa x Oryza glaberrima). Rice can produce grain yield as high as 10-18 t ha-1 in countries advanced in its cultivation . However, its productivity in Ethiopia in particular (2.31 t ha-1 of paddy rice) and in Africa at large is much below its world average (4.35 t ha-1 of paddy rice) due to improper crop management practices. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations of four rates each of N (0, 46, 92 and 138 kg N ha-1) and P (0, 23, 46 and 69 kg P ha-1) laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The effects of year showed significant (P $$\le$$ 0.05 for some and P $$\le$$ 0.01 for most) differences for leaf area index (LAI), 1000-grain weight, plant height, panicle length and grain qualities. Similarly, the effects of N were significant (P $$\le$$ 0.01) for productive tillers plant-1, grains panicle-1, LAI, plant height, panicle length, grain yield, crude protein, ether extract and crude fiber. Growth, yield, and quality components did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) due to application of P except crude fiber. Conversely, the effects of year by N interaction were significant (P $$\le$$ 0.05 and/or P $$\le$$ 0.01) for LAI, panicle length, grains panicle-1, crude fiber, plant height and ether extract. Effects of year by P interaction were significant only for crude fiber whereas the interaction effects of N by P and year by N by P on growth, yield and quality parameters were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Rice grain yield increased from 3.54 to 5.90 tons per hectare (t ha-1) with increase in level of N from the control to 92 kg N ha-1 but decreased with further increase of N. In conclusion, sensitivity analysis on coexisting changes in field prices of inputs and rice grain (±15%) showed that 92 kg N gave the highest (681.53%) marginal rate of return (MRR) followed by 23 kg P ha-1 (117.44%). Therefore, application of 92 kg N ha-1 to improve grain yield of rain fed NERICA-3 rice might be more profitable even under risky market situations in and around the study area.

##### Study on Uncertainty Relations as a Consequence of the Lorentz Transformations

V. N. Matveev, O. V. Matvejev

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 103-113
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/4061F

A macroscopic object equipped with synchronized clocks is examined. General physical relations are directly derived from Lorentz transformations for the case of one-dimensional motion (along the X axis) – the uncertainty relation of the object's x coordinate and the projection of its impulse along the X axis, px, and the uncertainty relation of the object's observation time, t, and its energy, E. The relations take the form: $$\Delta$$px$$\Delta$$x $$\ge$$ H and $$\Delta$$E$$\Delta$$t $$\ge$$ H. The H value in the relation has action dimensions and is dependent upon the precision of the rod's clocks and its mass. It is shown that if the macroscopic object in and of itself performs the function of an ideal physical clock, the relations derived in the limiting case then take the form of $$\Delta$$px$$\Delta$$x $$\ge$$ h and $$\Delta$$E$$\Delta$$t $$\ge$$ h, where h is the Planck constant.

##### ZnO Doped Graphite Nanocomposite via Agathosma Betulina Natural Extract with Improved Bandgap and Electrical Conductivity: Experimental Investigation

F. T. Thema, A. Ishaq, R. H. Ahmad, M. Arshad, N. Z. Ali, . Matthe-ur-Rahman, M. Maaza

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 114-122
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/3545F

This contribution reports for the first time on green synthesized Zinc Oxide graphite doped (ZnO/G) material that was fabricated and exposed to UV lamp irradiation at 250 nm for 4 hrs. The objective is to induce electrical properties by narrowing the bandgap of the as prepared composite. The morphology and the structure of ZnO and ZnO/G were characterized by high resolution transmission electron (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The Energy Dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the purity of ZnO nanoparticles which is substantiated by the XPS spectrum. Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) reveals decrease in bandgap and reflectance of the irradiated composite with (I-V) character curve showing enhanced ZnO/G electrical conductivity.

##### Intutionistic Fuzzy Divergence – An Applied Approach for Solving Multi – Attribute Decision Making

Anjali Munde

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 123-128
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/2403F

Atanassov recommended the idea of intutionistic fuzzy set, that is depicted with a membership function and a non- membership function, as an outcome simplifying Zadeh’s fuzzy sets which merely allocate a membership degree to each element. In the present paper Intutionistic Fuzzy Divergence Measure involving two parameters along with their proofs of validity is introduced. Further, it is shown that Intutionistic Fuzzy Divergence Measure has monotonic decreasing behavior with respect to the two parameters. Finally, a numerical illustration associated to decision making is employed to prove feasibility and efficacy of suggested technique.

##### Studies on Optimization of Papain Hydrolysis Conditions for Release of Glycosaminoglycans from the Chicken Keel Cartilage

Nguyen Thi Le Vien, Pham Bao Nguyen, Lam Duc Cuong, Trinh Thi Thua An, Dong Thi Anh Dao

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 129-140
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/2364F

This study focused on the optimization of papain hydrolysis conditions (pH, E/S ratio, incubation temperature and hydrolysis time) for receiving of glycosaminoglycans from the chicken keel cartilages. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are natural biocompounds that unite to form cartilage tissuses in sharks, pigs, cows, chickens, and other animals. They can be isolated from cartilage of sharks, pigs, cows, chickens, and other animals. Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a supplement of functional food used to prevent and promote the treatment of arthritis and eye problems, is included in GAGs. Therefore, the GAGs extraction from byproducts of the industry of cattle and poultry slaughter to identify the CS content by papain enzyme is necessary. In this study, the optimal hydrolysis conditions were obtained by response surface methodology (RSM). The independent variables were coded as: pH (x1), enzyme concentration (x2), incubation temperature (x3) and hydrolysis time (x4). The findings of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the variables had a significant impact on the content of GAGs.The best hydrolysis conditions were determined to be pH 7.1, 0.62 percent enzyme per substance w/wpo, 65°C, and a hydrolysis period of 230 minutes, with GAG content reaching 14.3 percent of the dry matter of the raw material. Analyzes by HPLC revealed that 56.17% of the dry preparations of GAGs were CS compound, were equivalent to 8.11% of the dry matter of chicken keel cartilage. Molecular weight of the dry preparations GAGs was 259.6 kDa. The dry preparations included the contents of moisture 12.2%, protein 8.42%, lipid 0%, ash 10.03% and extracted GAGs 69.35%. In this work papain used to hydrolyse chicken keel cartilage. The hydrolysis conditions were optimized by RSM using Mode 5.0 software. . This article contribute to make a product is good for health, high quality and reduce costs.

##### Study on Natural Joints: Hydrophilic and Negatively Charged Cartilage Surface effect Friction

Michal Sojka, Zenon Pawlak

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 141-146
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/4074F

It is a physical phenomenon for biological systems that the cartilage surface is hydrophilic and negatively charged. However, there is a lack of knowledge about some parameters possessed by cartilage surface, e.g., interfacial surface energy, amphoteric, wettability, negatively charged bilayers, and lamellar slippage. Some of these parameters will be taken from literature to support and correct Hills [1] hydrophobic lubrication model which is hydrophilic and negatively charged. Phospholipids as lubricant are highly self-organized biomolecules in aqueous media, and their structure lets them form spontaneously vesicles, lamellar phases, and bilayers (see Fig. 1). Verification of hydrophobic or hydrophilic model, the following studies have been undertaken: Interfacial energy, Friction (cartilage/cartilage) pair, and wettability cartilage surface (values measured for the air-dry surfaces).

##### Voice-Actuated Wheelchair using Arduino

Tan Kian Hou, Yagasena Appannah, Chelladurai Sinkaram, Krishnan Subramaniam

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 11 August 2021, Page 147-155
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v1/12369D

The objective of this research is to develop an affordable voice-actuated wheelchair to assist people with both upper and lower limb disabilities. An Arduino microcontroller processes the voice command from the speech recognition module and controls the motor movement of the wheelchair. Bluetooth module was also used to do away with messy wiring and an optional joystick command was also incorporated into the prototype design. The success rate of the wheelchair to recognize the voice commands in English, Chinese and Malay was very high. A voice-actuated wheelchair prototype was successfully developed by modifying a commonly available manual wheelchair. The overall cost of the prototype was kept to a minimum to make it affordable.