Editor(s)
Dr. Ahmed Medhat Mohamed Al-Naggar
Professor of Plant Breeding,
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

ISBN 978-93-5547-045-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-046-1 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nvbs/v3

This book covers key areas of biological science. The contributions by the authors include complexity, category theory, entropy, information, evolution, biological time, complexity, information, entropy, structuredness measure, dissipative and post-dissipative structures, structure genesis, temporal structures, time measured by complex numbers, mitochondrial genome, Chargaff’s parity rules, nucleotide content, normalization, vertebrates, invertebrates, primates, human being, cerebral, fingers, origin of life, primitive organisms, hymenotera, natural enemy, bibliographic summary, fluorescence analysis, physicochemical character, fresh water crab, feeding behaviour, vacuity indices, missense mutation, endothelium, flow-induced paracrine mechanisms, nitric oxide, prostaglandins, epithelial Na channel, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanomaterials, eutrophication. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of biological science.

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Chapters

Entropy, Information, and Complexity or Which Aims the Arrow of Time? Scientific Explanation

George E. Mikhailovsky, Alexander P. Levich

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 3, 18 September 2021, Page 1-23
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvbs/v3/12976D

In this article, we analyze the interrelationships among such notions as entropy, information, complexity, order and chaos and show using the theory of categories how to generalize the second law of thermodynamics as a law of increasing generalized entropy or a general law of complification. This law could be applied to any system with morphisms, including all of our universe and its subsystems. We discuss how such a general law and other laws of nature drive the evolution of the universe, including physicochemical and biological evolutions. In addition, we determine eliminating selection in physicochemical evolution as an extremely simplified prototype of natural selection. Laws of nature do not allow complexity and entropy to reach maximal values by generating structures. One could consider them as a kind of “breeder” of such selection. Irreversibility of time is expressed as the increase in entropy, information, degrees of freedom, and complexity, which raise monotonically with respect to each other.

Time, Entropy and Structuredness in Biological Systems and Their Dynamics in the Process of Development and Evolution

George Mikhailovsky

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 3, 18 September 2021, Page 24-49
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvbs/v3/13094D

Evolution in modern science is one of the clear manifestations of the one-pointedness of time and its direction. As we showed earlier, algorithmic complexity, like Shannon's information and Boltzmann's entropy, tends to increase per the general law of complication. This tendency determines this direction of time and evolution. However, the algorithmic complexity of most material systems does not reach its maximum, that is, a chaotic state, due to this or that law of nature that create various structures. The complexity of such structures is very different from the algorithmic complexity, and I propose a formula for calculating such structural complexity, which I called structuredness. The structure of any material system depends on the structures of three main types: stable, dissipative, and post-dissipative. The latter is defined as stable structures created by dissipative, directly or indirectly. The appearance of such structures can lead to the occurrence of "ratchet" processes that determine the structuregenesis in inanimate and, especially, in living systems. The limit of the structuregenesis (maximal structuredness) of a system depends on its entropy capacity. For simple systems, this capacity, equal to the maximum entropy, is determined only by the size of the system (the number of its elements). In the more complex cases, however, the entropy capacity may also depend on the number of types of elements, the number of levels of its structural hierarchy, and the thickness of the temporal structure of the system. The temporal structure of biological systems, especially those highly organized, such as eukaryotes and multicellular organisms, is quite complex and even 2-dimensional. This 2-dimensionality of biological time adds another dimension to entropy capacity. Representation of biological time by complex numbers allows us to combine the exponential growth of organisms and their periodic physiological processes with the same dynamic equation. Finally, I consider the specific dynamics of the internal entropy of living organisms in a complex time.

Study on Ultimate Human Evolution: Cooperation of Cerebral and Five-fingernail Development

Kenji Sorimachi

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 3, 18 September 2021, Page 50-64
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvbs/v3/12202D

Contents of the four DNA nucleotides were normalized to investigate biological evolution because these values are derived from the complete genome sequences and are independent of genome size and species. First, it was confirmed that cytosine (C) content calculated from the complete mitochondrial genome reflected biological evolution. Next, the reason why human being (Homo sapiens) whose mitochondrial C content is not the highest among the organisms examined is the most evolved organism has been evaluated. A bird, the pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), had the highest C content (0.347) among the present animals examined, and this resulted in the acquirement of wings, which donate the free dimensional behavior in the sky. Cuvier's dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus) possessed the highest C content among reptiles (0.340) and has acquired hard skin to prevent predation and a strong jaw to catch prey. Among mammalian mitochondrial genomes, orangutans (Pongo abelii and P. pygmaeus) had the highest C contents (0.327 and 0.324, respectively). The C content of humans (Homo sapiens) was 0.313, and those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and P. paniscus) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) were 0.307–0.308. The primates with the highest mitochondrial C contents have unique morphological characteristics that represent adaptations to tree-dwelling because they make it possible to escape from ground predators and obtain fruit. In particular, their hand structure consists of five fingers with nails, and the functional and geometrical positions of the thumb relative to the other fingers are extremely important for grasping items such as branches. In addition, human cerebral development might contribute to biological evolution. Thus, the cooperation of manipulative finger function and cerebral development achieved the most complex biological evolution, although human genomic structure does not necessarily reflect this.

Study of the Parasitoids of Arthropods Pest in Brazil: A Mini Review

Carlos Henrique Marchiori

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 3, 18 September 2021, Page 65-77
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvbs/v3/1924C

As a result, populations of certain species of herbivores, such as insects and mites phytophagous, become numerically so high that they damage the crops to the point of reducing their productivity and, consequently, their economic income. The aim of the mini review is to carry out a study of the parasitoids of arthropods pest in Brazil. The research was carried out in studies related to the theme with emphasis on the quantitative and conceptual aspects of the genera, and species (Taxonomic groups). A bibliographic search was carried out that contained papers published from 1987 to June 2021. The mini review was prepared in Goiânia, Goiás from March to June 2021 using the Electronic Scientific Library Online (Scielo) and internet. Thus, biological control aims to reduce the population level of a species classified as a pest, keeping it below the level in which it is capable of causing economic harm.

Study on Phytochemical Analysis of Begonia cordifolia

S. Amutha, T. Sree Devi Kumari

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 3, 18 September 2021, Page 78-83
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvbs/v3/4506F

The present work enumerates the preliminary phytochemical analysis, fluorescence analysis, physicochemical character and quantitative estimation of leaf extract of Begonia cordifolia, which belongs to Begoniaceae. The phytochemicals which are naturally present in the medicinal plants posses a very great amount of defense mechanism which in turn protects the mankind from various diseases. The leaf sample of B.cordifolia was extracted using different solvents such as Hexane, Ethyl acetate, Acetone, Methanol and Aqueous. The preliminary phytochemicals such as saponin, protein, phenol, steroid, catachin, triterpenoids, sugar and reducing sugar were predominantly present in sample. In fluorescence analysis, the leaf powder showed different colours in various extracts. The physico- chemical determinations of the methanol extract of Begonia cordifolia leaves showed the maximum extractive values and hexane extract showed the minimum value. The quantitative analysis of B. cordifolia leaves contained high quantity of phenols and flavonoids.

Determination of Gartro-Somatic and Feeding Indices of Freshwater Crab Barytelphusa lugubris from Kathmandu, Nepal

Saroj Rana

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 3, 18 September 2021, Page 84-94
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvbs/v3/12223D

Gastro-somatic, feeding and vacuity indices of fresh water crab Barytelphusa lugubris were determined by collecting 692 crabs from Sangla Kunchi Pwakal, Village Development Committee, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 2007 to April 2008. The collected crabs were killed with chloroform and weighed. Crabs were dissected and complete alimentary canal was weighed. Then finally, only the contents from the stomach was removed, weighed and recorded. The seasonal and monthly gastro- somatic (GSI), feeding (FI) and vacuity indices were analyzed. The result indicated that the minimum and maximum (GSI) was (2.29) in summer (September) and (3.70) in spring (April 08) with significant fluctuations (p-value = 3.36e-12<0.05) for 13 months. Similarly, minimum and maximum FI recorded was (4.52) in autumn (November) and maximum (24.85) in spring (July) respectively. Similarly minimum and maximum vacuity index (VI) was (11.11) in spring (April, 2008) and (89.29) in autumn, (November). The mean coefficient of variance for gastro-somatic and feeding indices were 29.06% and 86.89% respectively. This indicates mores table GSI compared to FI.

Impact Analysis of Missense Variants of Unknown Significance Using the TRPV4 Protein as a Model: A Study Guide

Ligia Silva Pondé Serra, Juliane da Silva Ferreira, Kamila de Oliveira e Silva, Sérgio Amorim de Alencar

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 3, 18 September 2021, Page 95-105
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvbs/v3/13501D

The TRPV4 protein is a channel protein that acts as a calcium channel. This channel, which carries positively charged calcium atoms (calcium ions) across cell membranes, is found in many types of cells and tissues. Dysfunctions in this protein have been associated with several diseases such as: vascular stiffness, chronic asthma, dermatological pathologies such as psoriasis and rosacea; neuromuscular disease, progressive peripheral neuropathy and skeletal dysplasias. Among the possible causes of these dysfunctions, are the changes of a single nucleotide (SNVs) in the coding region of the TRPV4 gene that can affect the protein’s function. This study aims to analyze the possible impact of 29 variants of unknown significance (VUSs) identified in the TRPV4 gene. A total of 11 SNV in silico impact prediction tools were used to assess the impact of these changes. The results showed that among the 29 missense VUSs initially studied, 5 were classified as deleterious (Ala245Thr, Ala377Val, Ile678Ser, Arg746Cys and Glu797Gly) by at least 10 of 11 programs used ($$\ge$$ 80%). Among these, 2 SNVs (Ala377Val and Ile678Ser) are located in highly conserved regions of the TRPV4 gene. Although they have great importance as preliminary prediction tools, this computational approach must be complemented with other studies so that it can be concluded about the impact of the studied SNVs.

Coronary Luminal Endothelial Lectinic Proteins upon Binding to N-Acetylglucosamine Become the Sensors to Flow That Induce Cardiac Paracrine-Dependent Responses

Juan Ramiro-Diaz, Alma Barajas-Espinosa, Erika Chi-Ahumada, Sandra Perez-Aguilar, David Torres-Tirado, Jesus Castillo-Hernandez, Maureen Knabb, Ana Barba de la Rosa, Rafael Rubio

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 3, 18 September 2021, Page 106-124
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvbs/v3/1940C

Paracrine effectors modify parenchymal processes when coronary blood flow is applied to the endothelial lumen, although the mechanism of flow feeling is unknown. We and others have shown that oligosaccharides and lectins in the coronary endothelial luminal membrane (CELM) are involved in flow detection, and we hypothesized that cardiac effects of coronary flow are caused by a reversible flow-modulated lectin-oligosaccharide interaction. Lectins are a group of proteins widely distributed in nature that have high affinity for specific oligosaccharide sequences, a feature behind specific molecule-molecule recognitions The role of glycosylated and amiloride-sensitive Na+/Ca++ channels (ENaCs) in flow-induced endothelial responses has recently been hypothesized. Because N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNac) is a key component of glycocalyx oligosaccharides (i.e., hyaluronan (-4GlcUA$$\beta$$1-3GlcNAc$$\beta$$1-]n), the goal of this study is to isolate and characterize CELM GlcNac-binding lectins and establish their function in cardiac and vascular flow-induced effects. We created a 460-kDa GlcNac polymer (GlcNac-Pol) with excellent affinity for GlcNac-recognizing lectins for this purpose. Intracoronary treatment of GlcNac-Pol, which binds to CELM, reduces flow-dependent positive inotropic and dromotropic effects in the heart. GlcNac-Pol was also utilized as an affinity probe to isolate CELM GlcNac-Pol-recognizing lectins, yielding at least 35 lectinic peptides, one of which was the -ENaC channel. Some of these lectins may be involved in GlcNac-Pol-induced actions and flow sensing. We also used a flow-responsive and well-accepted model of endothelial-parenchymal paracrine interaction, in which isolated blood vessels were perfused at constant flow rates. We discovered that endothelial luminal membrane (ELM) bound GlcNac-Pol, nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin, amiloride, and hyaluronidase prevent flow-induced vasodilation (FIV). Infusion of soluble hyaluronan reversed the impact of hyaluronidase. These findings suggest that GlcNac-Pol inhibits FIV by competing with intrinsic hyaluronan attached to a lectinic structure, such as the amiloride-sensitive ENaC, and displacing it. The hypothesized paracrine mediators of FIV are nitric oxide and prostaglandins.

Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Effect on Plant and Microbial Growth

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 3, 18 September 2021, Page 125-141
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvbs/v3/12590D

Carbon nanotubes, made of graphene, one of the world’s strongest material, has shown properties that are used in applications such as energy storage devices, electron emission devices, and environmental engineering application. Recently, researchers have focused on determining the effects of carbon nanotubes on soil microorganisms and plants.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if the multi-walled carbon nanotubes will affect the growth of Phaseolus vulgaris as well as inhibit the growth of select soil microbes.

Methods: The effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes were determined on bean plants grown under hydroponic conditions and on select soil microbes. Two weeks after germination, the plants were exposed to different concentrations of dispersed multi-walled carbon. The different concentrations were 0 ug (control), 50 $$\mu$$g, 250 $$\mu$$g, 500 $$\mu$$g, 750 $$\mu$$g and 1000 $$\mu$$g mL- 50 $$\mu$$g, 250 $$\mu$$g, 500 $$\mu$$g, 750 $$\mu$$g and 1000 $$\mu$$g mL-1. The growth was reported weekly by measuring the plants themselves, the diameter of the leaf, length and width, the roots, and the fruits. Cultures of Mesorhizobium sp. and Nitrosomonas stercoris were exposed to the 0ug (control), 50 $$\mu$$g, 250 $$\mu$$g, 500 $$\mu$$g, 750 $$\mu$$g and 1000 $$\mu$$g mL-1 of dispersed MWCNTs then incubated in the BioScreen reader. The optical density was reported every 30 minutes for 24 hours.

Results: Our results showed that at 50 $$\mu$$g/mL, bean plants exhibited tolerance to the multi-walled carbon nanotubes whereas at 250 $$\mu$$g/mL and 500 $$\mu$$g/mL of MWCNTs plants showed reduced growth and development and even plant death. Aliquots of 750 $$\mu$$g/mL and above of MWCNTs lowered the microbial biomass. The presence of high concentrations of carbon nanotubes is likely to cause stress to microbes and the direct contact of CNTs with microbes could damage their cell membrane leading to cell death.

Conclusion: As results of this study, the concentration of multi-walled carbon nanotubes should be set at a maximum of 500 $$\mu$$g mL-1 when being released to the soil or environment.

Investigating the Effect of Dissolved Oxygen on Rotifers of Chakki Talab, Bodhan, Telangana, India

Vasudha Lingampally, V. R. Solanki, D. L. Anuradha, S. Sabita Raja

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 3, 18 September 2021, Page 142-147
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvbs/v3/3829F

The purpose of this study was to look at the diversity and abundance of rotifers in Chakki talab, Bodhan, Telangana, in relation to dissolved oxygen.  Rotifer distribution and diversity is influenced by deteriorating quality of water in freshwater ecosystems and eutrophication. From October 2015 to September 2016, rotifers from seven genera were studied, and their density was altered by a little shift in dissolved oxygen levels. The eutrophic state of Chakki talab was shown by the dominance of the genera Brachionus and Keratella.