Editor(s)

Dr. Jelena Purenovic
Assistant Professor,
Department of Physics and Materials, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Kragujevac University, Cacak, Serbia.

ISBN 978-93-90888-18-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90888-26-9 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v4

This book covers key areas of physical science research. The contributions by the authors include hamiltonian, trispatial geometry, trispatial LC equations, quantum of action, quantum of induction, adiabatic energy induction, adiabatic process, acceleration, kinetic energy, conservation of energy, least action, entropy, electromagnetic theory, kinetic energy, photon, acceleration, electron-positron pairs, trispatial geometry, microstructured optical fiber, plastic fiber, nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing, closed irreversible cycles, number of internal irreversibility, reference entropy, operational constraints, irreversible energy efficiency, trigeneration, trigeneration – CCHP, finite physical dimensions design, endo-reversible upper bound carnot constraints, nuclei convolves. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical science research.


Chapters


On Adiabatic Processes at the Subatomic Level

André Michaud

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 4, 5 June 2021, Page 30-62
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v4/1978F

Analysis of adiabatic processes involving elementary electromagnetic particles at the subatomic level and of the manner in which these processes correlate with the Principle of conservation of energy, the Principles of least action and stationary action and entropy. Analysis of the initial irreversible adiabatic acceleration sequence of newly created elementary electromagnetic particles and its relation to these principles. Exploration of the implications if this first initial adiabatic acceleration sequence is not subject to the Principle of conservation.

De Broglie’s Double-Particle Photon

André Michaud

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 4, 5 June 2021, Page 63-102
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v4/1979F

Establishment of an LC equation and of a local fields equation describing per­manently localized photons from the analysis of kinetic energy circulation within the en­ergy structure of the double-particle photon that Louis de Broglie hypothesized in the early 1930's. Among other interesting features, these equations provide a mechanical explanation to the localized photon properties of self-propelling at the speed of light and of self-guiding in straight line when no external interaction tends to deflect its trajectory. This paper summarizes the seminal considerations that led to the establishment of the mechanical conversion processes involving electromagnetic energy and mass from electromagnetic photon emission to nucleon construction from the trispatial geometry perspective.

Specialty Optical Fibers for THz Generation: A Review

Ajanta Barh, R. K. Varshney, G. P. Agrawal, B. M. A. Rahman, B. P. Pal

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 4, 5 June 2021, Page 103-114
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v4/8177D

This chapter describes the state-of-the-art sources of terahertz (THz) radiation, with focus on all-optical fiber-based sources for THz generation. THz technology based on the optical fiber platform is expected to be most attractive for day-to-day applications. Though optical fibers have been considered before for low-loss guidance of THz radiation, their nonlinear effects can also be exploited for THz generation. We discuss how a glass-based legacy step index fiber can be used to make a THz source. However, high absorption losses of silica glass in the THz regime and a small overlap between the modes at the optical and THz frequencies limit the THz generation efficiency to a level below 0.01%. Next, we discuss our design of a THz source based on a plastic fiber. By exploiting the nonlinear parametric process of four-wave mixing (FWM) in an appropriately designed microstructured-core double-clad plastic fiber (MC-DCPF), both the loss and the modal overlap issues can be overcome to a great extent. The microstructure geometry of this fiber allows for fine tuning of the required phase matching condition, group-velocity dispersion, and nonlinear properties at the optical pump wavelength. By using such a MC-DCPF, we show that a THz wave at a frequency near 3 THz can be generated by using two commercially available high-power lasers. The high-power CO2 laser acts as the pump and a CO laser of much lower power acts as a seed for the FWM process. Numerical simulations reveal that more than 30 W of THz power within a bandwidth of 2.13 GHz can be generated at the end of a 65 m long fiber when 1 kW of CO2 laser power is launched together with 20 W of CO laser power. A conversion efficiency of 30% is possible for a loss-less configuration, but efficiency of > 10% is achievable even in the presence of material losses. Recent results show that further optimization of such plastic microstructured fibers can provide conversion efficiencies close to 45%. As an alternative, we have focused on the use of plastic fibers and discussed a design criterion that is promising for realizing large output powers with a relatively high efficiency.

Studies on Closed Irreversible Cycles Analysis Based on Finite Physical Dimensions Thermodynamics

Gheorghe Dumitrascu, Michel Feidt, Stefan Grigorean

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 4, 5 June 2021, Page 115-135
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v4/7746D

The paper develops generalizing entropic approaches of irreversible closed cycles. The mathematical models might be applied to four possible operating irreversible trigeneration cycles. The models involve the reference entropy, the number of internal irreversibility, the thermal conductance inventory, the proper temperatures of external heat reservoirs, the mean log temperature differences, and four possible designing operational constraints. The reference entropy is always the entropy variation rate of the working fluid during the reversible heat input. The number of internal irreversibility allows the evaluation of the reversible heat output via the ratio of overall internal irreversible entropy generation and the reference entropy. The designing operational constraints allow the replacement of the reference entropy function of the convenient finite physical dimensions parameters. The paper presents initially the number of internal irreversibility and the energy efficiency equations for engine and refrigeration cycles. The second part develops, as an example, the influences between the imposed operational constraint and the maximum temperature on the cycle as a finite physical dimensions parameter for the basic Joule – Brayton irreversible cycle. The third part is applying the mathematical models to four possible standalone trigeneration cycles. It was assumed that there are the required consumers of the all useful heat delivered by the trigeneration system. The design of trigeneration system must know the ratios of refrigeration rate to power and of the useful heat rate to power.

Study on Endoreversible Trigeneration Cycles Design Based on Finite Physical Dimensions Thermodynamics

Dumitrascu Gheorghe, Feidt Michel, Popescu Aristotel, Grigorean Stefan

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 4, 5 June 2021, Page 136-157
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v4/5716D

This paper focuses on the finite physical dimensions thermodynamics (FPDT) based design of combined endoreversible power and refrigeration cycles (CCHP). Four operating schemes were analyzed, one for summer season and three for winter season. These basic CCHP cycles should define the reference ones, having the maximum possible energy and exergy efficiencies considering real restrictive conditions. The FPDT design is an entropic approach because it is defining and using the dependences between the reference entropy and the control operational parameters characterizing the external energy interactions of CCHP subsystems. The FPDT introduces a generalization of CCHP systems design, due to the particular influences of entropy variations of the working fluids are substituted with influences of four operational finite dimensions control parameters, i.e. two mean log temperature differences between the working fluids and external heat sources and two dimensionless thermal conductance inventories. Two useful energy interactions, power and cooling rate were used as operational restrictive conditions. It was assumed that there are consumers required for the supplied heating rates depending on the energy operating scheme. The FPDT modeling evaluates main thermodynamic and heat transfers performances. The FPDT model presented in this paper is a general one, applicable to all endoreversible trigeneration cycles. The FPDT design model of the trigeneration component endoreversible cycles emphasizes the cycle internal relationships between the operational functions and the restrictive imposed variable finite physical dimension parameters.

Determining the Model of Nuclear

Buchakchiiskiy Fedor Fedorovich

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 4, 5 June 2021, Page 158-166
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v4/1747F

A nucleus of helium is thought to be the starting point for the formation of all nuclei. The nuclei of all subsequent elements are made up of a chain of nuclei of helium. They are constrained inter se to binding energy equal energy of separation of nucleus of helium.  The nuclei of helium chain coagulates into a ball.