Dr. Sebahattin Tüzemen
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Atatürk University, Turkey.

ISBN 978-93-91595-25-8 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91595-33-3 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v13

This book covers key areas of physical science research. The contributions by the authors include artificial-intelligence, cognition theory, potential transmission, action potential, brain matrix, physical phenomena, atoms, system biology, biological network, toggle switch, stochasticity, special relativity, time dilation, length contraction, applied physics, cantor set, Lebesgue measure, iterated function system, Barnsley-Hutchison multifunction and Markov operator, renewable energy sources, fuel cells, isolated full bridge boost converter and controllers, steady state, Newtonian mechanics, observational studies, kinematics, physical phenomenon, inelastic collision, two-dimensional dynamics, carbon monoxide production and utilization by plants, tunable diode laser, gas analysis, plant microcosm, real-time monitoring, big bang theory, universe, cosmology, astrophysics, astronomy, redshift, high-resolution absorption spectra, near-infrared spectral region, tunable diode lasers, light-fidelity, wireless networks, data security. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical science research.


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The Cognition Theory: Human-Brain Artificial-Intelligence Matrix

John Ibrahim

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 13, 5 August 2021, Page 1-24

Human-Brain Artificial-Intelligence Matrix  is a new technology that aims to connect the human brain with the machine in order to enable the human brainto perform defined functions even if it becomes unable to perform them such as performing the function of vision in case of blindness, the function of hearing in case of deafness, Performing the function of motion in case of paralysis and many other functions.  This technology will be based on the Cognition Theory, in which I suggest that the entire cognition process may be treated quantum-mechanically. Quantum mechanics  is  a  cornerstone  theory in physics that concerns with a description of any physical phenomena at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. The interactions inside the nervous system are mediated by the action potential, which is in its simplest model, can be described as a bunch of electrons; sort of the subatomic particles. Hence, this phenomena is within the scale which is properly described by Quantum mechanics. The cognition starts when a neuron sends data to be processed in the brain and ends in an effector to respond. The data “action potential” is a current of particles which can be described quantum-mechanically as a wave-impulse based on the dual nature of the particles. In both classical and quantum mechanics, neurons are a network of entangled cells. Quantum mechanical potential wells and barriers are created when the action potential modifies the potential of the neurons. The action potential perfectly transmits in and out the neurons through quantum mechanical tunnels. The form of energy before processing is not the same after, but the amount of energy is always conserved. Since the neurons are entangled during the action potential transmission, the brain and effector will be entangled during the action potential processing. The effector’s cognition of data must be a discrete cognition of single-valued data from its self-adjoint matrix which entangled with brain matrix.

The role of biochemical parameters (like rate constant of expression of repressor) to determine the nature of stability for manipulating gene regulation in Escherichia coli is well established with toggle switch model. With the higher order cooperativity of repression of promoters, the robustness of the system increases which in turns help to achieve the bistability in case of weaker promoter. The histogram represents the sudden switching from low to high state. The release of protein concentration with time has studied in two approaches. Effect of noise is studied and observed that noise changes with system size. Noise strength is also measured.

Special relativity is undoubtedly one of the pillars of modern physics where concepts such as time dilation and length contraction subtly play a role in various aspects of nature. Typically veiled under complex and difficult-to-fathom mathematical analysis, the path to understanding these phenomena can leave a novice student lost and confused. In this lecture notes, we attempt to explain and arrive at these concepts using physically intuitive methods and elementary mathematics without the use of advanced mathematical knowledge to make it easier for high school students and amateur enthusiasts to comprehend.

Dynamics of Fractal in Euclidean and Measure Spaces: A Recent Study

Md. Shahidul Islam, Md. Jahurul Islam

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 13, 5 August 2021, Page 43-60

We discussed iterated function system of generalized Cantor sets and different types of Sierpinski triangles. We formulated iterated function systems of two dimensional Box fractal and Square carpet also formulated iterated function systems of three-dimensional fractals such as the Menger sponge, the Sierpinski tetrahedron, and the Octahedron fractal.  

Study of Controllers for an Isolated Full Bridge Boost Converter Topology in Fuel Cell Applications: A Comparative Approach

S. Vijaya Madhavi, G. Tulasi Ram Das, K. Ramalingeswara Prasad

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 13, 5 August 2021, Page 61-75

Renewable energy sources have become an intriguing topic of research in recent years and fuel cells have developed as an alternate option for creating electricity to tackle the energy issue. This prompted research into power conditioning systems, which connect the fuel cell to the utilities.  The isolated full bridge boost converter (IFBC) topology is the most suitable for fuel cell applications among the many converter topologies. A Predictive Switching Modulator (PSM) Control for the converter architecture is proposed in this study, and its performance is compared with Linear Peak Current Mode Control (LPCM), and Non-Linear Carrier Control(NLC). The selected IFBC converter is controlled by using three controllers (LPCM, NLC and PSM) and simulation is done using MATLAB with fuel cell as input source. The three controllers are then compared in terms of time response parameters and finally the proposed PSM control was found to be the better controller in achieving the fast response by overcoming the uncertainties and achieving steady state stability.

The purpose of this paper is to show the effectiveness of an approach to formulate and understand the dynamics of an observable phenomenon through Newtonian mechanics. The approach starts by taking a simpler analogue of the problem we need to understand, and solving both the simpler and real case simultaneously. Then, the real case is split into two independent cases. Major parts of this paper will concentrate on demonstrating that this approach is effective in comprehending the dynamics of the phenomenon. The problem considered is, in a circus, a co-worker saves a person who falls down during a rehearsal by dashing him in the horizontal direction, from a few feet above the ground. In the rest of the paper, for ease, the person who saves will be called as rescuer and the person who is being saved will be called as casualty. Analysis of this problem is based on assumptions that the collision between rescuer and casualty is an inelastic collision and after the total mass of rescuer and casualty come in contact with the ground, it remains stationary.

A carbon monoxide analyzer based on tunable diode lasers was developed and used to study CO in the microcosm of some plants. Designed analyzer has high sensitivity (at the level of 5 ppb) and close to 100% selectivity to water vapors and CO2 and allows real-time on-line monitoring of CO in plants microcosm. One of the objectives of the study was to demonstrate a possibility to study CO production and utilization by plants with help of spectral gas analysis based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy. In our in-vitro experiment the CO formation and release into the surrounding atmosphere were observed in the early stages of plant development (stage of germination and growth of seedlings wheat, cucumbers and colza). An intense CO absorption from the surrounding air was observed when studying the CO content in the microcosm of the formed plants.

The Big Bang Never Happened: Conclusive Proof

David Rowland

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 13, 5 August 2021, Page 95-106

For over 100 years, the prevailing belief has been that the universe was created by a big bang singularity. This speculative event is an impossibility that has become a firmly entrenched notion only because of a fundamental scientific error that few have questioned, until now. This article provides both logical proof and corroborating scientific evidence that the universe could not have begun from a singularity, that galaxies are not receding from the Milky Way, and that we are not on a collision course with Andromeda.  Edwin Hubble made faulty assumptions and significant miscalculations. Big bang theory presupposes that somehow the universe spontaneously created itself from nothing. This notion defies both physics and logic, the science of thinking and reasoning. Nothing cannot be the cause of something.  Aristotle is reputed to have expressed it this way: “The notion that there could be nothing that preceded something offends reason itself.”

A modeling of high-resolution absorption spectra of carbon monoxide (CO) and other interfering gases at 2.35 mm was conducted. The main objective of the study was to find the best CO absorption lines for the spectral analysis of this molecule at 2.35 mm in the complex gas mixtures such as exhaled air with the highest sensitivity, selectivity and speed of the detection. Several CO absorption lines have been determined as the best for the use in laser based spectral analysis of CO under conditions of high humidity and high concentrations of CO2 in complex gas mixtures. Measurements of resonance absorption in these lines allow one to obtain maximum sensitivity and selectivity of CO analysis in the near-infrared spectral region.

Evaluation of Security Schemes: State of Art in Wireless Communication

Peter Sungu Nyakomitta, Kwach Johnson Kisera

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 13, 5 August 2021, Page 114-123

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current existing authentication schemes in wireless networks.Wireless networks provide an efficient means of connecting network devices. This is because they are fast, cost effective, flexible and easy to use. However, their usage is hindered by a number of challenges, owing to the fact that the physical connections between devices are replaced by logical associations. This means that anybody with a radio detector can receive these signals. Moreover, the data propagation in wireless environment is broadcast in nature and hence propagations can be overheard by anyone within a given range. To address these challenges, authentication protocols have been developed to deter any illicit access to these networks. They include Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA). However, these protocols have been shown to be easily compromised, for example due to the utilization of weak initialization vector which leads to collision of the generated hashes. This necessitates the development of more secure mechanisms for protecting the information in transit. The latest effort in securing wireless data propagations involves the usage of the light fidelity technology. In this paper, empirical review of these security technologies given.

Study on Hartree-Fock Equation for a Non-Neutral Plasma of Spin Zero Ions in a Paul Trap

Fernand Tshizanga Mpinga

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 13, 5 August 2021, Page 124-132

Non-neutral plasma in a Paul trap is an quantum system composed of identical ions confined in the trap whose properties can be studied by the quantum theory of fields. The imperceptible identical particle systems such as electron gas in metals have been the concern of experimental and theoretical studies mostly aiming to understand the properties of these systems. Focusing on theoretical description, Hartree-Fock equation of electron gas, a fermion quantum plasma, has been established by the method of “equation of motion” and by using Dirac field. In this respect, the goal of this paper is to establish the Hartree-Fock equation for a non-neutral plasma of identical ions of spin zero at high density and low temperature in a Paul trap while using the complex scalar field.