Editor(s)
Dr. Jelena Purenovic
Assistant Professor,
Department of Physics and Materials, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Kragujevac University, Cacak, Serbia.

ISBN 978-93-91473-72-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91473-80-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v11

 

This book covers key areas of physical science research. The contributions by the authors include superionic conductor, molecular dynamics, ion distribution, electron, wave-particle duality, quantum, SM-field, low energy physics, quantization of space time, magnetic style perpendicular gravity field, anti-gravity, interaction of matter with dark matter, technological fields, integrated ultrasonic biosensors, respiratory failure, pathophysiology, biological tissue, Fisher Information, polymolecules, digital information, biological systems, ramifications, hierarchy, plasma model, non-equilibrium open system, projection operator, transport equation, entropy production, the second kind of fluctuation-dissipation theorem, diatomic molecules, classical chaos, quantum signature of classical chaos, Wigner distribution, Boltzmann-Shannon entropy, wave function, discreteness, time bifurcation, black hole, holographic principle, time quantum, macro-tunneling, bio-electromagnetic field, quantum interaction, metamaterial, microtubule, superluminal photon, quantum computation, super-radiant emission, bio-radiation, superstring theory, electromagnetism, random pointing errors, laser radar efficiency, scintillation index, Gaussian target, general relativity theory, gill’s electronic theory. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical science research.

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Chapters


The structural features of the superionic phase for (AgxCux-1)Br of x<0.5, which contains two kinds of moveable cations, Ag+ and Cu+, were investigated using molecular dynamics modelling.In the superionic phase, the distribution of Ag+ and Cu+ ions differs.The distribution of cations and their pair distribution functions show concentration dependency as well.

A Novel Approach to Duality of Electron

Sultan Muhammad, Miss Omama

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 11, 6 August 2021, Page 10-25
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v11/3123F

I decipher the quantum duality of the electron in Young’s Double-Slit Experiment. Hypothesis intends to decode the interaction of knocked-electrons with the observer and perturbative disappearance of the interference pattern. Hypothesis is based on Bohr’s Atomic Model, and the theoretical concepts of Quantization of electron. The hypothesis proposes a universal field, similar to Higg’s field, that conserves the potential energy of electrons through interaction with knocked-electrons, utilizing phenomena of pair-production. The hypothesis provides comprehensive theoretical and mathematical solutions to possibly elaborate, in a broader context, why electrons exhibit duality and the role of the observer in Young’s Double-Slit experiment through the introduction of universal field (SM-Field). The interactions between photons and knocked-electrons have been discussed. Through using the Schrodinger wave equation (SWE), a mathematical model has been derived, that is used to explain the role of the observer, and duality of the electron by using SM-field as a supplement. The prime objective of the proposed hypothesis is to understand the dual nature of the electron by presenting a mathematical and theoretical modal not just to decode the duality of the electron but also to decode the role of the observer when measuring the position of electrons

Study of Quantization of Space-Time Explains Matter and Its Aspects

George Gerhab

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 11, 6 August 2021, Page 26-37
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v11/3129F

By quantizing space-time in such a way that I can calculate all of the constants of physics and derive and explain every equation therein.

The magnetic field appears when the electric field seems to travel faster than c.  The same way an “anti-gravity” perpendicular field appears, totally depended on relative velocities, since the electric and gravitational forces are made of the micro field lines and are different aspects of the same force [1].

The “gravitational” perpendicular force can be repellant, when masses travel in the same direction, (massive distant galaxies repel enlarging the universe, new current mass just being released) and it can be attractive (opposite spiral arms moving in opposite directions, combined with a super-massive black hole).

The recent detection of gravity waves, is clear evidence for all of this since these waves need a perpendicular field, like electro-magnetic waves.

The magnetic style of the perpendicular field, at extremely high can cause matter and dark to interact

This work tackles a combination of two technological fields: "integrated ultrasonic biosensors" and "connected modules" coupled with “Artificial Intelligence” algorithms to provide healthcare professionals with additional indices offering multidimensional information and a “Decision Support” tool. This device comprises a connected telemedical platform (PC or Smartphone) dedicated to the objective and remote assessment of pathophysiological states resulting from dysphonia of laryngeal origin or respiratory failure of inflammatory origin. Based on this study, the most appropriate biomechanical factors were determined and quantified to help optimize the sensor/biological tissue interface conditions.

A Brief Study on Liquid Water to Retain Information

Alex Hankey

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 11, 6 August 2021, Page 46-52
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v11/10206D

The possibility of information storage in chemically pure water is controversial. Storage of digital information is impossible because hydrogen bonds constantly rearrange themselves; specific protons are not stably coupled to specific oxygen atoms. If information is to be stored, its retention must be by other means. Nevertheless, some scientists have contended that information retention in water is not inconceivable, suggesting that water’s microstructure may be involved. This paper highlights how these make it possible for water to retain information of a kind different from any previously conceived. Two kinds of entropy can be defined in water, classical due to heat, and quantum attributable to microstates. The method adopted is to compare the two, and to show that the first produces limitations on the second. The number of polymolecules is so vast that the quantum entropy might exceed the heat entropy. Since the classical, heat entropy cannot be exceeded, the number of polymolecules accessible at a given temperature, T, is restricted, yielding a new form of information, IR(T). The new form of information is entirely different from the four kinds previously known: Fisher Information in Statistics, Digital Information used in IT, Quantum Information, and Experience Information in biological systems at criticality. The new kind of information retained in water is analogous to Fisher Information in that it arises from restriction on the range of a variable, i.e. attributable to limitations on a statistical variable’s values. We therefore propose to name it, ‘Quantum Fisher Information’. Like the process of homoeopathic dilution, which has a limiting temperature around 70O C, Quantum Fisher Information is predicted to have a Limiting Temperature, TL. This qualitative agreement is encouraging. Prediction of TL requires calculating exact numbers of polymolecules. Information retention in water arises from the structure of quantum entropy, and the vast number of possible water polymolecules. Containing both classical and quantum components, the new information is analogous to Fisher Information in statistics.

The MEPC – The Magnetic Electron Plasma Cloud – is plasma solely composed of electrons that is the source and recipient of electrons that exist outside of the atom. The outer cloud electrons of the MEPC are exerting equal negative pressure on the electrons that get into the designated shell spaces. This external negative pressure also provides a containment pressure that simultaneously holds these electrons in their designated core shell places. The ramifications of this are nothing short of phenomenal, because it not only explains where electrons come from and how they are available for distribution around the atomic nucleus, but it also explains:

 

  • What occupies the space in between the atoms?
  • The existence of a hierarchy of forces surrounding the atomic core,
  • Why gravity is larger and weaker than the other known forces,
  • What the medium of light is,
  • Why light is both a particle and a wave, and
  • What dark matter and dark energy are?

Study on the Entropy Production of a Nonequilibrium Open System

Ming B. Yu

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 11, 6 August 2021, Page 66-83
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v11/2765F

The objective of the paper is to study a nonequilibrium open system, especially its entropy production, in the framework of time-dependent projection operator. The environment of the open system may linearly deviate from its initial state under the reaction from the open system. The relevant statistical operator of the system is set as a generalized canonical one. The transport equation, entropy production and the second kind of fluctuation-dissipation theorem of the open system are derived. The memory function, influence function in the transport equation as well as the entropy production rate are expressed in terms of correlation functions of fluctuations of random force and interaction random force of the open system.

We study the classical chaos appearing in a diatomic molecules BeO, CO and CN due to the interaction with a circularly polarized electric field, and its signature in Quantum Mechanics through the Wigner distribution function and the Boltzmann-Shannon entropy. We found a motion out of the center of the quantum phase space defined by Wigner function when the classical system becomes chaotic, and we found a jumping behavior of the average Boltzmann-Shannon entropy with respect the electric field strength when the classical system becomes chaotic, indicating a sudden increasing in the disorder (or sudden lost of information) in the quantum system. The analysis was to be able to do it further with the parameter Wc since much larger number of states have to be considered, but one could expect further increasing of the BS entropy since more state will be involved in the quantum dynamics.

Study on Black Hole Information Paradox from the Viewpoint of the Discrete Time Hypothesis

Alexander M. Zaslavsky

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 11, 6 August 2021, Page 99-113
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v11/3224F

Based on the discrete time hypothesis, the phenomenon of phase substitution of the wave function of a particle falling in a black hole is considered. The results speak for possibility of certain exotic forms of the wave function evolution, providing among other things, return of information when the particle is falling down to a static black hole. When substitution the phase of the wave function in the vicinity of the event horizon, information may return due to the local reversal of particle time. Based on the analysis of the flow of information returned, using the holographic principle, an estimate of the quantum of the particle’s proper time is obtained.

Study on Breakthrough Space Obstacle

Bi Qiao, Song Kongzhi, Zhang Bao Sheng

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 11, 6 August 2021, Page 114-124
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v11/3192F

In this work, we try to propose a soliton processing mechanism to explain the phenomena of the Breakthrough Space Obstacles (BSO) based on the concrete experimental dates and figures taken from the somatic science. Through analysis and studying, we find that the sort of bio-electromagnetic wave field (BEF) is an origin of BSO. This BEF satisfies a nonlinear quantum Maxwell equation which is proportional to the change of particle density of object. Moreover, BEF has very broad of spectrum range from 100MHz to 1GHz and possesses high amplitude of the electromagnetic response, and also has width of frequency as well strong strength. It is this BEF allowing object to transform as a big soliton to have BSO probability by the nonlinear quantum interaction.

D.Georgiev presented an idea that consciousness could be the result of quantum computation via short laser-like pulses controlling quantum gates within the brain cortex. However, he later rejected this theory because the wavelength of super radiant photon emission in the infrared spectrum is two orders of magnitude longer than the size of any microtubule cavity. But recent theoretical studies suggested the possibility that the human brain functions by using photons generated inside brain's microtubules, behaving as quantum waveguides or resonant cavities for these photons, which shows how to use them to manipulate quantum bits in microtubules. To revive this idea of quantum computation within the brain, the author proposes that the substance within a microtubule cylinder has characteristics of a metamaterial composed of sub-wavelength structures. From this hypothesis, we can show that microtubule could be used for manipulation of qubits to achieve quantum computation by utilizing superluminal photons, which also permit the microtubule to manipulate the storage and retrieval of stored data in the brain. From which, we can also provide a mechanism for general anesthetic action which brings about a loss of consciousness.

Determination of Brane Structure in Bio-radiation

Bi Qiao, Song Kongzhi

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 11, 6 August 2021, Page 133-139
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v11/3193F

In this work we present a sort of structure of the brane in brane for describing the bio-radiations. The work is based on the extension of the superstring theory and can provide possible frame of biological brane to study intrinsic structure of the bio-radiations. This reveals the interaction of bio-radiation is not only electromagnetic but the week and electromagnetic, and the dimensions may be higher than four. As extension of the solitons, the brane or the brane in brane is proposed to play an important role in the bio-radiations, which can be used to explain many complicated phenomena from the somatic sciences.

The target size plays a key role. When operating against an essentially infinitely wide target, the transmitter and receiver are never misaligned with the target regardless of the size of the pointing error. In this analysis we assume matched elliptical Gaussian transmit, ‘t’ and BPLO, ‘b’ with \(e^{-2}\) irradiance radii, \(\omega_x\) and \(\omega_y\) along the x and y axes. We also assume an elliptical diffuse Gaussian target, f‘ T’, centered at the origin, with peak power reflectance function \(\rho_{\pi0}\) (sr), \(e^{-2}\) radii \(\omega_{Tx}\) and \(\omega_{Ty}\). The formulas given here may assist in deriving tolerances when designing new coherent ladar systems. The lessons learned from examining Gaussian beam ladar are likely to help in designing better sensors and understanding existing system behavior.

Applying Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism 1964 to planet Earth and relating it to the electron dependant negative force (-e) and the proton dependant positive force (+e) of atoms of any object close to the surface of the Earth, it will be explained mathematically how objects close to the Earth fall towards the Earth with a combination of these two forces. In the northern and southern magnetic hemispheres of the Earth, equations based on known physics laws are offered for objects falling towards the Earth. Dot-product vector equations will explain why a pendulum will accelerate least at the equator and this lateral acceleration keeps on increasing as we move the same pendulum from the equator towards the magnetic poles of the Earth as has been seen experimentally. As the object O gains height above the surface of the Earth, the two negative and positive extra-terrestrial forces become effective and O starts losing weight with increasing height. At a certain greater height above the Earth where the two negative and positive forces from the Earth balance with the two negative and positive extra-terrestrial forces, the object O will start behaving as a satellite. The bigger object O will become a satellite at a greater height. A brief discussion at the end on why this presentation is more accurate as compared to Sir Isaac Newton’s universal law of gravitation which resulted in the incorrect third force concept of gravity in 1687 in Physics. As the asymmetry between the magnetic force and the electrical forces is resolved with Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism 1964, Albert Einstein’s ‘Special Relativity theory 1905’ which was presented to deal with the asymmetry issue becomes unnecessary along with his ‘General Relativity theory 1916’ where he tries to justify the gravitational force.

Study of Ultra-wideband Antenna with Multi-notch Band Loaded with a Multimode Electric Ring Resonator and a Complementary Resonance Structure

Irina B. Vendik, Alexander S. Rusakov, Komsan Kanjanasit

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 11, 6 August 2021, Page 185-199
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v11/10183D

A multi-notch ultra-wideband (UWB) planar antenna designed as a circular metallic patch fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) is of high interest. The antenna provides a stable radiation pattern and impedance bandwidth of the wideband response in the frequency range 2.5 - 12 GHz. To achieve the band-notched characteristics of the planar UWB antenna, the multi-mode electric ring resonator (ERR) is used. The ERR is placed beneath the CPW structure of the antenna. Each of the notched frequency band is tuned by proper changing the dimensions of the ERR structure. The UWB antenna exhibits multi-notch characteristics in the 2.5–12 GHz frequency band at 3.5, 5.8, and 7.5 GHz. Reconfigurability of the notched band is provided by using variable capacitors instead of ERR quasi-lumped capacitances. As an alternative approach a circular metallic patch antenna fed by a microstrip transmission line may be used. In this case, the notch is provided by a complementary inductance-capacitance (C-ELC) resonator in the ground plane of the microstrip line. The notch frequency depends on the dimensions of the C-ELC resonator.