Prof. Shi-Hai Dong
Department of Physics, School of Physics and Mathematics, National Polytechnic Institute Building 9, Unit Professional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, A. P. 07738, Mexico D. F., Mexico.

ISBN 978-93-91473-48-8 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91473-56-3 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v10

This book covers key areas of physical science research. The contributions by the authors include longitudinal attractional force, linear motor, flexible positive electro-magnetic pole, Gill’s electronic theory, magnetism, Gregorian calendar, universal standard calendar, time harmonization, temperature variability, seasonal divisions, mobility pattern, pulsed laser deposition, electric properties, nanoparticles, Brownian motion, Biot number, nanofluid, implicit finite difference scheme and thermophoresis, acrylic coatings, cationic surfactant, quantum thermodynamics, superconductivity, free energy, quantum mechanics, blend, nanocomposites, energy gap, dielectric studies, mechanical studies, model of Space, group theoretical formulation, quantum relativity symmetry, noncommutative geometry, general relativity, special relativity, quantum thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, MATLAB, refractive index, one dimensional photonic crystal, complete photonic band gap, group velocity, density of states, algorithmic information, cellular automata, computer models for cosmology and biology, interactive multimedia simulations advance organisers, conventional teaching methods. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical science research.


Media Promotion:


A summarized Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism 1964 shows diagrammatically and experimentally that a magnet has a negative or north magnetic pole and a positive or south magnetic pole . These magnetic poles are called the north and south magnetic poles owing to the direction of a magnetic compass on the surface of the magnetic Earth. The Tesla unit is explained with the help of Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism 1964 combined with Coulomb’s law 1784.

An economical L-shaped electro-magnet will be used under the ‘Bullet Train’ and above the rail track. The rail track will also

The exposed electron dependant negative or north magnetic pole under and at the train wheel level is repelled by the electrons flowing as a direct electric current on the surface of the rail track. This levitation of the ‘Bullet train’ results in loss of resistance between the train wheels and the rail track. Dot-product calculations will be offered for this levitation.

The levitated train will be pulled longitudinally with the linear motor in front of the train which has the exposed proton dependant positive or south magnetic pole . The negative electron  dependant direct electric current flow on the railway track results in attractional force between the proton dependent positive or south magnetic pole on the front of the train and the flowing electrons  in the metallic strip on the surface of the railway track. While the ‘Bullet train’ is levitated and has minimal friction, this longitudinal attractional force results in great speed. This will also be presented as a dot-product calculation.

The linear motor on the front of the train is a flexible positive electro-magnetic pole  of the electro-magnet which will help in varying the speed and direction of the ‘Bullet Train’.

A brief discussion will follow offering the economical and mathematical advantages of the above ‘Bullet Train’ over the existing ‘Magelev system’.

‘Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism 1964’ also shows that there is no asymmetry between the electrical and magnetic forces.

A worldwide standard calendar and a transitional calendar are presented in this work. The transitional calendar is used to make the Gregorian calendar and the global standard calendar agree. As a result, the prior chronology remains unaffected. The worldwide standard calendar is distinguished by the fact that its dates are set in stone. We've utilised this capability to demonstrate that every region of the Earth's temperature fluctuations, as well as its seasonal divisions, may be studied. This investigation was applied to the yearly temperature of the Douala airport for the year 2004, with extremely intriguing results. The causes of temperature instability were discussed, as well as the repercussions for climate change. The international standard calendar has a lot of benefits and can help with economic progress. Some of these benefits were highlighted for a variety of aspects of our everyday lives. The worldwide standard calendar is the answer to many of humanity's questions, and it is the only calendar that can be used by everyone on the planet.

Influence the Laser Pulse Energy on the Electrical Properties of Cu2O Nanoparticles Prepared by Laser Induce Plasma

Radea Hateem Jawad, Ali. A. Al-Shammari, Kadhim A. Aadim

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 10, 14 July 2021, Page 37-43

In this work, copper oxide films (Cu2O) were grown using laser ablation from Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm in vacuum. Electrical properties of the nanoparticles were investigated as a function of the laser pulse energies, including (600 -900) mJ and annealing temperature was varied at (473,573 and 673)k. Hall Effect measurement was used to determine the electrical mobility, carrier concentration, conductivity and majority of electrical carriers.

The goal of this work is to investigate the flow and heat transfer properties of magneto hydrodynamic nanofluid flow over a permeable vertical stretching sheet in the presence of radiation and buoyancy effects, as well as viscous dissipation. The controlling partial differential equations were transformed into a set of non linear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation.  The implicit finite difference scheme, Keller Box Method, is then used to solve the problems numerically. A comparison of the derived Keller Box solutions to previously published work is carried out. For the different values of Magnetic field parameter, suction parameter, Prandtl number, buoyancy parameter, Schmidt number, Biot number, radiation parameter, Eckert number, Brownian motion, and Thermophoresis parameter on velocity, temperature, and nano particle volume fraction profile distribution, numerical results have been shown graphically.

Determining the Template-Based Synthesis of Silica (SiO2-r) Rods and Its Corrosion Protection Performance

T. Siva, P. Jayanthi, P. Thirumurugan, S. Sathiyanarayanan, A. Ayeshamariam, M. Jayachandran

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 10, 14 July 2021, Page 59-73

Silica (SiO2-r) rods were fabricated through the cationic surfactant of (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) used as an oxidant / structure-directing agent. The SiO2-r rods were incorporated into the acrylic-based matrix to provide better corrosion protection on mild steel. Tests, such as particle size, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, were performed to analysis the surface morphology and properties. Corrosion protection and coating durability were analyzed by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3% NaCl solution. Results indicated that the addition of SiO2-r rods improved the corrosion resistance of the acrylic coating matrix.

An Advanced Study Explaining Ginzburg Landau Equations from First Principles

Spiros Koutandos

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 10, 14 July 2021, Page 74-79

We attempt to prove Ginzburg Landau equations given in the field of superconductivity as a result of inspiration. Our view is that they can be derived from thermodynamic arguments through assigning hidden variables to the formalism of quantum mechanics. A coefficient of efficiency is used to derive results and the formula for pressure in quantum mechanics in general is found. The volume is changing due to a spacetime curvature. The alpha omega formula is found to prove that volume expands from the heating of mass energy.

Structural and Optical Study of Metal Oxide Filled Polymer Blend

Vincent Crasta, Rajesh Kochi

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 10, 14 July 2021, Page 80-92

PVA/PVP Polymer blends filled with various concentrations of ZnO nanofillers were prepared using solvent casting technique. The FTIR and XRD studies confirm the formation of polymer nanocomposites through the interaction taking place between the nanoparticles and the polymer. The optical energy gap of the nanocomposite films decreases with increase in wt% of ZnO. The photoluminescence study reveals that the intensity of the peak is maximum for a doping concentration of 8% ZnO. The dielectric studies indicate the variation of electrical conductivity of the films with addition of ZnO. The UTM studies reveal the enhancement of mechanical strength of the blends with addition of ZnO nanoparticles. Thus physical properties of PVA/PVP blend films are enhanced upon the addition of ZnO.

Determination of Model of the Physical Space (Time) from Quantum Mechanics

Otto C. W. Kong

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 10, 14 July 2021, Page 93-103

The physical world is quantum. However, our description of quantum physics still relies much on concepts in classical physics only in some cases with ‘quantized’ interpretations. The most important case example is that of spacetime. We examine the picture of the physical space as really described by simple, so-called non-relativistic, quantum mechanics instead of assuming the Newtonian model. The key perspective is that of (relativity) symmetry representation, and the idea that the physical space is to be identified as the configuration space for a free particle. The usual quantum phase space comes up as the answer, with an intuitive noncommutative geometric picture embodying the necessary notion of noncommutative values of physical quantities. Lorentz covariant version of the theory with a quantum model of the physical spacetime is also sketched. The formulations are fully group theoretically based with proper limits retrieving lower level theories including the classical ones with the corresponding spacetime models obtained from the contraction limit of the (relativity) symmetries.

Is There a Relativistic Effect in the Schrodinger Equation?

Spiros Koutandos

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 10, 14 July 2021, Page 104-108

We prove that associated with mass is spacetime curvature which leads to creation of volume and mass shells in every instance due to the energy equivalence principle. We put forth the relations between a point surface tension and a spacetime curvature. The conclusion is that the spacetime is of fluid nature. Finally we find the chi psi omega law and the action which is of central importance in quantum mechanics. From thereon we may estimate the true acceleration of the particle.

Study on Theoretical Design Te-Polarization One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal

Elham Jasim Mohammad

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 10, 14 July 2021, Page 109-115

Optical properties of photonic crystal structures have attracted great interest in research area and industry field because of its capability to guide and control light propagation in compact device with feature sizes comparable to light wavelength. In this paper the program is written in MATLAB to describe theoretical analysis and design of one dimensional photonic crystal which has refractive index ( n1 = 1.45 and n2 = 3.45 ). The study objectives are simulated and analysis dispersions of electromagnetic waves in one dimension photonic crystal for s-polarization states. The one dimension photonic crystal has a unit cell made of different dielectric materials. The propagation angle in one medium is taken with respect to normal inside the first medium varies between 0 and \(\pi\) / 2.

Starting from a previous paper, here improved, we show, by didactical examples, how algorithmic information (coded e.g., into a computer program) is required to build the structure of an organized system (either simple or complex). Ordered structures can be obtained as attractors both by some dynamics starting from sequential initial conditions (order from order) and by some dynamics starting from random initial conditions (order from chance) provided that a leading algorithmic information is assigned to govern the evolution of the generating process. In absence of information emergence of some ordered structure, like e.g., an organ of a living system is so highly improbable to be impossible in practice. We start from didactical examples, arising in mathematics and physics, to arrive to propose static models of a human heart. Systems are generated starting either from ordered initial conditions, or from random sparse initial conditions, or more realistically by random cellular automata (so that any mother cell is allowed to generate a daughter cell only in a random contiguous location). Significantly, as it was pointed out by Gregory Chaitin, not all algorithmic information can be compressed into a string shorter than the sequence of its original individual code digits (incompressible information string). A question is still open about the DNA and, more generally, any biological information: is it to be considered as a compressible or an incompressible code string? In our example of anatomic human heart model we have treated the sequence of the co-ordinates of each sphere (roughly modeling a cell) as an uncompressed string, while a compressed program string seems to be able to provide only less realistic models.

The study of physics is important for technological development of any society. Despite its crucial role as a catalyst to great innovations, motivation to learn the physics amongst learners has remained low. Data on enrolment of students in the subject has been low at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE).There are many factors that might cause students to have low motivation towards physics. One among the factors is employment of ineffective teaching methods that are not interesting and enjoyable to the learners. Interactive Multimedia Simulation Advance Organizers (IMSAO) is one of the approaches that could enhance students’ motivation to learn physics. The approach allows students to create models of real situations, manipulate, and get feedback immediately .This study’s objectives were to investigate the effects of using the approach on students’ motivation to learn physics topic measurement in Nyahururu Sub-County in Laikipia, and also to compare the level of motivation to learn physics between boys and girls when exposed to IMSAO. Solomon’s four non-equivalent control group design was specifically used. A physics Motivation Questionnaire (PMQ) was developed and used for data collection. A total population of 168 form two students, drawn from the four sampled schools, took part in the study. Experimental groups were taught using IMSAO teaching approach while the control groups were taught using Conventional Teaching Methods (CTM). Data was analysed using t-test and ANOVA. The findings of the study showed that IMSAO teaching approach affected students’ motivation to learn physics positively when compared to CTM. The results also revealed that the IMSAO teaching approach affected positively the motivation to learn physics in both gender. The researchers recommends  the integration of the IMSAO teaching approach in the  teaching of physics to make the learning of physics interesting and to reverse the trend of low enrolment in physics in secondary schools.