Dr. Him Lal Shrestha
Associate Professor, Coordinator - UNIGIS Programme, Kathmandu Forestry College, Koteshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal.

ISBN 978-81-959585-4-2 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-959585-9-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/npgees/v1

This book covers key areas of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences. The contributions by the authors include nanotechnology, cellulose modification, filtration, surface flocculation, sorption, waste of polymer materials, ecology,  road oil bitumen, polymer-bitumen composition, polymer asphalt concrete mixture, tsunami inversion method, chile earthquake, grid-shifting method, climate change, rainfall variability, rainfall trend, ecological balance, rural litigation, atmosphere, renewable resources, employment, vegetation and wildlife, sustainable development, water sustainability, community participation, and water cycle. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences.


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Application of Cellulosic Sorption Filter Materials with Surface Flocculation Activity as Advanced Wastewater Treatment

Michaela Filipi, Miloslav Milichovský

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 1, 22 December 2022, Page 1-24

The natural biopolymer on earth, cellulose fibre, may offer a highly efficient and low-cost option for wastewater treatment. Cellulose-based materials have been used in food, industrial, pharmaceutical, paper, textile production, and in wastewater treatment applications due to their low cost, renewability, biodegradability, and non-toxicity. In this review, the uses of cellulose-based materials for wastewater treatment. Utilizing cellulose or lignocellulose as sorption material has several benefits such as wide availability, renewability, nontoxicity, and biodegradability. In recent years, more and more demands have been placed on the quality of wastewater. A filter media was designed that included an ionic activated cellulosic material with huge sorption activity to ions-active dissolved and colloidal particles in aqueous systems, evoking surface flocculation, and a filler material with a filter effect. The problem of low separation ability of plates and high flow rate of filtered aqueous dispersions was often solved because fine particles were not separated, in the past. In our case, an activated cellulosic material was used with a multiple (roughly ten to a hundredfold) sorption capacity for ionically active dissolved and submicron particulate impurities compared to untreated cellulosic material.

Research New Ways of Processing Polymer Waste that was Formed as a Result of Operation

Shixaliyev Kerem Seyfi

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 1, 22 December 2022, Page 25-35

In this study, the reasons for the decommissioning of polymer materials are shown and recycling methods are analyzed. Polymer materials do not rot, corrode, etc. if their characteristics are taken into account, their recycling is an economic problem as well as an ecological problem that needs to be solved. Taking into account all this, the methods of obtaining purposeful compositions from some polymer wastes have been studied. its destruction mainly occurs as a result of high temperatures. As a result, the molecular mass of RS (rubber scrub) decreases. When studying this in an oxygenated and non-oxygenated environment, the maximum stability of RS is observed in the temperature interval of 180°C. Therefore, we adopted the temperature of 180°C to modify road oil bitumen with RS waste. The most effective field of use of polymer materials is the modification of road bitumen.

Study about High Resolution Tsunami Inversion for Chile Earthquake in 2010

T. R. Wu, T. C. Ho

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 1, 22 December 2022, Page 36-55

We investigate the feasibility of inverting higher solution vertical seafloor displacement from tsunami waveforms. An inversion method named "SUTIM" (small unit tsunami inversion method) is developed to meet this goal. This paper improves the inversion resolution by using the Grid-Shifting method in addition to the traditional least-square inversion. In order to achieve stability, a smooth constraint is used. SUTIM is employed to analyze the 2010 Chile earthquake following a number of validation and performance tests. Based upon data quality and azimuthal distribution, we select tsunami waveforms from 6 GLOSS stations and 1 DART buoy record. In total, 157 sub-faults are utilized for the highresolution inversion. The resolution reaches 10 sub-faults per wavelength. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks and waveforms at each gauge location with very good agreement. The inversion result shows that the source profile features a non-uniform distribution of the seafloor displacement. The highly elevated vertical seafloor is mainly concentrated in two areas: one is located in the northern part of the epicentre, between 34\(^{\circ}\)s and 36\(^{\circ}\)s; the other is in the southern part, between 37\(^{\circ}\)s and 38\(^{\circ}\)s. The study demonstrate the performance of SUTIM by simulating a fictitious earthquake event in which the seafloor motion is known. Good SUTIM performance can be seen.

Analysis the Long-Term Rainfall Trends in the Tropical Regions, Using Satellite-Based Rainfall Estimates: A Case Study from Sabaragamuwa Province - Sri Lanka

E. N. C. Perera, S. B. D. Samarasinghe, A. M. C. T. Gunarathna

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 1, 22 December 2022, Page 56-65

The rainfall is a critical climatic factor for successful agricultural activities anywhere in the world. An analysis of long-term rainfall behavior and   trends contribute significantly to effective crop planning, water resource management and mitigation of the impact on hydro-meteorological hazards. This study reveals the rainfall variability and trends in the Sabaragamuwa Province, Sri Lanka from 1990 – 2020. The uniqueness of this study is the use of daily raster rainfall data generated by mixing gauge rainfall with satellite estimates known as Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation corrected with Stations (CHIRPS). As the first step, the correlation between gauge precipitation and CHIRPS data was analyzed and it showed a high accuracy of 81%. The Geographic Information System (GIS) was primarily employed to identify spatial variability in long-term rainfall and to extract data at the district level for rainfall trend analysis. Then, the Sen’s slope estimator and the Mann–Kendall (M–K) test were used to calculate and evaluate the trends in annual and seasonal rainfall within two districts, Rathnapura and Kegalle in the Sabaragamuwa Province. The results proved a statistically significant (0.05) positive trend in annual rainfall from 1990 to 2020 in both the districts of Sabaragamuwa Province. The highest trend 31.85mm/year is recorded in Rathnapura district and the lowest trend in Kegalle district which is 24.54 mm/year. Furthermore, all four monsoons: the First inter-monsoon, the Second inter-monsoon, and the Southwest monsoon and Northeast monsoon showed a statistically significant upward trend. If these trends continue in the next 10-20 years, the annual rainfall in Sabaragamuwa Province could be increased by 320 mm to 740 mm.

Deforestation and Applicable Related Act in India

S. Kanthimathinathan

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 1, 22 December 2022, Page 66-78

Forests are a valuable natural gift to man, or rather to living beings. Forests, which include trees, shrubs, herbs, grass, and other plants, have a climate-moderating effect because they help to maintain ecological balance. They balance the climate, increase soil fertility, prevent soil erosion, and promote perennial stream flow in rain-fed rivers. They provide sanctuary for wild animals, preserve gene pools, and protect tribal people. The trees in the forest draw water from the earth's bowls and release it into the atmosphere via transpiration, which is returned to the atmosphere via condensation of clouds formed from atmospheric moisture. As a result, forests aid in the completion of the cycle. These are in charge of purifying the air by releasing oxygen into the atmosphere via the photosynthesis process. As a result, it is correct to state that there is a balance between earth, air, water, soil, and plant. Forests hold up the mountains, cushion the rains and they discipline the rivers and control the floods. They are beneficial both directly and indirectly. They directly supply wood, timber, fuel, medicines, and fruits with commercial and industrial value such as news, print, rayon, bidi leaves, gums, resins, charcoal, and so on. They also provide people with work. Forests indirectly preserve the physical features of land, prevent soil erosion, mitigate floods, help streams flow perennially, and thus aid agriculture. The most important effect that forests have on our environment is that they protect it through green and leafy vegetation and wildlife. To protect the environment, it is critical to manage the preservation of forests from deforestation. During the last century, forests have been cut at rates unequalled in the world and they are disappearing at an alarming rate. According to some estimates, India's vegetation covers over 19% of the country's total geographical area, well above the recommended 33% and over 40% globally. Thus, there is substantially less vegetative cover than is necessary. The debate above clearly shows that Indians had a culture of guarding and maintaining the forests, and that it was the duty of both the people and the rulers to do so. India also had a culture of worshiping nature in all its glory.

Urban Development Resource Conservation and Water Sustainability

Ar. Beena Santhosh

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 1, 22 December 2022, Page 79-86

We have come a long way in defining and understanding "sustainability," from the Brundtland Commission report being tabled in 1987 to the UN Sustainable Development Goals 2030. The UN SDGs are a road map for achieving long-term growth for people and the planet. The Earth's resources are being depleted faster than ever before, but technological advances in various fields have raised our awareness and knowledge of how to mitigate the adverse effects. Globally, it is critical to gain citizens' support in order to achieve environmental, social, and economic sustainability for all stakeholders. This is a case study paper, and while all aspects of a liveable city, such as safety, wellbeing, security, and infrastructure, are necessary for any city to function effectively, the paper's focus is on water sustainability. From floods in Kerala to drought in Vidarbha and Chennai running out of potable drinking water, the climate change crisis is indicating that water sustainability through integration of the water cycle is essential. Rotterdam, Denmark, is a city that has taken steps to make itself more resilient, sustainable, and livable. Water is incorporated into Dutch city planning, and community participation is encouraged through waterfront development and community welfare activities. The current paper examines one such effort by Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation, which has incorporated the Dutch Model of water management by constructing holding ponds. The importance and application of Bio-Swales are also thoroughly explained. Participatory planning and implementation will aid cities in becoming more livable and sustainable.

A Review on Reducing the Carbon Footprint by Cultivating and Consuming Spirulina

Meena S. Parthiban , A. Manimekalan

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 1, 22 December 2022, Page 87-98

Increased carbon emissions have accelerated global warming, which has profoundly altered the climate factor. Drought, cyclones, floods, tsunamis, unpredictable rainfall patterns, and other climate-related disasters have threatened clean water and food security. To mitigate the harmful effects of global warming on humanity and the biosphere, global nations have agreed to reduce carbon emissions and strive for a low carbon footprint in all industrial and commercial activities. Arthospira platensis commonly called as Spirulina is a GRAS level microalgae tremendously used in nutraceuticals, food additive, animal feed, poultry, aquaculture, biofertilizer, dyes& pigments industry, cosmetics, natural colorant in food and textile industry, raw material for biomolecules and biofuel production. Increased production and utilization of this microalgae sequesters equivalent amount of CO2 same as that of the quantity of microalgae consumed. This study examines spirulina (Arthospira platensis) cultivation and consumption as a win-win scenario for sustainable development in terms of GDP and carbon capture and storage (CCS).

Retrieval of Urban Land Surface Temperature Matrices from Remotely Sensed Data: An Overview

Ike, Felix , Mbah, Isaac Chiedozie , Ochi Ejimofor

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 1, 22 December 2022, Page 99-109

In the evaluation and monitoring of environmental and ecological processes, remote sensing is becoming a force to be reckoned with. The role of temperature as a tool for monitoring urban expansion and heat islands in cities around the world was examined in this study. The research went on discussing the role of various land-use/land-cover changes as verifiable inputs in determining the urban heat Island threshold. The study equally found that in the case study locations, Landsat thermal data is frequently used to compute land surface temperature. The imagery' NDVI values are used to see if they correlate with LST. We also discovered that supervised classification is the optimal strategy for determining land use classes when the goal of a study is to obtain temperature profiles in any metropolitan region. In contrast to other methods like mono-window and split-window, brightness temperature is determined to be popular in the literature analyzed.

Moiyabana Earthquake in Botswana during 2017: Foreshocks and Aftershocks Effects

Thebeetsile A. Olebetse, Matlhogonolo L. Mmese, Rapelang E. Simon, Joseph Maritinkole

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 1, 22 December 2022, Page 110-125

An Mw 6.5 earthquake occurred in Moiyabana, central Botswana on April 3, 2017. This chapter expands on our previous paper on this subject, and highlights on the effects of the spatial distribution of foreshock and aftershock sequences associated with this earthquake. The data used was from the Botswana Geoscience Institute (BGI) and was analysed with the Seisan software. The Moiyabana earthquake was preceded by foreshocks that were widespread across the country and had no preferred orientation. The closest foreshock to this earthquake was at a distance of ~ 50 km. This foreshock had an epicentre located at 22.10 oS, 25.40oE and it occurred along the boundary between the Zimbabwe craton and Limpopo mobile belt on March 14, 2017. The aftershocks cluster displays a northwest-southeast trend with a length of ~ 47 km, most likely indicating the rupture plane. Most of these aftershocks have focal depths shallower than 15 km and are clustered around the boundary between the Kaapvaal craton and Limpopo mobile belt. The largest aftershock was located at 22.55 oS, 25.06oE and occurred two days after the mainshock with a local magnitude of 5.3. The farthest aftershock occurred more than 200 km away from the mainshock along the Zimbabwe craton-Limpopo mobile belt margin. The mean and variance of the difference between the largest aftershock and aftershock magnitude for all events is 1.26 +/- 0.14, and closely matches with that from Båth’s law within uncertainties. We infer that the foreshocks and aftershocks of the Moiyabana earthquake mark off the margins of the cratonic units from the mobile belt.

Detection of ICT-based Border between Indonesia and Singapore

F. Danny , H. C. Dewi, N. B. Febi, D. P. Aprillia, G. H. Goan, N. C. Julie , W. Gustini, A. Alia

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 1, 22 December 2022, Page 126-132

This study seeks to show maritime aspects and shipbuilding technology and their relationship with social society through transnational concepts. With globalization, and to develop networks, people really need sea transportation to support the transnational process. The Chinese population of Batam, a community group in the city of Batam, cannot be separated from the high intensity of transportation between Batam and Singapore. Since they migrated by boat from the Chinese mainland, the Batam Chinese have existed on the island for centuries. Because of their perseverance, social networks, and proximity to Singapore, Batam Chinese have dominated the local economy. The transnational concept is a form of social network. In this case, transnationalism is seen as a social network between Chinese in Batam and Singapore. The relation between Batam and Singapore covers many sectors, including tradition, economy, trade, and other social activities. In the tradition of transnational network between China and Batam in terms of Chinese temples, the Chinese’ transnational temple network interlinks all temples in the foreign countries and in China itself.