Dr. Giovanni Bucci
Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy University of L’Aquila Italy.


ISBN 978-93-5547-418-6 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-419-3 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nper/v5


This book covers key areas of Engineering Research. The contributions by the authors include Prioritize processes, round robin algorithm, glass fibre reinforced polymer, Non-linear analysis, debonding, steel fibre reinforced concrete, finite element analysis, Combined cooling heating and power system, demand response, schedulable loads, collaborative optimization scheduling, day-ahead optimization, Thermal runaway, lithium-ion batteries, extended volume plus-accelerating rate calorimetry, Alternative fuels, butanol, plastic oil, performance parameters, strategic impact, market share, business units, Flow rate, gas flow equation, hydrocarbon liquid, sizing of pipeline, gas pipeline, Darcy-Weisbach, Photoacoustic, MEMS hotplate, MEMS microphone, Compressive strength, management practice, sandcrete block, water absorption, Respiration monitoring, image analysis, infrared thermography, biomedical systems, thermal images, images processing, Coatings, hardness, Vikkers's method, coefficient of intensity of tension, and crack resistance. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Engineering Research.


Media Promotion:


The purpose of this paper is to introduce an optimised variant to the round robin scheduling algorithm. The Round Robin scheduling algorithm is one of the most widely used CPU scheduling algorithms, and it is used in a variety of software systems.  Every algorithm works in its own way and has its own merits and demerits. The proposed algorithm overcomes the shortfalls of the existing scheduling algorithms in terms of waiting time, turnaround time, throughput and number of context switches. The algorithm is pre-emptive and works based on the priority of the associated processes. The priority is decided on the basis of the remaining burst time of a particular process, that is; lower the burst time, higher the priority and higher the burst time, lower the priority. To complete the execution, a time quantum is initially specified. In case if the burst time of a particular process is less than 2X of the specified time quantum but more than 1X of the specified time quantum; the process is given high priority and is allowed to execute until it completes entirely and finishes. Such processes do not have to wait for their next burst cycle.

Strength and Ductility Performance of GFRP Laminated RC Beams with Discrete Steel Fibres

S. Syed Ibrahim, S. Kandasamy, S. Pradeepkumar, R. Subashchandrabose

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 5, 4 January 2022, Page 12-28

Many researchers have reported that reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with externally bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates/sheets significantly reduced their ductility due to increased stiffness, which leads to debonding type failure without adequate prior notice. The purpose of this research is to look into the strength and ductility of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminated RC beams with different volume fractions (Vf = 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) of discrete steel fibres. The parameters of this investigation included: load and deflection at yield and ultimate stages, ductility, crack-width, and failure mode. The role played by the introduction of steel fibres is found to be beneficial in boosting both the strength and ductility of FRP strengthened beams at all levels of volume fractions used in this work, according to experimental assessments. Full-scale beam models based on finite element analysis were created using ANSYS software to predict the response of all beams, and the load-deflection behaviour of the models agrees well with the experimental data. 

This paper proposes a multi-energy complementary CCHP system integrating renewable energy sources and schedulable heating, cooling, and electrical loads. Combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems are a promising energy-efficient and environment-friendly technology. However, their performance in terms of energy, economy, and environment factors depends on the operation strategy. The system uses schedulable loads instead of energy storage, at the same time, a collaborative optimization scheduling strategy, which integrates energy supply and load demand into a unified optimization framework to achieve the optimal system performance, is presented. Schedulable cooling and heating load models are formulated using the relationship between indoor and outdoor house temperatures. A genetic algorithm is employed to optimize the overall performance of energy, economy, and environment factors and obtain optimal day-ahead scheduling scheme. Case studies are conducted to verify the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with a system involving thermal energy storage and demand response (DR), the proposed method exhibits a higher primary energy saving rate, greenhouse gas emission reduction rate, and operation costs saving rate of 7.44%, 6.59%, and 4.73%, respectively, for a typical summer day, thereby demonstrating the feasibility and superiority of the proposed approach. Models for schedulable cooling and heating loads based on variable temperatures were then established. Furthermore, a multi-objective optimization method was established to determine the trade-off between the PESR, ERR, and OCSR performance indexes.

Determining the Hazards Analysis of Nickel-Rich Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Runaway under Different States of Charge

Kun Jiang, Pingwei Gu, Peng Huang, Ying Zhang, Bin Duan, Chenghui Zhang

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 5, 4 January 2022, Page 49-62

In this paper, the nickel-rich 18650 lithium-ion batteries with the Li[Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1]O2 cathode in different SOC conditions are taken to investigate the TR characteristics using the extended volume plus acceleration calorimeter (EV+-ARC). The lithium-ion battery industry has been developing rapidly, with energy density and capacity constantly improving. However, the ensuing safety accidents of lithium-ion power batteries have seriously threatened the personal safety of passengers. Therefore, more and more attention has been paid to the thermal safety research of lithium-ion batteries, such as thermal runaway (TR) mechanism analysis and prevention methods, etc. In this paper, the nickel-rich 18650 lithium- ion batteries with Li[Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1]O2 cathode in different states of charge (SOC) are taken to investigate the TR characteristics using an extended volume plus acceleration calorimeter (EV+-ARC). In order to evaluate the TR characteristics, some characteristic parameters such as battery voltage, surface temperature, temperature rise rate, etc. are selected from the experiment to analyze the influence of SOC on the critical state of TR. It can be seen from the experiment results that the maximum temperature of the battery surface decreases with the decrease of SOC, while the self- generated heat temperature and TR trigger temperature increases with the decrease of SOC.

Determining the Performance Parameters of Carbureted Butanol and Plastic Oil Blended with Diethyl Ether

B. T. Naik, M. V. S. Murali Krishna, P. Usha Sri

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 5, 4 January 2022, Page 63-76

Background of the Problem: In the context depletion of fossil fuels, ever increases of fuel prices in International market causing economic burden on government of India and ever increases of pollution levels with fossil fuels, the search for alternative fuels has become pertinent. Alcohols and vegetables oils are important substitutes for diesel fuel as they renewable in nature. However, the drawbacks of vegetables oils (high viscosity and low volatility) and alcohols (low energy content and cetane number) call for semi-adiabatic diesel engine (SADE).The high energy content of plastic oil and high volatility of butanol can be taken together in order to have minimum pollution levels.

Aim: Investigations were carried out to evaluate the performance parameters of the conventional engine (CE) and semi adiabatic diesel engine (SADE) with carbureted butanol and injected plastic oil blended with diethyl ether by 20% with varied injection timing..

Design Variables: Configuration of the engine, injection timing, test fuels of diesel and carbureted butanol along with plastic oil

Methodology: The experimental engine is single cylinder, four-stroke, water cooled, 3.68 k W at the rated speed of 1500 rpm engine with ceramic coated cylinder head (partially stabilized zirconium of thickness 500 µm coated over inside portion of cylinder head).Performance parameters of brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, coolant load and volumetric efficiency were determined at different values of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of the engine. Brake specific energy consumption was determined at full load operation of the engine. Injection timing was varied with sensor. Butanol was carbureted into the engine through variable jet carburetor installed at the inlet manifold of the engine at different percentages of crude plastic oil at full load on mass basis. Crude plastic oil blended with 20% diethyl ether was injected through injector in conventional manner. The purpose of adding diethyl ether was to improve cetane number, which measures ignition quality of fuel in diesel engine.

Brief Results: SADE with carbureted butanol and injected plastic oil blended with diethyl ether improved the performance when compared with neat diesel on conventional engine.

Study on Organisational Capability and Their Strategic Impact on Firms Market Share

Brahmane Jayant Shaligram

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 5, 4 January 2022, Page 77-82

Capabilities can be sorted into three categories, depending on the orientation and focus of the defining processes. At one end of the spectrum are those that are deployed from the inside out and activated by market requirements, competitive challenges, and external opportunities. Capabilities of a dynamic nature, aside from being a source of new resources for the company, provide a solid instrument for the organization's strategists. Focus on marketing capabilities in times of crisis may be less profitable than possessing the capabilities for strategic flexibility, especially as competitive intensity increases. Market share has become a language for the expression of the market targets by top management. In this study concept of organizational capability and its implications to strategy and business performance are discussed, but more in- depth empirical study will be needed for developing better understanding of linkages among organizational capability and market share.

A Brief Study on Sizing of Gas and Oil/Hydrocarbon Liquid Pipelines

Mavis Sika Okyere

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 5, 4 January 2022, Page 83-103

In this chapter, an effective approach for calculating the size of a gas pipeline and an oil/hydrocarbon liquid pipeline is presented. The method is very simple and does not necessitate any complicated calculations. The proposed method derives the diameter, length, flow rate, inlet and outlet pressures from a simple flow formula. In general, the method produces better pipe size prediction results. The subject of this paper is to present mathematical relationships, based on which Gas pipe and hydrocarbon liquid pipe size is calculated.

Study on the Development of a MEMS Hotplate-based Photoacoustic CO2 Sensor

Lucky A. Ishaku, David Hutson, Des Gibson

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 5, 4 January 2022, Page 104-116

Instead of the conventional use of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) hotplate for metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) or nondispersive infrared (NDIR) gas sensing, it was used for photoacoustic (PA) gas sensing. A low-cost MEMS microphone was used for the development of this MEMS hotplate PA carbon dioxide  sensor. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first time that a MEMS hotplate and a MEMS microphone are combined for use in gas sensing with high modulation frequency. NDIR sensors use much more expensive photodetectors compared to the MEMS microphone used in this work. Low power consumption, small size, and low cost are all desirable qualities of MEMS hotplates and microphones. Micro hotplates are commonly employed in metal oxide sensors and as infrared emitters for gas sensing. The MEMS hotplate and MEMS microphone have the desired characteristics of low power consumption, small size and low cost. The hotplate as a blackbody is a good infrared emitter which is suitable for  detection around the  absorption band. Despite the significant radiation power loss due to high modulation frequency, the remaining/reduced power radiation power was still sufficient to excite  molecules for PA signal generation. Temperature analysis on the sensor showed that PA signal decreases with an increase in temperature, which implies that compensation must be provided for such temperature effects. This work provides alternative optical gas sensing that is comparatively inexpensive compared to the conventional NDIR sensors and by using components that can be easily mass-produced, thereby making a valuable contribution to the fight against air pollution and global warming.

Assessment of Sandcrete Blocks Quality in Imo State, Nigeria: A Brief Overview

Nwabueze Michael Anosike

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 5, 4 January 2022, Page 117-128

Aim: This study assessed the production management practice being adopted in the manufacture of quality sandcrete blocks in selected sampled locations within Owerri municipal of Imo State, Nigeria.

Study Design:  The study adopted field sampling, experimentations and work study methods to determine the compressive strength and water absorption rate properties of the selected sampled sandcrete blocks.

Place and Duration of Study: The study selected and sampled blocks manufactured within parts of Owerri Municipal in Imo State, and made use of the Central laboratory at the Main campus, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria to test and conduct the pilot experimentations between the months of May – Sept 2021.

Methodology: The field survey entailed collecting manufactured sandcrete block specimens from randomly selected block manufacturing factories for laboratory tests. The compressive strength test and water absorption test respectively, were the properties tested on the blocks sampled. Pilot laboratory- produced blocks were used as control sample. Only 450mm x 225mm x 225mm size hollow sandcrete blocks were obtained and utilized in evaluating the block samples. In other words, the total of thirty-five (35) pieces of hollow sandcrete blocks were obtained and deployed for each of the two evaluation parameters tested. A total of six (6) blocks manufacturing factories equipped with molding machines were identified in Owerri municipal, Imo State where the study was undertaken. Random sampling method was adopted to select four (67%) of the blocks manufacturers, and from each of the manufacturers selected, five (5) pieces of blocks were sampled from among their stockpiles. In addition, the study randomly selected five (5) pieces of blocks from the specimens that was produced through ‘Pilot Laboratory’ for analysis. In all, a total of twenty-five pieces of blocks specimens were obtained comprising, twenty (20) from the field factories in addition to the five (5) pieces sampled from among pilot laboratory specimens for analysis.

Results: The results obtained after the analysis reveals among others that the mean compressive strength values obtained were as low as 1.92N/mm2, and about 17% water absorption rate from all the sampled commercial blocks.

Conclusion: The results obtained did not compare favorably with the NIS specified acceptable minimum standard values. The study therefore underpinned poor production quality control practice as well as lack of impact of regulatory bodies in Imo State as among factors that contributed to the negative results obtained.

Monitoring the Respiratory Rate in the Premature Newborn by Analyzing Thermal Images

Catalina Luca, Doru Andritoi, Calin Corciova

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 5, 4 January 2022, Page 129-143

In this paper we study the possibility of applying a non-invasive technique in monitoring respiratory rate in premature babies. At this time the systems used to monitor respiration in the new-born are difficult to use and do not provide satisfactory results. The objectives of this paper are represented by the use of thermographic technique in non-invasive monitoring of respiration. The analysis of recorded thermal images could be used to monitor respiratory rate in premature infants. The thermographic technique was chosen because it is a non-invasive technique. In this case, monitoring is based on the determination of temperature changes in the nostrils caused by breathing (inhale/exhale). Video images focused on the region of the nostrils, with duration of 1 min, were used in processing at different times, from which the rate of inspiration/expiration was extracted starting from the temperature variations. Following the results obtained, we believe that IR thermography it is a technique that can be integrated into a complex system that can be used to monitor the respiratory rate of the new-born.

Evaluation of the Resistance to Cracking of Paint and Varnish Coatings

Valentina Ivanovna Loganina, Ludmila Viktorovna Makarova, Roman Viktorovich Tarasov

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 5, 4 January 2022, Page 144-152

The Chapter contains information about the method of assessing the crack resistance of coatings. The influence of the porosity of the substrate on the resistance of the coatings to cracking has been established. It is proposed to evaluate the resistance of coatings to cracking by the method based on the ratio between the crack length upon indentation of the Vickers indenter and the fracture toughness. It is shown, that in the process of aging protective decorative coatings of external walls of buildings there is a change in the mechanism of their destruction from elastic-plastic to brittle, i.e."embrittlement" of coatings is observed. It was established that in coatings "embrittlement" happens after particular time of humidification. For coatings MA-115 the coating peeling after 2 months of humidification is characteristic, for coatings PF-266 -cracking. With increase of surface porosity of a substrate to a particular limit the decrease of coefficient of intensity of tension is observed.

With aging in PVAC and the polymer-limy coatings on a solution substrate the "embrittlement" occurs after a particular duration of impact of alternate freezing and thawing. Cracks in coatings at cave-in of an indentor of Vikkers appear only after 15-20 testing cycles. At studying a thermoaging it was recorded that the increase of time of thermoaging leads to natural increase of value of coefficient of intensity of tensions. Calculation of stresses in coatings