Dr. Anuj Kumar Goel 
Associate Professor,
Electronics and communication engineering Department, University Institute of Engineering, Chandigarh University, Mohali, Punjab, India.

ISBN 978-81-949988-8-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-949988-7-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nicst/v5

This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include compressible Stokes Equation, Reynolds lubrication theory, falling and moving objects, moving mesh, low reynold Swimming, bottle gourds, drying rate, mathematical models, Zero-distance pulse front, time optics, space optics, hyper excitability, nano particles, astrocyte, occupational health, ergonomic methods, manufacturing processes, electronics industry, vaginal hydrogels, contraception, multi-drug release, mucoadhesive, biodegradability, Alzheimer’s disease, drugs, population aging, pharmaceuticals, climate change. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology.


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The development work focuses on the numerical simulations of free body movement in viscous fluid. In many areas of science and engineering, the flow of viscous fluids at low Reynolds number plays an important role, especially in applied areas of lubrication theory and micro- organism locomotion. The aim is to make the simulation of very slow motion of the small body in viscous fluid. We developed bodies’ immersed dynamics simulations in viscous fluid by seeking numerical solutions for appropriate field variables. We developed the methods for vertically and spherically cylindrical objects’ motions, the forces on bodies close to a plane stationary wall are computed from the velocity and pressure fields using the Stokes equation through COMSOL Multiphysics finite element software. The Navier-Stokes equation is reduced to Stokes equation there is independence of time which means object will have an effect only on the motion and the slightly compressible flow assumption is made in order to obtain smooth solution numerically. The forces on an object in slightly compressible Stokes flow have been exerted on the falling objects. The resulting forces have compared with analytical results from the Reynolds Lubrication Theory, and achieved significant results from the development method in Matlab and achieved significant numerical simulations in COMSOL. In addition, an investigation has been made to an object swimming at low Reynolds number. At low Reynolds number moving is possible when object scale is small and flow pattern is slow and sticky. We have developed a system for a thin two-dimensional (2D) worm-like object wiggle that is passing a wave along its centreline and its motion has simulated by the Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) system and by the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh technology. The development method result shows that it is possible for the small object to have a motion from one position to another through small amplitudes and wavelengths in viscous fluid. The development methods in COMSOL 3.5 Multiphysics with Matlab has worked sufficiently well in getting a good enough solution as required in our study.

Advanced Study on Drying Kinetics and Mathematical Modeling of Bottle Gourd

Murlidhar Ingle, A. R. Tapre, Radhika Nawkar

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 5, 13 February 2021, Page 21-29

Aims: Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria L.) is an important vegetable crop of tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world belonging to family Cucurbitaceae. It is most popular in Indo-Pakistan sub-continent and cultivated throughout India. The aim of this study was to evaluate the drying behavior of bottle gourd slices using tray dryer.

Study Design: The bottle gourd slices were dried in a tray dryer at 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 + 1°C. The moisture loss was determined by gravimetry. Readings were taken at 30 minutes till constant weight was observed.

Place and Duration of Study: Experiments were done in Department of Food Science and Technology, MPKV Rahuri and completed within 12 months.

Methodology: The drying curves were fitted into four different drying models (Henderson, Logarithm, Page and Modified Page) widely accepted for modeling of agricultural materials drying. The best model describing the drying process was selected based on the low RMSE, low ?2, and high R2.

Results: The drying time at 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70ºC drying temperature were 630, 570, 450, 420 and 360 min respectively for bottle gourd slices. By comparing time required at 50ºC and 60ºC temperature and 60ºC and 70ºC there were 28.57% and 20.00% reduction in drying time respectively. At the beginning of a drying process, the moisture content of fresh bottle gourd was 92.09% (w.b.) which is reduced to 7.08% (wb). The drying rate decreased with increase in drying time. The drying rates were as high as 0.89 at 55ºC and as low as 0.1 at almost all the temperatures. The R2 values ranged from 0.788 to 0.954, the adjusted R2 values also ranged from 0.777 to 0.951, ?2 values between 0.029 and 0.681, and RMSE values between 0.0533 and 0.3742.

Conclusion: Increased in air drying temperature decreased the drying time. Drying mostly occurred in the falling rate period. Henderson and Pabis model was found to be a better model for describing the drying characteristics of bottle gourd at all temperatures. The product quality was found well at all the temperature.

Brain hyper-excitability is an abnormal state of the brain that arises due to the burst firing of a neuron. In a normal brain, neuronal activities are modulated by the astrocytes, so, brain hyper-excitability also associated with astrocyte physiology. Scientists believe that the modulation of astrocytes can be an option to control hyperactive brain disorders. Different nano-particles are developed to regulate astrocyte function to control brain hyper-excitability and to prevent brain disorder. Charged nanoparticles are either incorporated in the lipid bi-layer or attached to channel protein present in the plasma membrane to control the membrane potential of the astrocyte. None of the techniques is fully effective till today to control brain hyper-excitability.

Correlation Analysis of Mechanical Vibrations Produced by Electrical Equipment and Presence of Discomfort and Pain of Workers of Electronics Industry of Mexicali, Mexico

Yanet Villarreal González, Pedro Alberto Escárcega Zepeda, Carlos Raúl Navarro González, Ana Laura Sánchez Corona, Verónica Arredondo Robledo, Juan Gabriel Lopez Hernandez, Gustavo Lopez Badilla

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 5, 13 February 2021, Page 83-91

This paper shows an analysis of the possibility of having a negative effect on the health of workers in industrial plants, where there are industrial equipment and machines that generate vibrations at different frequency levels. The investigation consisted of developing an evaluation of a worker using a device that has the function of placing screws (screwdriver) and removing screws (screwdriver) in an industrial company that manufactures laptop computers. This industry located in the city of Mexicali, located in the northwest of Mexico, is a microindustry of electronics sector as Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) of 60 workers supports a large company of 500 workers, located in this same city and manufactures enormous quantities of laptop computers and generates about 25% defects of its total production. The SME evaluated, elaborates activities of reception, repair and shipment of laptop computers to the large industrial plant. The scientific study was made 2018 to 2019.

Injectable Multi-Drug Loaded Hydrogels for Contraception

Lei Nie, Peng Zou, Meng Sun, Yanting Han, Chingching Ji, Qiuju Zhou, Jinping Suo

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 5, 13 February 2021, Page 92-115

Injectable intravaginal hydrogels could deliver drugs systemically without a hepatic first-pass effect. The vaginal route has many advantages due to its large surface area, rich blood supply, relatively high permeability of many drugs, and self-insertion. This paper focuses on the contraceptive function of an injectable temperature-sensitive four-arm star-shaped poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (4sPLGA-mPEG) block copolymer hydrogels as a carrier of three drugs. In vitro controlled release profiles were investigated via HPLC, and it showed that the cumulative release amounts of indomethacin (IMC), gestodene (GSD), and ethinyl estradiol (EE) from copolymer hydrogels could be regulated by adjusting the lactide/glycolide (LA/GA) mol ratio. In addition, in vitro release profiles of IMC, GSD, and EE well corresponded to Higuchi model. The acute toxicity of copolymer hydrogels loaded with different dosage contents multi-drug was evaluated in vivo. As to the high dosage group, the uterus was hydropic at day 1 and ulcerated at day 5, followed by intestinal adhesion. Regarding the middle dosage group, no festering of tissues was observed and, blood coagulum existed in the uterus on different days. For low dosage group, no significant tissue necrosis was found. Finally, the antifertility experiments confirmed that hydrogels loaded with the multi-drug had an excellent contraceptive effect. The above results indicated that injectable copolymer hydrogel as a multi-drug carrier was promising as a novel contraception method.

Possible Approaches for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease through Analysis of Patent Documents

Karinne Marieta Carvalho, Eduardo Winter, Adelaide Maria de Souza Antunes

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 5, 13 February 2021, Page 116-132

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and is becoming ever more prevalent as a result of increased longevity and consequent population aging. It is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease and until now incurable. The main neuropathological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease are associated with dysfunction of the beta-amyloid protein (A?) and the microtubule-associated protein tau, which results in neuronal degeneration. The drugs act to improve symptoms but have no disease-modifying effects and are therefore considered one of the greatest challenges of science. This study shows that research into AD is on the rise around the world because the pharmaceutical industry and research institutions are seeking new types of drugs to treat and even cure Alzheimer’s patients. By analyzing patent documents, we map out the potential future treatments for this disease, indicating the leading countries and pharmaceutical industries that have invested most in a bid to accelerate progress towards discoveries about the disease and the development of new drugs.

Assessment and Analysis of Pond Fisheries in Climate Change Scenario in the Haor Region of Bangladesh

Md. Golam Mustafa, Gopal Chandra Sarker, Shariff N. Anwar, Md. Ahsanuzzaman, Sadequr Rahman, S. A. Azher, Rathi Mahamud Morshed

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 5, 13 February 2021, Page 133-151

Aims: Water of the haors recedes as the monsoon rains taper down, providing fresh nutrient rich lands for seasonal cultivation including aquaculture. To identify the potential environmental impacts and influence of climate change on the pond fishery in haor region and impact of exotic species on the native and natural species through aquaculture.

Study Design: An investigation on the influence of the pond fishery approach to determine whether the approach is successful with respect to the climate change impacts in the haor area.

Place and Duration of Study: The study sites are located in five haor districts in Bangladesh for a period of one-year (May 2018 – April 2019) covering HILIP working area.

Methodology: The study includes collection and analyses of both quantitative and qualitative data. For quantitative study, 92 sample households in 58 unions of 28 upazilas (sub-districts) in five project districts were selected randomly. Fish catch data, including information on species composition, production and sale were collected from perennial and seasonal ponds. The qualitative primary data obtained through in-depth interviews, key informants interviews and focus group discussions have been used in this paper.

Results: Fish production was found to be better at perennial ponds, but not significantly more than that in the seasonal ponds. However, biodiversity was found to be better in seasonal ponds and greater than that in the perennial ponds. The findings clearly support the observation that pond fish culture is an attractive activity for haor people, especially those who are able to run both perennial and seasonal ponds and manage minimum feeding requirements, maintain those  and market the outputs effectively. The present study fills gaps in existing knowledge of fish pond culture diffusion in haor region of Bangladesh.

Conclusions: Pond fishery appears to perform better so, aquaculture production would mitigate some lost capture fisheries in the haor area of Bangladesh. Existing cultural practices could support experimentation and learning under future initiatives in the haor area. Pond fishery in the haor area mainly has an income-generating feature and less probability of being affected by  climate change impacts. However, future initiatives should emphasize on culturing fish, which  has the potential of balancing the haor ecosystem. The approach should be extended beyond study areas and be adopted as a key strategy for development of haor fisheries resources in Bangladesh.