Editor(s)
Dr. Anuj Kumar Goel
Professor,
Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Chandigarh University, Mohali, Punjab, India.


ISBN 978-93-5547-131-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-209-0 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/ist/v1


This book covers key areas of Innovations in Science and Technology. The contributions by the authors include Cutting Fluid , surface roughness, tool wear,  Cutting Tool , Cutting Zone , epigenetics, cytotoxicity,  oncogenetic, Bibliometric analysis, authorship pattern and degree of collaboration, content analysis, Public Perception, Internet Bypass Fraud, SIMBox fraud, voice over internet protocol, call data analysis and management system, national security threat,  SWOT analysis, price risk, dynamic voltage restorer, Voltage Sag and Swell, Power Quality, Voltage harmonics, Chemotherapy, saliva, periodontal disease, Speech intelligibility assessment, formant-modulation method, and measuring exactness. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Innovations in Science and Technology.

 

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Chapters


Investigating the Effect of Feeding Angle on the Performance of a Two-way Application of Cutting Fluids

S. O. Yakubu, S. Y. Aku, M. J. Apochi

Innovations in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 27 November 2021, Page 1-8
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ist/v1/1880E

An investigation was carried out to see how a change in the angle of cutting fluid’s (CF) feeding affects the performance of a two-way cutting fluid application. The motivation for this research was based on the fact that little or no works have been done on a two-way CF application as well on the results of findings in our first work. The experiments were conducted on a centre lathe machine type XL400. The workpiece was a medium carbon steel and the cutting tool used was a rectangular cemented carbide tool insert. The investigated parameters were the surface quality of the machined workpiece, the rate of tool wear and temperature of the cutting zone under different angles of feeding. The experiments were executed under the following conditions of machining: Depth of cut (t) =1.5 mm, Speed (V) = 180 rpm, Feed rate (f) = 0.75 mm/rev. The two-way cutting fluid application was most effective when the feeding angle was 150º in terms of the surface quality. i.e. the lowest surface roughness value was obtained at this angle and it was 5.77 µm as against 9.67 µm for one-way application of CF. In other words the surface roughness was reduced by 40.3%. The values of the tool wear and temperature at the cutting zone were 0.11 mm and 25.60ºc respectively compared to 0.15 mm and 30.48ºc for the one-way application. Whereas, the lowest tool wear (highest tool life) and temperature were achieved at feeding angle of 60º. The corresponding values for the tool wear and temperature were 0.11 mm and 24.54ºc respectively for the two-way application as against 0.15 mm and 30.48ºc for the one-way application. Some of the abnormal values obtained for the two-way application may be due to self excited vibrations of the machine tool.  The value of the surface roughness was 6.79 µm at this angle which was the next lowest value obtained in the whole investigation. Thus, the most effective angles of feeding of CF to the cutting zone by the two-way application were 60º and 150º respectively. Consequently, one can conclude from the obtained results that the angle of feeding of CF to the cutting zone to a greater extent affects its effectiveness.

A Comprehensive Review on the Pleotropic Role of Nitric Oxide, a Well-Known Cytotoxin

Ankit Sharma, Estevan Limón López, Michael Babich, James A. Radosevich

Innovations in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 27 November 2021, Page 9-35
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ist/v1/7108D

Free radical nitric oxide (NO\(\bullet\)) plays a dual role in human physiology and pathophysiology. At low levels NO\(\bullet\) is considered to play a protective role for cells; however, at higher levels it becomes cytotoxic and contributes to tumor angiogenesis and cancer progression. Although earlier studies investigating the role of NO\(\bullet\) in cancer have been tissue-specific, this review focuses on the underlying similarities of NO\(\bullet\) exposure that present across a variety of site-specific cancers. We also try to explain the role of NO\(\bullet\)and the cellular protecting enzyme glutathione-transferase. This article emphasizes the emerging role of NO\(\bullet\)in three main areas related to epigenetics: DNA methylation, microRNAs, and histone modifications. In conclusion, we describe the recent advancement of a model cell line system in which cells demonstrate a high level of NO\(\bullet\) nitric oxide adaptation, and propose that these adapted cell lines can act as useful tools to study the role of NO\(\bullet\) in cancer biology.

A bibliometric approach to study 982 research papers published in the Journal “IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility” during the period 2010-2015 has been carried out. The data was collected from the archives of the journal available in online form. This paper examines the articles with the objective to analyse year wise growth of the articles published, authorship pattern, degree of collaboration, subject wise distribution of articles, average number of references per article etc. There is increasing trend in publication of articles from the year 2010 to 2015.  The journal covers all the domains of electromagnetics and this is what is reflected from the no. of papers published on the subject. The study shows that joint authorship is most preferred way of publication of the papers in the journal “IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility” during the period of study.

Geospatial Mapping of Flood Hazard in Fufore Local Government Area, North Eastern Nigeria

Taiwo S. Ogunwumi, Edmond S. Waziri, Joseph C. Udoh

Innovations in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 27 November 2021, Page 46-60
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ist/v1/2734E

Flooding causes fatalities, damage to critical infrastructure, an increase in waterborne diseases, and a disruption in human livelihood. This highlights the importance of a flood hazard map, which can assist the government and the general public in determining where they might be flooded in order to be prepared and mitigate this constantly occurring hazard. This paper utilized geospatial techniques to generate flood hazard components; merge the components to produce a final composite flood hazard map; and, identify the various flood hazard zones of Fufore Local Government Area in North-Eastern Nigeria. The datasets include the study area's land use/land cover, distance from rivers, elevation, slope, rainfall intensity, and land use/land cover. There are four hazard zones: very high, high, low, and very low.According to the analysis, the Low flood hazard zone has the most coverage with 2112.5 km2 (49.9 percent), followed by the High flood hazard zone with 1784.6 km2 (42.2 percent), and the Very High with 183.58 km2 (4.3 percent). With 144.89 km2, the Very Low areas have the smallest areal extent (3.42 percent). Very Low and Low areas account for 53.32 percent of total coverage, while High and Very High zones account for 46.68 percent. Four of the 26 communities hosting major markets are located in the Very High Hazard Zone, ten in the High Hazard Zone, twelve in the Low Hazard Zone, and none in the Very Low Hazard Zone. Markets such as Kasuwar Wurobokki, Kasuwar Bilachi Bwatye, Chigari, Chikito, Mayo Ine, Mayo Sadi, Shuwari Market, and Tike Market are highly susceptible to flooding. Generally, about 91 settlements including Mayo Inne, Damboire Nadere, Tunga Agatu, Tudun WadaWuro Fulbere and Gangare Gidan Audu are all located within the Very High flood hazard zone. Some of the most significant are found in the low-lying areas of the Lagdo River and its tributaries. This indicates that in the event of flooding, a large proportion of the population in the study area may be displaced, lose their means of livelihood, children's access to schools may be hampered, and essential infrastructure and buildings may be damaged. The paper demonstrated the ability of hazard maps to communicate information that policymakers, community members, and other stakeholders could use to mitigate flood disasters in the study area.

SIMBox fraud is one of the most sophisticated fraud types in the recent times.  Telecom regulators and mobile operators are facing massive revenue losses as bypass fraud continues to be one of the most prolific and costly frauds. To terminate international inbound calls to local subscribers, gateway equipment such as fixed, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), VOIP to GSM, and fixed line gateway are used. Fraudsters bypass the connections by diverting traffic away from legal interconnect gateways. Fraudulent Operators sending outbound international traffic connect to interconnect operators with lower rates, leading to loss of revenue for the original internet service provider. SIMBox fraud is considered illegal since those who undertake it are not licensed to provide telecommunication services. SIMBox fraud is also considered as a national security threat since terrorist groups use this device to make international calls at local call rates. The main objectives of this study is to provide background of cellular networks, internet gateway, voice over internet protocol, preliminary overview to SIMBox architecture, internet bypass fraud - including GSM gateway fraud and SIMBox fraud and the State-of-Art Procedures to combat SIMBox fraud. This chapter focuses on the study of SIMBox fraud as a National Security threat. Further this study also suggests the methods for mitigating such security threat and the next generation forensic detection methods.

An Empirical Analysis on Acumen of Farmer Members on Farmer Producer Companies

S. B. Ramya Lakshmi, G. Jaya, K. C. Gummagolmath

Innovations in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 27 November 2021, Page 75-89
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ist/v1/2110C

The present study was conducted in the state of Maharashtra with an objective to analyze the farmers’ perceptions on Farmer Producer Companies (FPCs) in the state of Maharashtra, India. Indian farmers still face many challenges as majority of them are small and marginal farmers accounting for more than 86 per cent of the farming population. Member farmers were selected as sample respondents for the study. The results of the present study revealed that after association with producer company, there has been an improvement in the yields as stated by 96.66 per cent of the farmers under category I, 82.73 per cent of the farmers in category II and 77.50 per cent of the farmers under category III. It was also observed that there was an improvement in the quality of the produce and a majority of the farmers were happy with the price for their produce received after joining FPCs. It was also interesting to note that the problems faced by the farmers were different in all the three categories of FPCs. However, the common problem faced by the farmers in category II and III was manipulation of quotas and quality specifications by some of the companies. The SWOT analysis revealed that the major strengths identified by the farmers were more or less same in the selected FPCs like provision of inputs and production services, higher yields due to better management, minimizing the prices risk and better bargaining for small holders. The adoption of new production technology was a common weakness and pro-government policy was an important opportunity of all the producer companies as perceived by the farmers. The common threats to the producer companies of all categories include problem of sustaining long term operations, cut throat competition among companies, social and cultural constraints.

Mitigation of Voltage Sag and Swell Using Battery Based Dynamic Voltage Restorer: A Detailed Study

J. Bangarraju, A. Jayalaxmi, V. Rajagopal

Innovations in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 27 November 2021, Page 90-98
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ist/v1/5222F

The use of a battery-based dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) to mitigate voltage sag and swell is described in this work. The DVR is a three-phase controlled voltage source with a magnitude of voltage and angle that adds/subtracts from the source voltage during sag/swell. The DVR can inject a voltage of the desired magnitude and phase at fundamental frequency in each phase. Within milliseconds, the DVR can restore the load voltage. Voltage sag and voltage swell problems can be solved quickly and efficiently with DVR. Synchronous Reference Frame Theory (SRFT) is used to estimate reference voltages, and gate pulses are created by monitoring the source, load terminal voltages, and supply currents. Utilizing MATLAB/ SIMULINK and the power system Block set (PSB) toolboxes, the mitigation of voltage sag and swell using SRFT for battery-based DVR is simulated.

Study on Chemotherapy Agents in Saliva through Spectrometry and Chromatography Methods Correlated with Periodontal Status in Oncology Patients

Diana Cristala Kappenberg Nitescu, Liliana Pasarin, Silvia Martu, Cornelia Teodorescu, Bogdan Vasiliu, Ioana Mârtu, Ionut Luchian, Sorina Mihaela Solomon

Innovations in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 27 November 2021, Page 99-111
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ist/v1/1543B

Background: Determining chemotherapy drug levels in saliva through spectrometry may offer useful information without additional risks. The objectives of this study were to quantify chemotherapy agents in the saliva of oncology patients undergoing intravenous chemotherapy treatment and evaluate the oral and periodontal clinical modifications and possible correlations between them.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 29 patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment with cisplatin, oxaliplatin, or gemcitabine. Three total saliva samples were gathered from each patient in three key points regarding chemotherapy. The samples were then analyzed through methods of mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography.

Results: Cisplatin and gemcitabine were only found in saliva at 30 min and 2 hrs after chemotherapy administration, however, oxaliplatin was determined in all three samples. Clinically, the most accentuated clinical attachment loss and CPITN scores were observed on mandibular teeth, whereas the highest values for the Sillness and Loe gingival index and gingival bleeding index were in the lateral maxillary areas. We found no statistically significant correlation between the periodontal parameters and chemotherapy concentration in saliva.

Conclusion: A fraction of systemically administered chemotherapy can also be found in the saliva of oncology patients and have the potential to exacerbate oral infections and cause local and systemic complications throughout the oncology treatment. Further research is required to fully understand how chemotherapy can influence the development of periodontal disease.

Study on Formant-Modulation Technique of Speech Intelligibility Assessment

Arkadiy Prodeus

Innovations in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 27 November 2021, Page 112-125
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ist/v1/2194C

The object of this paper was to study the statistical properties of the formant-modulation method for assessing speech intelligibility. Detailed description of the proposed formant-modulation method is presented. Analytical expressions for expectation and variance of estimators of a modulation coefficient and effective signal-to-noise ratio are obtained. Two situations which are most interesting in engineering applications are considered: a predominant noise disturbance and a predominant reverberant disturbance. Convenience in engineering applications equations, which permit finding efficient test signal duration for required measurement exactness, has been obtained. Computer modelling and experimental testing have confirmed efficiency of the formant-modulation method. The obtained results of comparing the formant and formant-modulation methods of assessing speech intelligibility made it possible to conclude that formant method is preferable for case of prevailing influence of noise. Relative error of formant method is about 0.15-0.20 of the formant-modulation method error and formant method estimation time is about 1/14 of formant-modulation method estimation time. However, the formant method cannot compete with the formant-modulation method with a significant effect of reverberation on speech intelligibility.

Nanostructured Light Guide Sensors of the Solvents’ Vapors in Atmosphere

Novikov Alexander Fedorovich

Innovations in Science and Technology Vol. 1, 27 November 2021, Page 126-134
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ist/v1/3477F

Chemical sensors of solvents’ vapors based on different light guides (integrated- and fiber-optics) were designed and tested. The vapor sensitive substances were introduced into nano-scale porous outer layers of the light guide substrate/core. A substrate/core material used was phase separated silicate glass or polyester polymer.