Dr. Sevgul Donmez
Faculty of Health Sciences, Gaziantep University, Turkey.


ISBN 978-93-5547-371-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-379-0 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/etdhr/v5


This book covers key areas of  Disease and Health Research. The contributions by the authors include Parkinsonism, neurorehabilitation, functional electrostimulation, deep oscillation, magnetic field, metamemory, memory confidence, chronic kidney disease, nutrition management, diabetic foot, arteriopathy, anticoagulant treatments, phytochemicals, medicinal/herbals plants, pharmacology, ageing effect, DNA fragmentation, high DNA stainability, semen analysis, air pollution, health production function, household surveys, caloric efficiency, brown adipose tissue, congenic rodent model, thermogenesis, substrate assimilation, stigma and discrimination, mitigation strategies, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, sexually transmitted infection, biomedical model, endocrine function, axilllary mercury-in-glass, forehead Non touch Infra-red thermometers, infectious diseases, community pharmacists. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of  Disease and Health Research.


Media Promotion:


Neurorehabilitation in Parkinsonism: Impact of Physiotherapy, Ergotherapy and Preformed Modalities on Autonomy (A Comparative Study)

Ivet B. Koleva, Borislav R. Yoshinov, Radoslav R. Yoshinov

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 5, 8 March 2022, Page 1-12

Introduction: Parkinsonism (Prk) is a neurodegenerative disorder, considered as a socially important disease with serious decline in autonomy and quality of life of patients.

Our objective during last years was to estimate the efficacy of application of different neurorehabilitation (NR) methods on independence in activities of daily living (ADL) of patients.

The GOAL of current study was to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the impact of physiotherapy (PT), ergotherapy (ET) and some preformed physical modalities [as Electrical Stimulations, Deep Oscillation, Magnetic field and Transcutaneous electroneurostimulation] in the complex NR of Prk.

Materials and Methods: We observed 204 Prk-patients, covering the criteria of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS); randomized into six therapeutic groups (gr). In gr-1 we applied traditional physiotherapy (control group); in gr 2 – a complex NR-programme, including physiotherapy, ergotherapy & patients’ education. In patients of next groups, we added preformed physical modalities: in gr-3 – ES for feet extensors and flexors; in gr-4 – DO; in gr-5 – MF and in gr-6 – TENS paravertebrally.

For database management we used parametrical analysis (t-test - analysis of variances ANOVA) and non-parametric distribution analysis (Wilcoxon signed rank test); performed using SPSS package. The treatment difference was considered statistically significant if the P value was < 0.05.

Results: The comparative analysis of results demonstrates statistically significant amelioration (in all experimental groups) concerning: brady-hypo-kinesia; gait stability, pulsion phenomena (especially retropulsio); Hoehn and Yahr scale; depression and anxiety. Paravertebral pain, rigidity (muscular and articular stiffness) and Prk-posture were most significantly influenced in groups with preformed physical modality. In gr-2 and gr-3 we perceived most important improvement of autonomy in different activities, Timed Up and Go test, etc. 

Conclusion: We recommend our own NR programme, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy and preformed modalities; useful for the autonomy in ADL of parkinsonic patients.

Responsibility and Valence as Factors in Recognition and Confidence in Recognition of Words

Kallia Manoussaki, Evangeli Karali

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 5, 8 March 2022, Page 13-22

Both clinical and nonclinical groups may experience significant cognitive consequences as a result of perceived responsibility. Individuals with increased responsibility have been found to have a positive memory bias, but also a decline in metamemory for salient stimuli. Stimulus salience improves retrieval via directive attention but may impair metamemory, especially in anxious populations. It has been proposed that progressive exposure to emotionally salient stimuli reduces confidence in memory while having no effect on memory accuracy in OCD patients and nonclinical participants with OCD symptoms. Perceived responsibility is linked to a positive memory bias for negative stimuli, as well as lower memory confidence. The current study looked into the relationship between responsibility, as measured by the Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS), recognition, and confidence in recognising words of varying valence in a healthy population. The RAS was given to 85 healthy participants before they took part in a word recognition task. The results showed that responsibility attitude did not predict memory accuracy or confidence for words with a negative, positive, or neutral valence. Furthermore, while word valence had no effect on memory confidence, it did have an effect on memory accuracy. Future research implications point to the use of responsibility-relevant stimuli.

The aim of the study was to determine the attitude of adult stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients to nutrition management and its association with practices by renal adult patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. A cross-sectional analytical design was used to facilitate collection of qualitative and quantitative data and enable identification of associations between variables. Cochran formula was used to calculate a sample of 110 respondents. A research administered questionnaire with closed ended questions was used to collect information. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were used to describe demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population. Inferential statistics were done using chi square with an alpha of 0.05 to test association between independent and dependent variables. Over three quarters (77%) gave responses depicting a negative attitude. Attitude to taking one’s weight daily (0.017), watching the types of food to eat daily (0.001), use of food supplements to provide nutrients needed by the body (0.001) and following dietary recommendations (<0.022) were significantly associated with practices in management of stage 5 CKD. Participants in overall had a positive attitude to nutrition management however, their attitude to potassium reduction, use of supplements, understanding nutrition information and fluid regulation was negative regardless of their education and income levels. It was recommended that attitude of the patients could be further enhanced through strong nutrition advocacy messages for better nutrition management practices.

Determination of Diabetic Foot in Algeria

Nadia Boudjenah

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 5, 8 March 2022, Page 34-39

The present study aims to understand the efficacy of diabetic foot. The rebalancing of diabetes and tares, the antibiotic treatments adapted by the systematic realization of an antibiogram, and the anticoagulant treatments alone improve the condition of the patient and the wound. We use antibiotic treatments, of course targeted, as well as anticoagulants. Full discharge of the wound is mandatory. It is accompanied by a specific physical activity that has for goal not to lose muscles and joints, and fight against the development of pressure sores. We treated them for diabetic neuropathy including carpal and tarsal tunnel lesions, and arteriopathy. The healing time does not matter for our patients as well as the functional results, but moral comfort is important thus improving their quality of life.

Medicinal Importance of Capsaicin from Capsicum Peppers

Ekwere, Mercy Robert

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 5, 8 March 2022, Page 40-46

Capsicum annum and Capsicum frutescens are two commonest species of Capsicum peppers. The Capsicum peppers though commonly used as food additives have several medicinal values that can be exploited. The molecules are usually synthesized for clinical uses. Capsicum peppers are not exceptions to some of these properties. They are potent plants with numerous and divergent usefulness. Various methods for the isolation of the pungent agent, capsaicin, has been recorded using single species of both dried red (ripe) fruits and fresh green peppers in each experiment as the source of the active principle. The IR analysis provides a simple and cheap method of the idea of the structure of the compound. However, it is not enough to use this method alone to elucidate structure of compounds so other instrumentation techniques should be employed for the structure of the compound to be fully elucidated.

The Effect of Age on Sperm Quality in City Policemen Exposed to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

Jiri Rubes, Jaroslav Sipek, Vera Kopecka, Petra Musilova, Miluse Vozdova, Jan Topinka, Anna Pastorkova, Vlasta Svecova, Radim J. Sram

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 5, 8 March 2022, Page 47-57

The aim of this study was to detect the age-related changes in conventional semen parameters and sperm DNA damage in healthy nonsmoking men occupationally exposed to traffic pollutants. Semen samples from 150 Prague and 54 Ostrava City policemen aged 21 - 63 years were examined for standard semen parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation and high DNA stainability. A significant positive correlation was found between age and %DFI for both Prague (r = 0.359, p < 0.001) and Ostrava (r = 0.392, p = 0.003) policemen. In Prague, negative correlations were found between age and sperm vitality (r = -0.247, p < 0.001), % acrosome-intact sperm (r = -0.202, p = 0.013) and % normal sperm heads (r = -0.204, p = 0.012). A weak but significant negative correlation was found for high DNA stainability (% HDS) vs. age (r = -0.161, p = 0.050). At ages of 23-30, 31-40, 41-50, and 51-63 years, the mean %DFI values were 12.7±7.18, 14.7±7.42, 19.6±11.25, and 34.2±15.08, respectively. In Ostrava, only a negative correlation was found between age and percentage of morphologically normal sperm (r = -0.374, p = 0.005), % normal sperm heads (r = -0.310, p = 0.022) and % HDS (r = -0.332, p = 0.014). Sperm vitality was borderline (r = -0.256, p = 0.062). No significant correlation was detected between male age and the other investigated semen quality parameters in Ostrava. Our findings show a strong relationship between men's age and sperm DNA fragmentation in an occupational cohort at risk of exposure to heavy traffic-related air pollution in a large city centre.

Air Pollution and Associated Health Outcomes: An Analysis from Delhi, India

Pooja Sharma, Pooja Jain, Pragati ., Prarthna Agarwal Goel, Rupeesha Galhotra

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 5, 8 March 2022, Page 58-79

The study of the health impact of air pollution in East Delhi is mentioned in the paper. People's health suffers as a result of air pollution, and a significant portion of their income is spent on medical expenses. The primary goal of this research is to estimate the benefit that an individual would receive in East Delhi if there is a reduction in air pollution in this region, or similarly reiterated, an increment in the air quality of the regions located in East Delhi. The research methodology employs a household production function model based on a household survey of areas within half a kilometre  distance from the main air pollution monitoring stations of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) located at Anand Vihar, Nizamuddin, Shahdara and Dilshad Garden. This model is used to determine the relationships among people's willingness to pay for pollution reduction, treatment costs, both direct and indirect costs. The method for calculating the monetary benefits of reducing air pollution involves regressing the number of sick days on environmental quality, mitigating activity, health capital stock, and social capital stock.The paper investigates that indoor pollution, ambient air pollution, and poor health stock increase the probability of falling sick. This decreased likelihood of becoming ill implies a monetary benefit that individuals will receive as a result of reduced air pollution. The number of sick days a person has is affected by a variety of factors such as nutrition, eating habits, use of heat-generating electronic devices, and so on. Increased participation in the aforementioned independent activities reduces the dependent variable (no. of sick days). The study plays an important role in raising public awareness about air pollution in Delhi and in identifying the causes of high indoor pollution in various areas of the city. By protecting people's health, society can contribute to the development of more productive and efficient human capital, as health is a critical component of human capital.

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of aging and obese phenotype on CE and adiposity and to determine if the impaired responses to diet in the obese phenotype were associated with corresponding changes in CE which might be correlated with the greater adiposity associated with the (-cp) trait. Obesity develops in the obese phenotype of the LA/Ntul//-cp (corpulent) specific pathogen- free rat strain by 5 to 6 weeks of age. Groups [n=12 -20 rats/phenotype] of female congenic lean and obese LA/Ntul//-cp (corpulent) rats were fed ad libitum standardized Purina diets for 4, 14, or 24 months or the same diet plus a 16% (w/v) sucrose solution supplement from 12 weeks of age, and measures of body weight, caloric intake, and caloric efficiency (CE) determined at each age group. Body weights of lean animals remained similar at all ages studied, while body weights of obese phenotype were significantly greater than their lean littermates at each age studied. The sucrose supplement was without significant effect on final body weights in the lean phenotypes at all ages studied (p=n.s.) but were associated with greater body weights at ages 4, 14 and 24 months of age in the obese phenotype (p=<0.05). CE was determined as the ratio of kcal/gram of body weight per day remained relatively constant in lean animals throughout the age range, but CE was more efficient in the obese phenotype at all ages studied and became progressively more efficient with the sucrose supplement feeding with increasing age. The findings of this study show that CE is linked to a higher efficiency of energy utilisation and/or energy conservation in the obese phenotype of this strain than in the lean phenotype, and that the metabolic impact of added sucrose was linked to an additive effect on the CE of weight gain and adiposity in the obese.  It is concluded that the autosomal recessive nature of the -cp trait was associated with a greater economy of caloric efficiency and marked adiposity which was further enhanced by aging and compounded by the addition of a sucrose supplement, but was independent of derangements in appetite dysregulation per se.

The Postprandial Thermic Effects of Diet Induced Thermogenesis in Congenic Lean and Obese LA/Ntul//-Cp Rats

Orien L. Tulp, Susan P. De Bolt, Aftab R. Awan, George P. Einstein

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 5, 8 March 2022, Page 93-104

This study provides important new insights and pathways to understand and investigate thermogenic effects of diet and diet induced thermogenesis and their potential contributions to mechanisms of energy balance. Diet induced thermogenesis has been proposed to account for up to 15% of the caloric content of an ingested meal and to become decreased with aging and in obesity. Genetically obese rodents have been shown to exhibit impairments in the thermic responses to diet and environment, which may partially account for an improved caloric efficiency and to contribute to their increased propensity to become obese. The goal of this study was to see how thermic reactions to diet and environment differed in young, middle-aged, and elderly obese rats. Resting oxygen consumption decreased with age, and thermic responses in fat rats were lower than predicted compared to lean rats and are consistent with impairments in both sympathetically mediated and non-sympathetically mediated contributions to the process of non-shivering thermogenesis.

Stigma and Discrimination - HIV and AIDS Context in University Community

Alice A. Anika

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 5, 8 March 2022, Page 105-116

Stigma and discrimination that come with HIV/AIDS are no news in this age of the HIV global epidemic. With a background of rampant cases of discrimination against persons living with HIV or AIDS (PLWAs), this study set out to study investigated the prevalence of HIV/AIDS-related stigma at Pwani University, find out the root causes of such stigma and discrimination, assess the effect of that stigma and discrimination, and identify and recommend some strategies to mitigate stigma and discrimination among the Pwani University community. The research design employed was a descriptive cross-sectional study design. Mixed methods of sampling were used as follows to obtain the 196 participants of the study: Purposive sampling technique was used to cover all nursing students who were on-session while simple random sampling technique covered the staff who were on-session. The tools used to collect data included self-administered questionnaires, scheduled interviews with key informants, and focus group discussions (FGDs). Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods were employed. The study established that PLWAs often suffer isolation and rejection, among other forms of non-physical abuse. Quite a number of interviewees had at least experienced or observed cases of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in their interaction with others within the university community, which are discussed at length in the study. This study recommended intervention strategies at three levels: Individual, community, and institutional/organizational levels. Furthermore, the study observed that individual responsibility and positive self-perception were also key to coping in a stigmatized environment and help build high self-esteem.

The Autonomic, Hormonal, and Immunological Contributions to the Metabolism and Control of Adipose Tissue as an Organ

Michael S. Rahman, George P. Einstein, Orien L. Tulp

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 5, 8 March 2022, Page 117-136

Historically, white adipose tissue (WAT) has typically been regarded as a passive storage deposit of excess lipid as an energy reserve. However, recent research suggests that WAT behaves like an organ system that interacts with the autonomic nervous, endocrine, and immunological systems. Therefore, it is possible that WAT can function as a regulatory organ that assists in maintaining the body in homeostasis. This cross-sectional study uses physiological data from 30 patients at the Pinewood Natural Health Centre in Toronto, Canada to derive a description of the role of WAT in the mediation of homeostasis. Statistical methods derive a formula describing the dynamic congruence that contributes to a systems medicine (SM) understanding of the organism. Multiple variables including body parameters, body composition, parameters of metabolism, heart rate variability and the immune, autonomous, neural, and endocrine systems were measured and correlated via multiple regression analysis. The null hypothesis was that no variables would correlate; the alternative hypothesis was that at least two variables that would correlate with each other to demonstrate congruence and order. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine if multiple measures of endocrine, metabolic, anthropometrics, and immune functions correlated with evidence to support the WAT as a contributor to homeostasis. The results of this study found strong correlations with parameters of the immune system and metabolism but few correlations with the autonomous nervous system. This suggests that despite the body’s complexity, not all systems may contribute equally strongly to overall homeostasis but that the WAT mass is a significant participant in maintaining homeostasis.

Study about Temperature Measurements in Neonates: Assessing the Agreement of Two Methods

Yetunde Olasinde, Moninuola Ernest, Gbenga Popoola, Omotayo Adesiyun, Kolade Ernest

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 5, 8 March 2022, Page 137-145

Aims: This study compared the forehead non touch infra-red thermometer (NTIT) with the axilllary mercury-in-glass (MIGT) method of temperature measurement in neonates.

Method: Four hundred babies aged 1 to 28 days were recruited from the immunization clinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital between August 2016 and May 2017. Temperatures were taken using both NTIT and MIGT in the standard way and recorded.

Results: The mean age and SD was 5.10 ± 4.28 days. Pearson correlation showed a positive correlation between the Axillary Mercury-in-Glass and Forehead Non-Touch Infra-red thermometry readings (r = 0.426, p < 0.001). Bland-Altman method revealed a good agreement between both methods of thermometry as 95.5% of the readings were within the limits of agreement.

Conclusion: Axillary Mercury-in-Glass thermometer and Forehead Non touch Infra-red thermometers have a good agreement and can be used inter- changeably in neonates.

Background: As the coronavirus disease pandemic continues to put a strain on healthcare systems around the world, it is critical to assess whether every aspect of the healthcare system is prepared to respond.

Purpose of the Study: The study investigated whether community pharmacists in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are ready to play a supportive role in the fight against COVID-19.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was used in the study. A descriptive analysis was performed to determine the demographic characteristics of the sampled population, as well as frequency tables and graphs to determine community pharmacists' practise, readiness, attitudes, and awareness. In a one-way analysis of variance, the means of the subset of knowledge on COVID-19 aetiology, prognosis, and management, and the practise, attitudes were compared to see if the difference was significant in predicting preparedness to play a supportive role in the fight against COVID-19.

Results: The practise of a community pharmacist as evidenced by adherence to the Ministry of Health's recommended guidelines for COVID-19 management and control. Approximately 74% always disinfected contact surfaces, and 69% performed basic temperature checks on employees and customers. Community pharmacists in Saudi Arabia had positive attitudes toward the fight against COVID-19 [m = 4.08, with a relatively narrow difference in percentage distribution between those who were unsure and those who claimed to be very satisfied (20 percent).]Community pharmacists in KSA demonstrated extensive knowledge of COVID-19, as all respondents (100%) were aware of the primary symptoms of COVID-19, 62 percent were aware of COVID-19 management strategies, and 81 percent believed information provided by the ministry was sufficient. A p value of 0.00 indicated that the results were significant enough to support the hypothesis that community pharmacists in KSA were willing to assist in the fight against COVID-19.

Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that Saudi Arabian community pharmacists are ready to be integrated into COVID-19 pandemic planning and response.