Dr. Jelena Purenovic
Assistant Professor, Department of Physics and Materials, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Kragujevac University, Cacak, Serbia.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-19761-41-8 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19761-54-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/cppsr/v2

This book covers key areas of physical science. The contributions by the authors include compact star models, anisotropic, black holes, electromagnetic field, equation of state, astrophysics, 2D Dirac equation, two and four spinors, variational formulations, electronic properties, magnetron; anode block, sun-rising structure, pic simulation; frequency tuning, microwave energy, electron stream, finite-different time-domain, particle-in-cell, magnetron, electrodeless sulfur lamp, microwave excitation, microwave technology,  lighting system, electrodynamic lighting system, microwave radiation, quantum physics, neural interpretation,  vibrational spectra,  density functional theory, oxygen excess, parton distributions, quantum chromodynamics, gluon distribution, nuclide shell structure, mass rate of proton and neutron, nuclide binding, graphs of nuclide growth, nuclide shell structure, turbulent combustion model, hypothesis-based approach, turbulent flame closure, intermediate steady propagation. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical science.


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Physics of Anisotropic Compact Star Models with Observational Data

Pameli Saha , Ujjal Debnath

Current Perspective to Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 29 September 2023, Page 1-23

The anisotropic component for studying dense objects like strange stars, compact objects, etc. has become diverse in Astrophysics. This chapter aims to analyze the physical behavior of some anisotropic compact star models in the back- ground of a quintessence dark energy field. Next, we acquire the equations of motion with the electromagnetic field and modified Chaplygin gas in f(T) gravity. Then matching conditions have been highlighted to discuss anisotropic behavior, stability of energy conditions, stability analysis with adiabatic index, mass, compactness, and surface redshift. It also observes the maximum energy density and radial pressure values for different compact stars. Finally, it is correlated with the experiential data in cases of various types of compact stars.

On a 2D Version of Dirac’s Equation for One- and Two- electron Atoms and Their Analytical and Numerical Solutions

D. L. Nascimento , A. L. A. Fonseca

Current Perspective to Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 29 September 2023, Page 24-44

In this book chapter, we review three of our previous papers in which we used a 2D version of the Dirac equation to calculate some properties of one- and two-electron atoms [1-3]. From this approach, we obtained for hydrogen-like atoms the same eigenvalues as obtained from the standard 3D Dirac solutions, and for the helium atom a relatively accurate approximation for the ground state energy.

A Magnetron with Two Energy Outputs: Simulation and Experiment

G. Churyumov , N. Wang , W. Li , S. Qiu

Current Perspective to Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 29 September 2023, Page 45-57

This chapter presents the theoretical and experimental results of creating the new magnetron design with two energy outputs (or dual-output magnetron) to solve the problems for frequency tuning, improve its stability, and extend application possibilities. Due to their extensive use in various human endeavors, including military technology, industry, agriculture, research, and medicine, magnetrons have become the most well-known and effective microwave generators. The modified magnetron's primary usefulness has been identified both empirically and theoretically. The availability of a second energy output in the anode block is the primary differentiating characteristic of this magnetron (for instance, in contrast to the standard magnetron with a single output). The mathematical models for the electron-wave interaction and the resonant anode block are described. The anode block's dispersion properties for cavities with different shapes are provided. According to theory, the interference of RF fields excited several times in the resonant anode block made up of tiny and large cavities (resonators) leads to the formation of the total RF field in the interaction space. For the PIC simulation of electron-wave interaction in the dual-output magnetron, the non-linear system of equations is stated as a self-consistent system containing the equation of motion (for electron stream), the equation of excitation (for RF field), and Poisson's equation for calculating the space-charge field. The fundamental feature of the self-consistent system of equations is a new algorithm for determining the Coulomb interaction forces. Implementing the mathematical model made it possible to gain new knowledge about the magnetron's physical processes and determine its output characteristics.  On the operating frequency of ~ 13.34 GHz, at an anode voltage of 495 V, a magnetic field of ~ 0.25 T, and with air cooling of the magnetron, there were obtained the following limiting values: the RF output power of ~ 14.6 W and the power conversion efficiency of ~ 40.8%. Applying the second energy output extended the magnetron's functionality and implemented the modes of frequency tuning (adjustment) and stabilization. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiment. As a result, these studies have demonstrated the viability of computational experiments for modeling the physical phenomena in a magnetron's interaction space and the resonant systems' electrodynamic features. The electrodynamic properties of rising-sun systems with various cavity designs are simulated, and the findings are given. It is demonstrated that a rising-sun system with a "hole-and-slot" structure has more options when selecting an oscillation's operational mode's resonant frequency.

A High-Power Source of Optical Radiation on the Base of an Electrodeless Sulfur Lamp with Microwave Excitation

G. Churyumov , T. Frolova , N. Wang , J. Qiu

Current Perspective to Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 29 September 2023, Page 58-70

This paper further develops the theory and practice of microwave excitation of an electrodeless sulfur lamp, improving the energy efficiency during microwave energy conversion into optical radiation and widening the application of new light sources in actual practice. Among the main scientific results obtained, it is necessary to select the description of the scenario of excitation of the electrodeless sulfuric lamp by a microwave field, the mechanism of formation of low-temperature plasma and the emission of optical radiation, the features of its spectrum, as well as possible approaches to modeling the radiation process (LTE model). Practical issues of increasing the efficiency of devices based on the sulfur lamp are considered.

An Interference Method of Excitation of an Electrodeless Sulfur Lamp: Simulation and Experiment

G. Churyumov , T. Frolova

Current Perspective to Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 29 September 2023, Page 71-86

This chapter presents a novel approach to creating an energy-efficient power lighting source based on an electrodeless sulfur lamp with microwave excitation. The feature of such an approach is applying the interference method for creating a standing wave into an electrodynamic structure by summarizing two traveling electromagnetic waves. As an electrodynamic lighting system structure, one proposed using an optically transparent (mesh) rectangular waveguide. The design of the electrodynamic structure associated with using the interference method is given, and the main advantages of such an approach of exciting the electrodeless sulfur lamp are shown.

On the Origin of Reality: How We Create Our Own World

Peter Verheyen

Current Perspective to Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 29 September 2023, Page 87-129

Consider the following: A scientist studying atoms, is a group of atoms studying themselves. A strange way of looking at reality. To understand, we have to travel through the world of the infinitesimal, governed by rules and laws, different from the ones we know from our classical world. We have to enter the world of information.

Max Born created the measurement problem with his statistical interpretation of the quantum mechanical wave-function: the strange connection between the collapse of a quantum mechanical wavefunction and measurement, observation, interaction with the environment, with projection into a single concrete reality in a classical world. Where a measurement or observation creates the relevant past history, John Wheeler’s eye.

The universe urges for an increase in entropy and information processing. This increase makes the universe a bustling place where life such as ours can arise. The biochemistry of all life we know, has an essential basic property as the sole islands in the known universe succeeding in keeping its own entropy low: life is capable of violating the second law of thermodynamics. Life manages to prevent equally distribution of matter and energy in which case all biochemical processes stop and life ends. Growing old and dying, for every solely living thing on Earth, means being not able anymore to keep its entropy low, leading to a malfunction in the biochemical machinery, failing fundamental processes, wear and ultimately death. Keeping its entropy low, is a basic property of life.

Entropy describes a system on a microscopic level and is closely related to information, the Shannon entropy, combined to as Infotropy. They are 2 parts of the same coin, closely connected with the statistics governing the rules of the universe.

An average human body contains about 7 octillion (a 7 with 27 zeros) atoms and they all ‘know’ exactly what to do and how to interact. Hidden webs of information guide the atoms and molecules in their biochemical reactions, while obeying the strange laws of quantum physics: every chemical and biochemical reaction depends on the interplay of electrons. This all is guided by communication between and information streams and exchange in the subsystems of the cellular machinery.

The universe produced brains, so why can’t the universe itself be a giant super brain. All we call real is made up out of things which cannot be considered as real. Our senses are biochemical measuring instruments in our interaction with the environment. They don’t serve to reveal us reality but to help us to survive. Their information is interpreted in the brain as a ‘reality vital to life.’ The brain holds a mask in front of reality behind which the real world, the world of information and quanta lies concealed. The qubits, the quantum information that makes up the universe, do not signify anything concrete, but are transformed by biochemical projection and neural interpretation into apparent reality, as electrical circuits and software do in creating a 3D virtual reality.


The deepest layer of reality consists out of information. Information is the building block of the universe, although a qubit is not a physical object but contains information about the physical object. Information is real and has to obey physical laws.

Consciousness, emerging from the exchange of information via chemical and electrical signals, allowing life to have a notion or awareness of its environment, is the appearance of a world trough biochemical information projection and neural interpretation. The brain, the most complex piece of matter in the known universe, creates reality.

Which brings us to the question: How can we possibly know what there is out there, if we ourselves, are locked up in complete darkness in a small box.

Graphical Abstract: Saldesign.


A First Principles Study of NO2 on MgO and CaO Surfaces: Structures, Interactions and Vibrational Spectra

Fathi Hassan Bawa , Ali Hassan Bawa

Current Perspective to Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 29 September 2023, Page 130-141

The studies on the effects of the properties of metal oxide formed by deposition of nanosized metal clusters on the oxide surfaces on the adsorption and binding of molecules of single and pairwise NO2 on their surface are investigated by density functional theory. In this work, we examined NO2 pair adsorption behaviour over the (MgO)9 and (CaO)9 surface clusters by considering NO2 bind on cations forming nitrite and NO2 binds on anions producing nitrates. In addition, vibrational spectra have been computed by means of the B3LYP hybrid density functional in order to interpret the experiments [J. Phys. Chem. B 2002, 106, 6358] particularly, regarding a transient 1225 cm-1 absorption during accumulation of NO2 in MgO supported BaO. The degree of generality of results was tested by comparing (NO2)x (MO)9 for x=1,2 and M=Mg, Ca. Finger prints are produced for the single bidentate M2+-[ONO]--M2+ surface nitrite ion. A novel single monodentate [Ocluster - NO2]2- ion and the chemisorbed Nitrite/Nitrate ion pair, i.e., M2+-[ONO]--M2+ + [Ocluster -NO2]-. The results showed, the novel monodentate [Ocluster - NO2]2-, to be responsible for the experimentally observed 1225 cm-1 absorption, being a transient towards surface nitrate rather than nitrite formation. This result is consistent with a mechanistic DFT study concerning the initial loading of NO2 in BaO. Furthermore, our results show the computed in stability for a single adsorbed Nitrite is 0.36 eV and (1.66 eV) for Mg9O9 and (Ca9O9), while, pairs adsorption displays a 2.82 eV and (3.64 eV) stability. Hence, the addition of second NO2 causes a pronounced surface relaxation, which changed of bond lengths and bond angles.

Longitudinal Structure Function and Parton Distributions in the Light of Self-similarity

Akbari Jahan

Current Perspective to Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 29 September 2023, Page 142-152

Study of parton distributions using the notion of self-similarity was first proposed roughly two decades before. The notion of self-similarity has been well explored to explain the internal structure of proton and gives a new insight to understand parton distributions. In this chapter, longitudinal structure function FL(x, Q2) is evaluated within this approach phenomenologically. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) based approximate relations between the longitudinal structure function and the parton distributions have been used in our present study. It is found that the Altarelli-Martinelli equation for the longitudinal structure function cannot be used in Model I because of the presence of a singularity in the Bjorken x-space. The quantitative as well as qualitative analyses of this relation in Model I is thus limited. Cooper-Sarkar et al relation, on the other hand, has been successfully used in both Model I and Model II to evaluate FL(x, Q2). The qualitative characteristic of the prediction of Model II has been observed to be in good agreement with the QCD expectation.

Unveiling Nuclide Shell Structure: A Statistical Approach

Chen Dayou

Current Perspective to Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 29 September 2023, Page 153-177

The theory of nuclear structure is one of the important fields in nuclear physics, and in the 1930s, with the establishment of quantum mechanicsWith the rapid development of applications, nuclear physics, and nuclear structure theory. Especially after Mayer discovered magic numbers and proposed the shell structure of atomic nuclei, fruitful achievements were made in the study of nuclear structure. However, atomic nuclei are multi-particle systems, and the application of quantum mechanics to study nuclear structure has encountered enormous difficulties. This is why statistical analysis has become an important method for studying nuclear structure. This thesis gives a novel model of nuclide shell structure and provides a table of the shell structures of 935 nuclides after conducting a thorough and systematic investigation of known nuclides. This theoretical method allows the thesis to study the shell combination with a bias toward nuclide structure statistical analysis. This thesis distinguishes between the basic models of nuclides and gives 7criteria for nuclide binding, the maximal nucleonic number of each shell  (\(\Delta\)\(\mathit{A}\)\(\mathit{i}\) ) , combination of proton and neutron(p/n) and graphs of the nuclide growth. Based on magnetic moment, it also conducts a quantitative analysis of p/n on the shell.

The nuclide structure has the characteristic of a shell and on every shell the combination of proton and neutron features clear regularity. Among the 106 elements from mceclip1-b6bae2f183e5cf95c92ef210e72493f9.pngH to mceclip2-a7935c4192cd60ceb9cef56f55cee284.pngSg the serial number of the most outside shell in structure is 7, and nuclides mceclip3-cae25b805e5ff2149bc958c548597f8e.pngHa and mceclip4-b5f7b9726a2a7c003cc2097d91b92182.pngSg are respectively even A and odd A 7 shells. It is not a coincidence but a reflection of the nuclide shell structure.
The thesis uses the result of a statistical analysis to confirm the existence of “the magic Number” and reveals the fact that the magic number” is a reflection of p/n on nuclide shell, particularly on the outer shells. The statistical analysis reveals that the nuclide stability and its way of decay are dependent on the nucleonic combination on the most outside shell and the matching between full-filled and semi-full filled p/n, thus unveiling the general law governing the stability and decay of nuclides.

The TFC model of turbulent premixed combustion implemented in Ansys Fluent and CFX solvers is based on the theoretical concept of the microturbulent (thickened) flamelet combustion regime and the concept of transient Intermediate Steady Propagation (ISP) flame derived from the original theory of the premixed turbulent flame developed within the Kolmogorov-type hypothesis-based method. At the intermediate stage of flame propagation, when the small-scale wrinkles of the flamelet sheet, which determine the turbulent flame speed \(\mathit{U}\), reach statistical equilibrium and the large-scale wrinkles, which determine the flame width \(\delta\) remain in nonequilibrium, the constant flame speed is determined by a theoretical formula directly used in the TFC model, and the increase in flame width is controlled by turbulent diffusion. The basic TFC model was developed mainly for numerical simulation of stabilized flames in turbulent flows, where the initial stage of combustion is not important and the final stage is practically unattainable (burners of gas turbines and boilers with lean mixtures, laboratory flames with high turbulence levels, where the combustion regime of thickened flamelets prevails). The TFC model corresponds to the two-parametric Kolmogorov "\(\mathit{K}\) - \(\omega\)" turbulence model or conceptually similar "\(\mathit{K}\) - \(\varepsilon\)" model, in which small-scale turbulence is assumed to be statistically equilibrium and large-scale turbulence is usually statistically nonequilibrium. The basic TFC model does not describe the initial stage of flame propagation, at which the formation of the ISP flame with statistically equilibrium small-scale combustion structures occurs) as well as the final stage, at which large-scale combustion structures reach statistical equilibrium. In developing a generalized TFC model, we hypothesized that the evolution of flame velocity and width at the initial stage of flame development can be expressed in terms of an increasing turbulent diffusion coefficient described by Taylor's theory. This led to the possibility of modeling the initial stage of combustion without involving additional empirical constants. In modeling the final stage of combustion, we used the result of our original study of the steady-state flame speed in the context of a hyperbolic differential equation describing the leading edge of a turbulent flame, which confirmed and refined Damköhler's classical result \(\mathit{U}\)t \(\sim\) \(\acute{u}\)

The developed generalized TFC model describes three stages of turbulent premixed combustion:

  1. The relatively short initial stage of combustion in which a developed turbulent flame is formed (modeling this stage is important, e.g., in SI engines);
  2. An intermediate stage of combustion, observed in real burners, where the transition flame is typically of increasing width with an approximately constant angle of inclination to the flow;
  3. The final stage of combustion, when the flame has a constant speed and width, is practically unattainable and therefore cannot prevail in real burners, However, the transition from the transient ISP flame to the steady state flame along the burner may occur, for example, in the case of very lean mixtures.

The developed generalized TFC combustion model describes the gasdynamic effects arising from different pressure-driven accelerations of cold reactants and hot products. They lead to non-gradient and often counter-gradient scalar flux in the flame, strong anisotropy of velocity fluctuation, effects on mean stresses, and chemical source. The generalized TFC combustion model is presented in the form of a three-dimensional Favre averaged differential equation for the reaction progress variable. which has a standard form for a CFD solver.