Editor(s)

Dr. Kwong Fai Andrew Lo
Professor,
College of Science, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan.

ISBN 978-93-91595-63-0 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91595-71-5 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8

This book covers key areas of environment and earth science. The contributions by the authors include methane gas hydrate, phase equilibrium, hydrate formation, hydrate reservoir, inhibitors, promoters, sustainability, resilience, circular economy, product philanthropy, corporate social responsibility, pollution,  heavy metal accumulation, atomic absorption spectrometry, bioaccumulation, marine fishes, coastal water pollution, climate change, atmospheric SO2, volcanic effects, effluent, phytoremediation, antecedent rainfall, unsaturated Slope, pore-water pressure, soil properties, forest cover, canopy losses, urbanization, national forest policy, urbanization, radius and age of the universe, high redshift galaxies, shape of the Earth, surface gravity of the Earth, tilt, precession and nutation of the rotation axis of the Earth, Earth’s orbital motion, topography of the Earth, general relativity, Euclidean geometry, coastal lagoon, diversity, dominance, zoogeographic affinity, Simpson’s index, Shannon-Weaver index, microbial water quality, faecal contamination, basin rainfall Suquia, time series, series of rainfall, ARMA model, weighted arithmetic index, water quality index. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of environment and earth science.

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### Chapters

##### Determination of Equilibrium Conditions of Methane Gas Hydrate

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 8, 13 August 2021, Page 1-16
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8/11680D

Methane gas hydrates are non-stoichiometric crystalline solids generated by the fusion of methane gas molecules with water molecules at low temperature and high pressure. MGH formation has been an issue for many years in the oil, gas, chemical, and other industries because hydrates can block pipelines or valves.  A blowout in drilling operations could be caused by hydrate development in a pipeline. Gas hydrate equilibrium conditions must be understood in order to plan operations in the oil, gas, and chemical industries where hydrate nucleation/formation has occurred.It becomes critical to monitor the early stages of hydrate production in systems comprising various inhibitors, promoters, salts, and porous materials. The simple addition of salts, electrolytes in the host sediments, or MGH water can disrupt the stability conditions of MGHs. This chapter studied the physical properties of natural hydrate reservoirs all over the world. This chapter also deals with the phase equilibrium data of hydrate formation and their comparison in the presence of salt, inhibitors, and promoters.

##### Toward Circularity: Rethinking Waste, Closing the Loop and Building Social Equity

Oral S. Saulters

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 8, 13 August 2021, Page 17-35
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8/11345D

Transformations at all levels of society are underway due to the unique confluence of social and ecological challenges related to the syndemic.  This chapter summarizes the impacts and lessons derived of creative collaborations in rethinking waste management from a linear system of production and consumption to one that is more cyclical, circular, and regenerative.  In particular, the Framing Hope program, an innovative private and nonprofit sector partnership between the nonprofit Good360 and The Home Depot uses a sustainable materials approach.  This work estimates the energy savings, landfill space not filled, and the energy- and landfill- related cost savings associated with the Good360 product philanthropy program with The Home Depot, illustrating that benefits accrue to both corporations and communities by linkages between environmental, socioeconomic, and energy dimensions. Findings suggest that by redirecting products from the waste stream into usable community resources considerable landfill space, costs, and energy savings were realized.  Product donations can serve as an important platform for sustainable community development and capacity building. This research adds to the growing body of knowledge on environmental performance, social justice, corporate giving, and cross-sector partnerships in sustainable and social entrepreneurship.

##### Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals Concentrations in Different Organs of Carassius auratus (Gibelio, Bloch, 1782) Fish, Caught at Al-Hammar Marsh, Southern Iraq

Faris J. M. Al-Imarah, Ghassan A. Al-Najar, Abbas A. Hantoosh

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 8, 13 August 2021, Page 36-42
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8/11926D

The bioaccumulation of certain heavy metals: Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Pb, was studied by adopting the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, in different organs: muscles, gills, ovary, and kidney of carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch,1982) caught from waters of Al-Hammar marsh , Southern part of Iraq for the period Jan. 2016 to Dec, 2016, one cruse during each month. Fe recorded the high levels in all studied organs and during the whole seasons being the highest at the two occasions of Winter. For Co and Cu were moderately distributed in the organs of carassius auratus gibelio while Ni and Pb were the least. On the other hands, gills and liver were accumulate the highest levels of heavy metals while the muscles and ovary were the least. Heavy metal accumulation in the organs of carassius auratus gibelio fish from Hor Al-Hammar, Southern marshes of Iraq, are in the trend Fe> Co > Cu > Ni > Pb. The result obtained regarding metal concentrations in different organs of fish carassius auratus gibelio revealed that the ecosystems of Hor Al-Hammar marshs are not polluted with toxic elements Ni and Pb.

##### Seasonal Variations in the Concentrations of Chemical Elements in the Organs of Selected Marine Fishes from the International Iraqi Waters, NW Arabian Gulf

Faris J. M. Al-Imarah, Ghassan A. Al-Najar, Mohammad Al-Doghachi, Abbas A. Hantoosh

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 8, 13 August 2021, Page 43-52
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8/11927D

To investigate the accumulation of certain heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in different organs of fish, six different marine fish species: Cynoglossus arel, Carangoides chrysophrys, Euryglossa orientalis, Sardinella longiceps, Siganus canaliculatus, and Parastromateus niger were collected from fishing area within the international waters of Iraq in the top of Arabian Gulf located between Two fishing stations; the first with N 29 36 530 and E 48 48 780, and the second with N 29 48 729 E 48 38 109. All studied metals were reported to be accumulated at different levels in the organs of the fishes, Zn and Fe were reported as the highest accumulating metals in different organs of studied fishes, while Pb was the lowest. Other metals Cd, Cu, Mn, and Ni were alternatively changed in all organs and during the whole seasons of the year. Although they recorded high levels of Zn and Fe and due to their unactivity towards environmental pollutants , muscles accumulation of heavy metals were very low.

##### Climate Change Deciphered

Burl Henry

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 8, 13 August 2021, Page 53-59
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8/3881F

An analysis of the temporary increases in average anomalous global temperatures for the period 1850-2019 has led to the conclusion that varying amounts of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) aerosols in the atmosphere, of either volcanic or industrial origin, are responsible for essentially ALL of Earth’s observed temperature changes.

(There is a small amount of additional natural warming, primarily due to albedo changes, but no discernable warming from the accumulation of “greenhouse” gasses, or from varying cyclic or solar effects).

##### Study on Phytoremediation Potential of Vetiver Plants and Its Amelioration by Ascorbic Acid in Constructed Wetlands

G. Dhanya, D. S. Jaya

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 8, 13 August 2021, Page 60-68
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8/12522D

The major objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of phytoremediation of vetiver plants (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) in constructed wetlands with service station effluent under controlled greenhouse conditions. Also the study aims to determine the response of vetiver plants treated with service station wastewater on ascorbic acid (AA) amendment. The results of the study showed that seven days treatment of ascorbic acid (10 mg/mL) on alternate days up to 15 days to the service station wastewater treated vetiver plants enhanced its growth, tolerance and hyper-accumulation capacity compared to that of un-amended wastewater treated vetiver plants. The study recommends that the addition of calculated amounts of ascorbic acid to the metal contaminated soil/wastewater increases the phytoremediation capacity of vetiver plants, by increasing its tolerance towards heavy metal stress.

##### Investigating the effect of Antecedent Rainfall on Pore-Water Pressure Distribution Characteristics in Residual Soil Slopes under Tropical Rainfall

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 8, 13 August 2021, Page 69-80
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8/3989F

The major criteria associated with unsaturated soil slope instability are characteristics of variations in pore-water pressure distribution. They are directly influenced by flux boundary conditions at the soil–atmosphere interface (rainfall infiltration, evaporation, and evapo-transpiration). Using Jet Fill Tensiometer, two slopes were instrumented at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia's Skudai campus in Malaysia. The field monitoring data was examined to quantify pore-water pressure distributions in residual soil slopes under tropical climate conditions in order to investigate the effect of antecedent rainfall on pore-water pressure distributions. Slope stability analyses were also carried out for each slope at a depth of 1.0-2.0 metre to define the factor of safety range. The results showed that antecedent rainfall, initial pore-water pressures prior to a significant rainfall event, and the magnitude of the rainfall event all play a significant role in the development of the worst pore-water pressure condition on a slope. In residual soils with low permeability, the influence of antecedent rainfall in the establishment of the worst pore-water pressure state was found to be more significant than in residual soils with high permeability.The factor of safety of low permeability residual soils was found to be unaffected by the worst pore-water pressure condition.

##### Unplanned Urbanization and Canopy Losses in Punjab, India: A Theoretical Approach

Kirandeep K. Dhami

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 8, 13 August 2021, Page 81-88
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8/12577D

Urbanization, or the expansion of concrete areas in cities, has resulted in a shift in land use patterns around the world. The canopy cover in the regions has been mostly damaged by the expansion of concrete regions in cities. Those parts of the ground that used to be covered in trees have now become the concrete floors of cities. Despite the notion that forested area is essential for a healthy ecology, trees are being taken down with little thought or care. Punjab, an Indian state, is experiencing a high rate of unplanned urbanisation, which has resulted in significant canopy loss. It would not have necessitated substantial attention if the state had been rich in forested land. Punjab, on the other hand, is no longer recognised for its dense canopy cover. It is the state with the least amount of forest cover in the country, accounting for around 3.67 percent of its 50362 square kilometres or even less due to continuing deforestation in the name of development. Between 2011 and 2017, the state lost 9 lakh trees, with regeneration and afforestation taking a back seat during this time. As the state's tree-cutting programme continues, this percentage is shrinking with each passing day. With such a low canopy cover and a population of 28 million people to maintain, the state has already begun to see some of the negative impacts of unplanned urbanisation and canopy loss, such as depletion of the water table, changes in weather patterns, bad air, and water scarcity. The objective of this study is to document an increase in canopy losses in various parts of the state of Punjab in India using the published data and discuss the prevailing consequences observed due to urbanization at the massive scale in the state. This article reviews alarming canopy losses in the state in the past recent a few years and the impacts of unsustainable development  in the state of Punjab, India.

##### Study on the effect of Variations in Earth-Surface Gravity Depending on the Shape and Position of the Earth Radius and Age of the Universe Using General Relativity and Euclidean Geometry

Tibor Endre Nagy

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 8, 13 August 2021, Page 89-103
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8/3485F

In this work, we aimed to see how changes in the Earth's gravitational field in the context of general relativity modify the radius and age values of the universe in the previously developed distance-determining model. By applying the relationships of light propagating in accelerating systems and gravity to the Earth moving with the Milky Way galaxy in the expanding universe and to the light propagating in the surface gravity of our planet moving in this way, the radius and age of the universe can be determined. For a redshift extent of 3.1415 in the cosmos, we can determine a so-called “short evolving distance” from the Einstein equation. Knowledge of the entire plane angle (2.$$\pi$$) and the deviating angle of a light beam ($$\alpha$$) passing through the Earth’s surface gravity it is possible to determine extreme distances by utilizing the rules of trigonometry. This “long evolving distance,” which is approximately in the range of the radius of the universe, can be transformed into the “evolving time” divided by the speed of light. Based upon this dating method, the universe may have been formed at an average value of 13.7536 billion years. In addition to the cosmos radius and age, different but small changes can be observed in these, taking into account the changes in the Earth's surface gravity associated with its shape and position. These values fall between 13.6879 and 13.8498 billion years, almost completely covering the range given by the analysis of the measurement results of the WMAP and Planck satellites.

##### Determining the Structure of the Community of Dominant Fish Species Associated to Soft Bottoms in the Lagoon of La Paz, B.C.S. México

Bruma R. Castillo-Rosas, Emelio Barjau-González, Juan Manuel López-Vivas, Jose Ángel Armenta-Quintana, Javier Aguilar-Parra

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 8, 13 August 2021, Page 104-117
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8/12587D

The study of fish communities from coastal lagoons allows a better understanding of role of these organisms in these systems, and the effect of anthropogenic impact. The aim of the present study was to determine the community structure, in particular dominance of fish species associated to soft bottoms in the lagoon of La Paz, while the specific objectives considered Determine the physicochemical parameters of the localities and their relationship with the dominant species, determine the structure of soft bottom species by using the ecological indexes of specific richness of Margalef (IRE), Shannon-Weaver (H '), Pielou’s evenness (J'), Simpson (Dsi),determine the ecological role of the dominant species according to the BVI and determine the resident and transitory species according to their zoogeographic affinity. Six bimonthly samplings were carried out in seven localities from November 2016 to September 2017 and physicochemical parameters were recorded. Analysis of temperature showed differences between two marked seasons, warm and cold. Species richness showed differences between months and localities. Shannon-Weaver index and Pielou’s evenness showed significant differences only between months. Simpson’s index suggests a high diversity. According to the BVI, 15 species from the families Haemulidae, Sciaenidae and Gerreidae, were the most biologically important. Zoogeographic affinity analysis showed that 58% of the species prefer the Province of Cortez. Dominant species recorded in this study play a key role in soft-bottom systems like the lagoon of La Paz.

##### Determination of Microbial Water Quality of Treated Water and Raw Water Sources in the Harare Area, Zimbabwe

Tatenda G. Chirenda, Sunitha C. Srinivas, Roman Tandlich

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 8, 13 August 2021, Page 118-129
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8/2591F

Microbial water quality is an essential aspect in the provision of potable water for domestic use. The provision of adequate amounts of safe water for domestic purposes has become difficult for most municipalities mandated to do so in Zimbabwe. Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and areas surrounding Harare. This study investigated microbial water quality and the impact of microbial water quality related disasters in the area supplied by the Morton Jaffray Treatment Plant. Questionnaires were distributed to household owners in Harare who receive their water from the Municipality and those who use alternate water supplies. Candidates were randomly selected from their workplace. The raw water quality of Manyame River and its tributaries was assessed. Treated water in households was assessed for microbial quality using hydrogen sulphide test and heterotrophic bacteria plate count. Raw water sources were found to be contaminated by faecal matter. Household water sources tested negative for faecal contamination but positive for heterotrophic bacteria. CFU quantities ranged from 1 to 452 CFU/m$$\ell$$ for all samples. The WHO guidelines for domestic water sources state that water used for domestic purposes should not   contain more than 100 CFU/m$$\ell$$. Public perceptions of water quality ranged from 'unsafe' to 'highly contaminated'. A decrease in the level of aesthetic appeal resulted in residents resorting to alternative sources such as wells and rivers for their domestic water. The current state of treated water was suitable for domestic use. Pathogen monitoring of domestic water is recommended using the hydrogen sulphide test and R2A agar test.

##### Using Time Series Analysis to Support the Water Resources Management in the Upper Basin of the Suquia River: An Observational Study

Reyna Teresa, Guillén Nicolás, Lábaque María, Álvarez Javier, Eder Matías, Funes Federico

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 8, 13 August 2021, Page 130-140
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8/4329F

A time series analysis is a valuable tool to get information about analyzed data structures and their components, which provides a good basis for successful future predictions. This information is useful to take decisions to the best management of this resource. The region where the province of Cordoba is located is subject to strong variations in their hydrological cycles. The strong population growth experienced in the recent years in the city of Cordoba and its area of influence (Area of Greater Cordoba) with more than 1.4000.000 inhabitants, has resulted in conflicts in the uses of this resource. During the last decades have been situations of prolonged droughts and floods. The Suquia River, is the most important source of supply to the City of Cordoba and runs through the city. The prediction of the rainfall over its basin is crucial for proper management reservoir level, floods, and droughts. In this paper, a time series analysis´s study was applied as a valuable tool to get information about rainfall´s data structures and their components to provides a good basis for successful prediction future climate situations.

This study deals with the modeling and forecasting of rainfall time series in the area of upper basin of Suquia River. The series analyzed were San Antonio. El Condor, Season: El Cajon and El Barrio Station Canal. The time series models that were proposed for the analysis of each record were ARMA models. The results show that the time series analysis is a tool that offers valuable information on the characteristics pluviographs.

##### Investigation and Assessment of Water Quality Index of River Salandi at Hadagada Dam and Its Down Stream upto Akhandalmani, Bhadrak, Odisha, India

Pratap Kumar Panda, Rahas Bihari Panda, Prasant Kumar Dash

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 8, 13 August 2021, Page 141-158
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v8/11162D

After going through Hadagada dam, Agarpada, and Bhadrak town, the river Salandi joins the river Baitarani near Akhandalmani, the Tinitar Ghat. Forest runoff, untreated and semi-treated mining wastes, agricultural wastes, Ferro Alloys Corporation (FACOR) industrial wastes, and urban wastes are all collected during the journey. Water samples were collected from nine different stations in the summer (April and May), rainy (August), post-rainy (October), and winter (December) of 2015, and physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters were examined using standard protocols. The weighted arithmetic index approach was used to determine the water quality index (WQI) of river Salandi using the mean values of twelve significant parameters over the course of the year. The water quality index (WQI) reveals that water quality varies by monitoring station, with good water quality at Hadagada Dam, Satabhauni, and Dhusuri, poor water quality at Akhandalmani & very poor water quality at Bidyadharapur, very poor and unfit for drinking water at Agarpada, Randia (FACOR), and Baudpur, and river water of class ‘C' at Rajghat. The river after passing Bhadrak town is free from pollution. It is due to dilution and by natural processes where the pollutants are stabilized.