Editor(s)

Dr. Him Lal Shrestha
Associate Professor,
Coordinator - UNIGIS Programme, Kathmandu Forestry College, Koteshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal.

ISBN 978-93-90516-26-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90516-34-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/ciees/v1

This book covers key areas of environment and earth science. The contributions by the authors include earthquakes prediction, physical model, earthquake condition, earthquake precursor, precursor time formula, groundwater quality, alkalinity, aerosols particles, trace metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, informal settlement, pit latrines, marine pollution, marine life, marine science research, environmental protection, ecosystem, excessive pollution, biodiversity, economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, poverty reduction, natural resources, social sustainability, illicit fishing, biodiversity, ecosystem services, wastewater treatment, water reuse, multifunctional land use, Continental drift, plate tectonics, seismic studies, geospheres, plate tectonics, silicate rocks, celestial body. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of environment and earth science.

 

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Chapters


On the Method of Reducing the Magnitude of an Impending Catastrophic Earthquake

M. G. Noppe

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 1, 19 February 2021, Page 1-11
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v1/6578D

This chapter develops the ideas devoted the project of creation new sensor and new vibrator which are necessary for the project to reduce the magnitude of an impending catastrophic earthquake. A physical and mathematical model of the prototype of a mercury earthquake precursor sensor is proposed, and the signal received by the old sensor is calculated. Analysis of an existing sensor prototype provides an understanding of physical processes and shows the fundamental advantage of the new sensor. This sensor helps to determine the epicenter of a future short-focus earthquake tens of hours before the earthquake which is necessary for the project to reduce the magnitude of an impending catastrophic earthquake. An approach is formulated to explain the physical mechanism for reducing the magnitude of an impending catastrophic earthquake. The requirement for new vibrators for the purpose of Reducing the Magnitude of an Impending Catastrophic Earthquake is formulated. The chapter describes a patent of vibrator basing on new physical principle.

Assessment and Analysis of Water Quality Parameters of Groundwater Near Ranebennur Industrial Area, Haveri District, Karnataka, India

H. Vijaya Kumar, Nagraj S. Patil, Nanjundi Prabhu

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 1, 19 February 2021, Page 12-22
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v1/7252D

This paper presents Groundwater quality assessment of villages affected by industrialization in Ranebennurtaluk, Haveri district, Karnataka, India. For the present study, five villages affected by industrialization were selected to measure the quality of groundwater for determining its fitness for domestic us e. Groundwater is an important water resource to sustain human life as well as to maintain ecosystem. Groundwater is the most vital source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes. Bore well samples from each village were analysed for Physico - chemical variations and quality of groundwater. Comparison of Physico - chemical analysis results with Indian Standard drinking water limits shows that all groundwater samples except few are fit for drinking and irrigation purposes. The average value of pH of five villages is 7.5-8.0 which is within desired limit. However, the pH value is increasing so it may be unfit for the future use. About 75% of EC and TDS values are more than 1000 but it is acceptable. About 50% of Water samples containing chloride in excess of 250mg/l are considered undesirable for drinking purposes which may lead to cardiovascular diseases. The concentration of sulphate for each sample of villages is within desirable limit. Also it is found that 25% of samples containing total hardness more than 300 mg/l which is undesirable. In future there may be threat of decrease in groundwater quality. The groundwater quality can be improved by adopting wastewater treatment plants at the industries that causing the pollution of these aquifers.

This study measured and compared seasonal levels of trace elements (Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Mn, Fe, Zn, Co, and As), total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Suspended Particulate Matter (PM10) in aerosols particles collected between July–September, 2005 and January–March, 2006 at four major cities (Calabar, Eket, Aba and Port Harcourt) in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. The PM10 concentrations varied between the lowest, 27.72 ± 11.33 ?g/m3 in Calabar and the highest, 75.50±25.60 ?g/m3 in Aba, while TPH ranged from 6.56 ± 3.36 µg/m3 in Calabar to the highest level of 35.95 ±16.30 µg/m3 in Eket.  The results of trace metal analysis showed that the aerosols in the air basin at all sites in the Niger delta region of Nigeria contain concentrations of elements (Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Mn, Co and As) < 15 ?g/m3. Higher mean concentrations of Fe (41.26 ± 9.84 µg/m3) recorded at Calabar and Zn (39.76 ± 6.15 µg/m3) and (22.91±6.26 µg/m3) were recorded at Aba and Port Harcourt respectively. In the dry season (January – March, 2005), the mean highest TPH concentrations (35.95 ± 16.30) and (33.05 ± 16.21 µg/m3) were obtained at Aba and Eket respectively, while the lowest mean concentration (6.56 ± 3.36 µg/m3) was obtained at Calabar.  Paired independent t-test at p ? 0.05 (df = 34, n = 36) confirmed significant seasonal variations in the concentrations of the metals with higher concentrations during the dry season. Enrichment factor (EF) analysis was adopted to identify the sources and their contributions to the aerosol particles. Our results revealed that the atmosphere in the studied cities was highly enriched by Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Mn, Zn, Co, and As of anthropogenic origin, in the order Port Harcourt > Aba > Eket > Calabar. Multivariate statistical (Principal Component and Cluster) analyses validated the sources of the trace metals, as well as their controls by local meteorological elements. This study provides baseline information about the region and is useful for effective environmental pollution monitoring in the Niger delta region of Nigeria.  

Informal settlements are a hot spot for disaster risks worldwide. They are characterised by limited provision of basic services. Informal settlements typically occupy land deemed unsuitable for residential or commercial use. Water being a critical life support resource is not adequately provided. Residents usually rely on unsafe water sources of hand dug wells. Pit latrines are a major facility for sanitary purposes. Further, informal settlements high population density residing in poor housing units is a common characteristic. Risks of underground water pollution are high due to the proximity of sanitation facilities to unprotected shallow wells increasing the possibility of feacal contamination by E. coli and coli form. This paper presents a case of Makululu informal settlement in Zambia. A total of 385 respondents were identified at random while purposive sampling identified key informants. Water samples collected from 12 hand dug wells located close to pit latrines were tested for coli form and E. coli. Testing was done before and after the rainy season to analyse the relationship between pit latrines and wells as well as the relationship with rainfall distribution pattern to ascertain levels of risks. Water was tested to determine the levels of contamination based on the presence of E. coli and coli form. Laboratory results indicated that 90 percent of water consumed in Makululu informal settlement is highly contaminated by faecal coliforms. The results of this study also suggest that tap water may be safer, but additional sampling is needed. Basic treatment of the water at the community or household level by chemical disinfection using chlorine, filtration using simple household filters, and boiling should also be promoted.

There exist arrays of legal instruments that provide guidance and legislative procedures for marine pollution processes and issues in the Republic of South Africa. The aim of this study is to briefly review and synthesize literature on the existing legislative framework.

From the set of documents reviewed, it sometimes becomes unclear which one is applicable to what, under what circumstances and to what extent. Some light is shed here in this regard, indicating most especially the irreplaceable and authoritative instrument/s that supercedes  others. Furthermore, the study briefly mentions the classification of laws and policies based on common law, doctrines of equity, and statutes of general application. The South African Legal System thrives upon four main sources that include (i) legislations, (ii) court decisions, (iii) common law, and (iv) customary law and indigenous law. Whilst case laws and indigenous laws have not been touched upon in any way, the reason for this is not farfetched as environmentalism is relatively a new area of societal activity.

The issue of supremacy in conflict resolution and arbitration is raised, citing a noteworthy international case that becomes applicable to any signatory to the United Nations Convention of the law of the Seas.

Light is shed upon the root base of marine pollution’s legal framework, citing key sections of the Constitution of the Republic, Environmental laws/statutes, policies and bye laws. The features enshrined in the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Seas is discussed in relation to to the national hierarchy of environmental laws , including bye laws..

An attempt is also made to enumerate four broad areas around which marine pollution cases could require adjudication. In addition, the study looks at issues of liability where it is assumed the State itself seems to be the e perpetrator (or not). This is exemplified with a case from the Pace International Law Review.

Customary law and general International Principles of law are brought into examination using principles contained in the Corfu Channel Case of 1949 and subsequent Declarations.

Taking a look at the South African general Legislative framework, the prominence of the National Environment al Management Act (NEMA) is ascertained amidst the existence of other laws of relevance and bye laws. Procedural steps taken in Marine Pollution management are highlighted preceding challenges and opportunities are summarized and conclusions are highlighted.

Recent studies have revealed that the jurisprudence of constitutional environmental rights and provisions is relatively new. The aim of this chapterwas to review and synthesize literature on the underlying fundamental principles and trends in constitutional environmental rights in Africa with reference to South Africa and Eswatini. Consequently, there are three recognized approaches to environmental rights: anthropocentric (people-centred), ecocentric (environment-centred) and theo-cultural and theocentricism (of culture and religion). Types of environmental rights can be procedural, substantive and solidarity. In addition, categories of environmental rights include civil and political rights also known as negative rights (enforceable) and socio-economic rights sometimes called positive rights (not easily enforceable and requires state resources). Several national, regional and international policies and legislation support the development and enforcement of environmental rights. The African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights is significant for African countries.

Essential elements for the fulfilment of environmental rights include: public participation, collection and dissemination of environmental information, development and implementation of environmental laws, policies and programmes, environmental compliance and enforcement, provision of environmental infrastructure, and establishment of environmental partnerships and environmental education. In this review, Africa, South Africa and Eswatini in particular, were found to have adopted the concept of constitutional environmental rights and provisions to varying degrees. Consequently, there are policies and legislation in place to support the enforcement of environmental rights.  

Understanding Sustainable Development

Cliff Sibusiso Dlamini

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 1, 19 February 2021, Page 88-98
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v1/6914D

Sustainable development refers to development that does not damage the natural resources. It can also be defined as the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations. The aim of this chapter is to review and synthesis literature on the pillars and models of sustainable development. The literature review revealed that a number of authors agree that sustainable development can be categorized into three groups: (i) environmental sustainability (organic production of raw materials, agricultural water management), (ii) social sustainability (accessibility of healthy food to different generations), and (iii) economical sustainability (participation and cooperation from small businesses). Previously, there were theories and concepts that encouraged people to choose between environmental protection and development. The introduction of sustainable development is creating a promising and prosperous future for human societies. In order to attain sustainable development, the three pillars namely economic, social and environmental must be given equal consideration. Sustainable development is perceived as one of the key solutions in addressing the issues of climate change and global warming. Conserving biodiversity, water resources, minimizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and promoting conservation farming are some of the most important aspects of sustainable development and they should be in the forefront in the quest to promote the sustainable development concept.

This is a brief study of existing legislative frameworks for fisheries in South Africa. The study assesses the different marine legislative frameworks and ascertain how such laws contributes towards the effective management of fisheries in South Africa. The main focus is on endangered marine species, particularly abalone. The Marine Living Resources Act (MLRA) of South Africa was enacted in 1998 with the main objective of protecting the countries marine fisheries including endangered species. Since then, the country has developed policies and acts meant to strengthen the MLRA. Such policies includes the policy for the Small Scale Fisheries Sector (SSFP) in South Africa which was enacted in 2012. The Marine Living Resources Amendment Act, Act no. 5 of 2014, was passed in May 2014 to strengthen the MLRA and allow for the implementation of the SSFP. The implementation of the MLRA and its supporting policies is driven by the need to achieve marine resource sustainability, encourage economic growth within the marine industry and protect endangered marine life through implementation of anti- poaching legislation and ensuring marine pollution is minimized. South Africa has faced a series of challenges in implementing these objective and so far most of the initiatives are not implemented effectively. A group of fishers (subsistence and artisanal fishers) have remained marginalized and overlooked in the fishing rights allocation process despite regulations being put in place to support such initiative. However, there is hope for small scale fisheries given that the government envisage adopting a community-based, co-management approach which will see fishing rights allocated to small-scale fishing communities and these communities co-managing  fisheries together with government.

This paper presents a project of a photovoltaic system built in synergy with freshwater and supply water ecosystem services. The focus is to reconnect business success with social and ecological progress based on the operative concept of multifunctional land use. Such an approach attempts to harmonize the needs of industrial processes of photovoltaic systems and the ecological and social needs of the landscape context. Specifically, different from the usual design of photovoltaic panels in farmlands or brownfields, a new pattern of the photovoltaic system is proposed such a combination of photovoltaic panels and wetlands. The proposed project has, among others, the major functions of increasing solar energy production, recycling wastewater, creating raw material for biofuel or other applications and providing animal habitat and mitigating air temperature. In this way, ecosystem services can be interpreted as supporting technology services to improve the efficiency of energy factories. This novel design open to a new vision of environmental aspects that should not be treated only as potential impacts of human activity or mitigation strategies, but as an active part of the design.

Determination of Formaldehyde in Seafood and Food Products at Somdet Market, Kalasin Province

Theeranat Suwanaruang

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 1, 19 February 2021, Page 138-144
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v1/1530F

Formaldehyde or formalin is profoundly harmful that is assimilated agreeably. The object of this exploration was to examine formalin that sullied in fish and solidified meat. The technique was to choose tests at Kalasin Province. The examples were mackerel, fresh squid, solidified chicken, Saba fish, Shishamo fish, Jelly fish, Cockle, Clams, Squid, shrimp, White shrimp and Dolly fish, individually. The techniques were to examine formaldehyde with titration and formalin test kit. Titration technique utilized formic corrosive by abundance of iodine in soluble arrangement. Formalin test unit of Ministry of Public Health issued Act No.151 (B.E.2536) was to test formalin debased food. The results discovered formaldehyde in mackerel, fresh squid, solidified chicken, Saba fish, Shishamo fish, jellyfish, cockle, shellfishes, squid, shrimp, white shrimp and cart fish in three duplicated were 288 mg/L, 228 mg/L, 293 mg/L, 77 mg/L, 282 mg/L, 180 mg/L, 120 mg/L, 48 mg/L, 229 mg/L, 294 mg/L, 295 mg/L and 293 mg/L, individually. Formalin test unit was to establish all examples were contaminated with formalin. In addition, the stature formalin defiled in white shrimp, the second were shrimp and cart fish, the third was solidified chicken, the fourth was mackerel, the fifth was Shishamo fish, the 6th was squid, the seventh was fresh squid, the eighth was jellyfish, the ninth was cockle, the 10th was Saba fish and the latter was shellfish. The World Health Organization arranged formaldehyde was cancer-causing to people, circumspectly that there was a fair evidence for exacting depression malignancy in people.

The King is Naked: Prevailing State of Art in the Present-Day Earth Sciences

Subhasis Sen

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 1, 19 February 2021, Page 145-147
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v1/1894F

Hans Christian Andersen, the celebrated Danish author for the children, narrated the story of two weavers who convinced the king and his noblemen that his new dress would not be perceptible to the scoundrels [1]. So, everyone, who saw the naked king, agreed that the new attire sported by him is wonderful.  Almost a similar situation is prevailing in the domain of the present-day earth sciences. For example, despite solid and rigid state of the mantle, where convective movement is not possible, Earth scientists are believing that due to mantle convection continental blocks or plates are moving and, also the magnetic phenomena of the planet is generated by a geo-dynamo operating in the Earth’s deep interior. The author here points out certain blatantly false concepts that are causing utter confusion in the field of geological sciences, especially relating to global tectonics. The theme of the paper is “Reject plate tectonics and save Earth sciences”.

The article, on the basis of thorough investigation, confirms that various features of Earth can only be satisfactorily explained following the Earth expansion theory, though initially this theory too apparently seemed to be unacceptable. Hypotheses like continental drift, plate tectonics or Earth’s expansion should not be considered as viable in view of solid and rigid state of mantle which, in contrast, would resist such phenomena. Based on Hilgenberg’s model of Earth’s expansion (1933), the author elucidates that before expansion when the Earth was small and devoid of oceans, its mantle must have been sufficiently fluid owing to association of ocean-forming water. Further, matching thickness of fluid outer core and extent of radial expansion of the Earth strongly support that the outer core was opened up as a void geosphere owing to planetary expansion. At the deep interior of the planet, owing to occurrence of a void or pseudo-fluid geosphere separating basaltic mantle and solid iron core, an additional force of reverse gravity would develop acting in opposite direction of normal inwardly directed force of gravity. This postulation leads us to consider that in the deep interior of the planet an upwardly directed force of gravitational attraction would act in a predominant manner, thereby sustaining sufficiently low temperature and pressure condition and magnetic nature of the inner core which completely agrees with observed features of terrestrial magnetism.

Over the Earth’s surface the crustal layer was fragmented due to expansion while through the expansion cracks widespread incidences of magma emission occurred forming rudimentary ocean basins. With further expansion, these basins were expanded and filled up with water that degassed from the mantle associated with the process of magma emission while owing to desiccation, the mantle itself eventually turned into a rigid body. Before expansion of the planet when the iron core and the mantle were juxtaposed to each other, due to external magnetic influence the magnetic iron core was deflected causing major change in polar and equatorial disposition of the planet. Subsequently in younger geological period when due to expansion a major void geosphere was opened up between the iron core and mantle, external magnetic influences caused the magnetic core to execute smooth revolutions giving rise to new magnetic phenomena like pole reversal and polar wandering, documented over the planet’s younger strata. It may be noted that while due to expansion, the continental fragments would tend to move away from one another, owing to rotation of the planet along its axis of rotation some continental fragments came closer to each other or even collided to form mountain ranges.