Dr. Gnana Sheela K
Professor, Department of Electrical Communication Engineering, Toc H Institute of Science & Technology, Arakkunnam, Ernakulam, Kerala, India.

ISBN 978-93-91215-07-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91215-15-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/castr/v4

This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include hotel classification systems-hotel rating, star rating, rating criteria, hospitality industry, community radio, development, food and nutrition security, color vision, color deficiency, computer graphics, rainbow color coding, endothelialization, spatiotemporal orderliness of function, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, differentiation, green shared vision, green organizational identity, green product psychological ownership, organizational citizenship, photovoltaic panel, wind tunnel, computational fluid dynamics, net pressure coefficient, wind load, LSP technique, shock pressure, thin film deposed on Al, tensile test, hardness, residue logarithmic number system, multi-level residue number system, multi-level residue logarithmic number system, waste processing, facility, sustainability, landfill, facility, solid waste management, gas recovery, greenhouse gases, gasification, pyrolysis. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology research.


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Group Analysis of Official Hotel Classification Systems: A Recent Study

Akrivi Vagena, Gerassimos Manoussakis

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 4, 10 May 2021, Page 1-17

The present research investigates the official classification systems in order to find common, important sectors and criteria. Some criteria indicate the perception of certifying organizations, of countries that apply them, and of the hotel industry, as to what is important for a hotel to offer. Official classification systems state their basic principles, which differ from one system to another and not all are met at the same time. Most countries give three reasons for entering a formal rating system: consumer protection, tourism planning and marketing. The study will present the practices applied in the hotel industry, through compliance with official classification systems. It will contribute to the existing knowledge of hoteliers, institutions and organizations that create hotel certification systems, and in general to the knowledge of the tourism industry.

Hotel classification systems are tools for maintaining the high quality of hotel industry. Also, ?he classification of hotels presents heterogeneity. Common points are the range of ranking categories and the marks used, but if the requirements of the criteria of each category are analyzed, very different conditions are discovered, sometimes even within the same country. Nevertheless, the introduction of a classification system for hotels is a complex matter due to the diversity of classification systems, accommodation types and the cultural, environmental and economic context in which the systems operate each time in individual countries. This study results, in a proposed model hotel classification system, which will directly contribute to reducing the risk of not meeting customers' expectations and providing hotel services more efficiently, depending on the type and category of accommodation. Effective management of customer expectations is crucial to ensuring the viability of the tourism business.

The survey data were drawn from the analytical recording and processing of 39 classification systems, applied in different countries and continents.

Several studies have confirmed that Community Radio can go a long way in promoting agriculture by educating farmers about new farming methods; issuing early warning whenever there are outbreaks of pests and diseases; monitoring weather patterns and informing farmers on appropriate planting dates. Further research argues that communication of science and technology best occurs outside the school through real world experiences with the media as an important forum at which such experiences are shared. Most rural folk rely on CR as a source of news and entertainment. However, CR is much more than an entertainment factory; it is potentially an invaluable forum for rural farmers and agricultural researchers to engage in scientific dialogue, which is aimed at achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SGD) number 2. This paper, therefore, investigates the extent to which efforts have been made to unlock CR’s potential in working towards attaining the national goal of ending hunger, achieving food security, improving nutrition and promoting sustainable agriculture. The paper will rely on survey data drawn from a recent study on the link between Community Radio and Food Security. Findings of this study indicate that Community Radio could offer a lasting solution to the challenge of rural development, especially food and nutrition security. The outcome is expected to inform policy on the need to enhance integration of CR in disseminating agricultural information to rural farmers in Kenya as the country marches towards the successful implementation of its national development goal of making Kenya a Food Secure nation.

Studies on Color Vision, Color Blindness, and Computer-Generated Images

Michael Ramek

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 4, 10 May 2021, Page 27-35

Around 8% of the male population and 0.4%  of the female population have colour vision deficiencies.

Since software design also operates along the coordinates red, green, and blue, computer generated images often create needless problems for those affected. The rainbow-like colour coding used in thermo-imaging and other applications is the subject of this research. There is an alternative to this rainbow spectrum.

Inspiration from New Discoveries in Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth: A Bold Conjecture about Mature Cell Growth

Jingan Li, Yachen Hou, Kun Zhang

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 4, 10 May 2021, Page 36-44

For vascular biomaterials and devices, how to accelerate the growth of endothelial cells (EC), so as to achieve the repair, regeneration or construction of endothelial monolayer as soon as possible is the goal pursued by scientists for decades. A variety of techniques have been developed to achieve this goal by directly promoting EC growth on the surface and inhibiting smooth muscle cells (SMC) and macrophages. However, a new discovery from 2017 that endothelial monolayer in the regenerated tissues doesn’t contact with the implanted biomaterials provide us novel inspiration, and proposed the concept of “spatiotemporal orderliness of function” to declare the behaviors of macrophages, SMC and EC on the implanted biomaterials in time sequence and space sequence, and the functions endowed for the implants’ surfaces should follow this objective phenomenon and law. To our surprise, we found a series of new secrets of EC growth in the subsequent research. These details, which are so insignificant and even neglected in scientific research, are not limited to explaining the reasons for various blood implantation failures, but may reveal some new rules different from the previous cognition for the universal mature cell growth.

Accurate measurement of ergocalciferol in biological samples has become easier using high end mass spectra. Currently, various LC-MS/MS methods have been developed to quantify ergocalciferol. Use of LC-MS/MS has accomplished to develop accurate method that could quantify ergocalciferol in large number of samples where it should be analysed in the blood immediately after dosage. The objective of this study is to optimize chromatographic conditions and evaluate the LC-MS/MS method for accurate quantification of dosage form of ergocalciferol in human plasma. Extraction and separation of ergocalciferol in human plasma was achieved using methanol liquid–liquid extraction and by a reverse phase C8 column, respectively. The residue after liquid-liquid extraction was dissolved using PTAD reagent along with the reconstituted solution to detect and quantify ergocalciferol by LC-MS/MS. Detection was performed on a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source. The method was validated according to FDA guidelines and certified reference materia l was used. The LOQ for analyte tested was 5.44 ng/mL, in medium-MQC it was 65.123 ng/mL and in high-HQC it was 120.598 ng/mL and the quality control samples did not exceed 20 and 15% CV, respectively. Accuracy of the method for determination of ergocalciferol was validated and found to be in the range of 95.40–103.09%. This method can be used for quantification of ergocalciferol present in the systemic circulation via external consumption in the form of tablets. LC-MS/MS assay can be used for quantifying ergocalciferol native form from external consumption and study the metabolism of each individuals enrolled in the clinical trials.

In this study, expectancy–valence theory was used from the perspective of corporate green management to investigate green shared vision (GSV). Moreover, organizational identity theory and psychological ownership theory were combined to propose an integrated conceptual framework. To fill research gaps, an investigation was also conducted with frontline R & D and sales employees to further examine the effect of GSV on organization members’ psychology and behavior. The research results indicate that when under the following circumstances, corporate members can enhance organizational citizenship behavior for the environment (OCBE) to improve green management performance, gain the favor of green consumers and achieve sustainable consumption goals. First, enterprises should focus on environmental issues and develop their GSV. Second, enterprises should implement the GSV in different aspects, such as product design, processing, marketing and management. Finally, corporate GSV should be in line with the expectations and values of organization members on environmental issues to motivate their OCBE. Therefore, enterprises must implement their GSV to strengthen the green organizational identity and green product psychological ownership of their members. The framework indicates that the generation of GSV in organization members depends on whether the enterprise meets their expectations and values and whether it recognizes and produces a psychological behavior history relationship between GPPO and active behavior.

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Wind Load on Photovoltaic Panel Assemblies

Ol'ga Hubová, Michal Franek, Marek Macák

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 4, 10 May 2021, Page 78-102

The chapter presents the aerodynamic study of solar panel assemblies and the determination of wind load. In the first part, the task is solved by computer simulation of the wind flow around the proposed rectangular assembly in the scale of 1:1 using the FLUENT ANSYS program and realization of experimental measurements in the wind tunnel with a boundary layer (BLWT) in Bratislava is presented subsequently. The aim of the solution was to determine the maximum pressure and suction wind load on top and bottom surfaces of panels. The resulting net pressure coefficient represents the maximum local pressure in each panel row as maximum values from all wind directions. The experimentally obtained net pressure coefficient values were compared with computer simulation and the procedures mentioned in standard STN EN 1991-1-4. It can be seen that the inner panels are loaded considerably less than the standard defines. The panels placed on the side of the assembly or on the edge of the aisle are loaded significantly more than the standard defines. Frontal panels are also less wind stressed than in the standard defines.

Laser Application to Determine Aluminum Properties

Narjis Zamil Abdulzahra, Saad Naji Abood

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 4, 10 May 2021, Page 103-115

The structural, physical, and mechanical properties of aluminium after laser-induced shock peening (LSP) were investigated before and after depositing films of various metals (Cu, In, and Al). The deposition of single and double films was conducted, and the physical property (density), shockwave properties (shock pressure, particle velocity, and shock velocity), mechanical properties (stress, strain, Young's s modulus, and Hardness) were calculated, Young's s modulus measured of aluminum was measured by classical method (Tensile test) and by LSP technique, and it was found that the measured using LSP is closer to the standard value than classical method. Single film Cu and sandwich Al / Cu deposited on Al substrate showed an enhancement in the mechanical properties rather than other films, while the deposited films of (In, In / Cu, and Al /In) on Al substrate revealed more strain and higher  ductility than others. The laser-induced shock wave has a great importance in viruses, industrial and medical applications.

Novel Idea of Implementing MRNS Technique for RLNS Based System

R. V. Shalini

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 4, 10 May 2021, Page 116-124

Residue Number System (RNS) is an effective solution for implementing several DSP applications. RNS reduces the input operands with larger length to modulo values with shorter length and provides high processing speed. An important application of RNS is in cryptography for providing highly secured transmission of data. The intermediate residue values obtained cannot be processed without knowing the exact moduli set values. The advantage of RNS is that the operation block is divided into distinct residual modules that are independent of the others. Multi-level Residue Number System (MRNS) is proposed in literature to enhance security features and processing speed of RNS. MRNS involves in continuing the procedure of RNS in several levels until the stage of choosing small moduli set values is obtained. To improve the data encryption feature of the RLNS based multiplication structure, MRNS concept is incorporated in this research work, proposing a new idea of Multi-level Residue Logarithmic Number System (MRLNS). The simulation results of the proposed designs that include area, TPD and delay are taken and found to be less when compared with the existing research work of multiplier design for Residue Logarithmic Number System (RLNS) based system.

Awareness Adds to Knowledge. Stage of the Art Waste Processing Facilities and Industrial Waste Treatment Development

Maria Kilpeläinen, Ari Happonen

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 4, 10 May 2021, Page 125-148

Globally approximately 2 billion tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated annually, and the trend is towards growth. To fight the ever-growing waste issue, different countries have different practices and processes with various sustainability levels. Waste can be treated in multiple ways and in the sustainability front, the focus on e.g. circular economy related activities has recently been acknowledged. The importance of recycling is also acknowledged, and luckily the waste management industry is moving towards more holistic approaches and trying to limit the waste disposal to landfills. However, most likely the landfills will still remain in some quantity for the waste that cannot be recycled or disposed in any alternative way. Therefore, it is important to understand what kind of landfills will be deemed as necessity and why, to limit the amount of waste that is disposed to landfills and to manage landfill more efficiently. Looking the solutions from technical and waste processing point of view, this work analyzed one of the most efficient and modern state-of-the-art waste facilities. Based on the found data, authors give technological based options to be considered, to how to solve the waste handling/processing challenges and reduce the need for landfills.