Dr. Yong X. Gan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, USA.

ISBN 978-93-91595-94-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91595-99-9 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/castr/v13

This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include colony optimization, colony algorithms, transportation, plasma, magneto hydrodynamics, waves, solar chromosphere, solar corona, critical quality attributes, materials attributes, melting endotherm, quality by design, retention times, wet granulation, Artemisinin based Combination Therapies, scanning Calorimetry, soft tissue tumour, stromal cell lesions, ovarian adenocarcinoma, neoplasms, rare gynaecological malignancies, conflicts Higgs energy, mass of neutrino, LHCb collaboration, “ATLAS” experiments, Curie energy, quarks and other sub-atomic particles, soap industry effluents, physicochemical parameter, pollutants, mobile adhoc networks, black hole attack, trust, malevolent node, packet dropping, conventional engine, LHR combustion chamber, diesel engine, performance, exhaust emissions, power substation, critical infrastructures, permanent regime, crystal growth, thermal studies, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, antimalarial activity, infectious disease, aerospace technology, rocket and space technology, aerospace activity, new industrial revolution, borehole configuration, thermal resistance correlations, ground-heat exchangers, evaluation, Direct Exchange Condenser, antibacterial activity, phytochemical components, malnutrition. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology research.


Media Promotion:


Application of Ant Colony Optimization: An Approach towards Travelling Salesman Problem Resolution

Priyanka P. Shinde, Varsha P. Desai, Kavita S. Oza

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 13, 2 August 2021, Page 1-7

In today’s world everyone uses vehicle for the transportation this leads lots of air pollution, lots of traffic and wastage of time as well as wastage of fuel. It also leads driver dissatisfaction and costs billions of dollars every year in fuel utilization all over the world. Tracking down an appropriate answer for vehicle clog is an extensive test because of the dynamic and capricious nature of the organization geography of vehicular conditions, particularly in metropolitan regions. The objective of study is to find the shortest path to minimize the drawback of travelling. In the ant colony optimization, there are various techniques used to resolve the travelling salesman problem. The literature study of ant colony optimization algorithm is studied to find out how the ant colony algorithms used for solving the travelling salesman problem and improve the performance according to the requirements. The behavior of ant is observed to do improvements in the ant colony optimization algorithm. Ant leaves pheromone while traveling the other ants follows that pheromone trail and by trail of pheromone, ants can determine the shortest path of travelling. Similarly, the ACO is used in TSP in which the algorithm helps to visit each city only once with minimal distance and time.

Behavior of MHD Waves in Plasma in Gravitational Field

Gordana Jovanovic

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 13, 2 August 2021, Page 8-21

Using magnetohydrodynamic equations (MHD), we investigate plasma waves. This magnetohydrodynamic model for isothermal, gravitationally stratified plasma in a horizontal inhomogeneous magnetic field yields the dispersion equation and reflection coefficient for MHD waves. The speeds of Alfven and sound are both constant. For linearized per turbations, analytical solutions can be derived using this approach. They show the Alfven mode, as well as the fast and slow magnetoacoustic modes. Gravity has an effect on these modes. The dispersion equation describes gravito-acoustic waves in the nonmagnetized situation.

Administration of Artemisinin based Combination Therapies (ACTs) especially artemether and lumefantrine fixed dose combination as a first line treatment in uncomplicated falciparum malarial illness received global acclamation and recommendation: This study was undertaken to devise the best way to incorporate artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as model drugs during processing without compromising quality. Utilization of analytical tools revealed how compatibility of formulation components and suitability of process methods were monitored and controlled to achieve quality outcome.  Excipients of proven performance in wet granulation method as well as AL as model drugs were designed into six formulations coded F-1 to F-6 to reflect modes of incorporation. Physical mixtures and wet granulated samples at different levels of processing were screened as in-process materials for compatibility and method suitability using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Assessment of potential risks inherent in formulation and process unit operations was adequately addressed by these instruments.

Matching and comparison of spectra, thermograms and chromatograms at different levels of processing indicated that there were no disappearance of old or appearance of new spectral bands; showed reduction of melting endotherm and similar characteristic elution times of AL as they transformed from pure material to physical mixture (PM) and to granules. Results from this work alluded to compatibility of formulation components and suitability of processing techniques to the extent that the resultant granulates were good enough for further processing.

A Clinical Series of Rare Gynaecological Malignancies- An Overview

Veenu Agrawal

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 13, 2 August 2021, Page 34-40

Rare gynaecological malignancies are discussed in this book chapter. 1) Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMF) is a rare, benign soft-tissue tumour that mostly affects middle-aged women's vulvovaginal region. It's critical to distinguish an AMF from other stromal cell lesions in the clinic. We present the case of a 35-year-old lady who was diagnosed with a rare, large pelvic AMF that had a benign clinical history. 2)Pediatric ovarian adenocarcinoma; The Surface epithelial stromal tumours (adenocarcinomas), representing 80% to 90% of adult ovarian neoplasms, account for only 7% of malignancies in children. A case of ovarian adenocarcinoma in a 14-year-old female is presented here.  3) PECOMA (Perivascular epitheloid cell tumor) is an uncommon mesenchymal tumour in which we present a case of uterine PECOMA in a 45-year-old woman.

Light is very sensitive matter. In terms of mass of a photon is important in every field of matter thus for the universe. The scientists of many countries are trying to find the mass of photon by experiment since 1936 and continuing this work in various countries. But the obtained results are differing to each other. So, we cannot consider these mass of a photon. On the other hand matter is made by the photons. We get this idea from the Einstein equation E = mc2. Again, energy is nothing but the bunch of photons. I calculate the mass of a photon (1.6596x10-54 gm) [1] and this mass is applicable to all fields. Here, in this article, we can calculate the mass of “Curie particle” (Unknown to us) by using this mass of photon & is related to Higgs and other sub-atomic particles. The energy of Higgs particle is very low as per BICEP2`s experimental report [2] and I reported about this matter in the year 2011 to “The Authority of CERN, Editor of Press release of CERN and many other places” by emailing, but did not get answer in this regards. But this is very interesting that as per “Universe Today” report (20th November, 2014) of BICEP2 (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization), my calculated observation supports their views. Dr. A. P. J. ABDUL KALAM, SRIJAN PAL SINGH reported (17 June, 2015) the mass neutrino as 1x10-37 kg [3] (in terms of energy is 0.056095861 eV) obtained from calculated results from the difference of two particles.

Again, as per report, 19th June, & 27th July 2015, my calculated values tallied “The LHCb collaboration” [4], “ATLAS” [5] experiments. From this view, we have to think on photon`s mass and its activities. From the calculated results, we can say, the mass of a photon is correct and it is applicable to all fields from the particle to the universe.

Determination of Physico-Chemical Properties of Effluents from Soap Industry in Amravati

Sonal Mundhada

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 13, 2 August 2021, Page 57-61

The present work is an attempt to examine the soap industrial effluents of Amravati region.

Physicochemical Parameters of the effluents from soap industry of Amravati region had been analyzed. In this investigation Physico-Chemical Parameters such as colour, odour temperature, pH, electrical conductance, total dissolved solids, hardness of calcium and magnesium, chloride, COD, BOD, SAR, fluoride, Iron and alkalinity & sulphate had been analyzed of the effluent collected from the soap industry of Amravati region. Sodium and potassium elements were analyzed flame photo -metrically. It can be stated that the different studied physic-chemical parameter In which COD, pH, TDS, Sulphate ion Concentration fluoride & chloride Concentration exceeds than the WHO permissible limit the water needs to be treated before using it for domestic application.

Reliable and Hybridized Trust Based Secured Algorithm to Thwart Black Hole Attacks in MANETs Using Networking Preponderant Determinants

M. Thebiga, R. Suji Pramila, V. A. Tibbie Pon Symon

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 13, 2 August 2021, Page 62-80

Mobile adhoc networks is a perpetual and autogenous organization without framework, and the mobile nodes are coupled cordlessly. Owing to the deficiency of framework assistance, reliable data distribution is a demanding process in mobile adhoc networks and this mobile adhoc network is unguarded to many categories of attacks. A black hole attack in Mobile Adhoc networks cites to an attack by the malevolent node which strongly get hold of the path from sender to the receiver, by means of perversion of subsequence word. With regard to diminish the menace from the malevolent node, the authors encompass the notion of trust in mobile adhoc networks. In this paper, we cope with a packet dropping misconduct named Black hole Attack and we propounded  a new hybrid trust based secured algorithm hinged on four new parameters to scrutinize, whether the transitional nodes are transmitting the packets correctly to the adjacent nodes. This paper presents a new hybrid trust based concept to pinpoint the malevolent node hinged on the computation of trust value. Using ns2 simulator, we analyse the performance of our proposed method and proved the detection efficiency. The investigated results shows that our proposed work can precisely diagnose the malevolent nodes and assure a good packet delivery ratio and network throughput.

Influence of Injector Opening Pressure on Exhaust Emissions in Insulated Diesel Engine

M. V. S. Murali Krishna, N. Janardhan, N. Venkateswara Rao

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 13, 2 August 2021, Page 81-91

As the fossil fuel used for internal combustion engine is depleting day by day due to heave demand in transportation sector and in agriculture sector, the emphasis on fuel conservation is increasing at a faster rate. Out of which, the use of the low heat rejection engine or insulated engine is gaining momentum as it has many advantages such as heat release rate is higher, faster rate of combustion, specifically used for low calorific value and high viscosity fuels. There are many variables in compression ignition (CI) engine parameters such as change of injection timing, injection pressure, compression ratio, pre-heating etc., out of which variation of injection pressure is a simple technique to control exhaust emissions of CI engine, as it improves combustion with improved spray characteristics of the fuel. Investigations were carried out to determine exhaust emissions of an engine with low heat rejection (LHR) combustion chamber with air gap insulated piston and air gap insulated liner with neat diesel operation with varied injector opening pressure. The exhaust emissions from diesel engine are particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen. Breathing of these emissions causes health hazards and also they are responsible for greenhouse effect and global warming. Hence the control of these emissions is immediate step and at any cost. Exhaust emissions (particulate emissions and oxides of nitrogen (NOx)) were determined at various values of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of the engine. Particulate emissions were measured by AVL Smoke meter, while NOx by Netel Chromatograph NOx analyzer. The exhaust emissions with LHR engine were compared with conventional engine (CE).Particulate emissions and NOx emissions increased with LHR engine. However, these emissions decreased with an increase of injector opening pressure.

Study on Modelling a 400/220 KV Power Substation (Critical Infrastructures) – The Simulation of the Permanent Regime with EDSA Programme

Daniel N. Fita, Emilia Grigorie, Dragos Pasculescu, Florin G. Popescu, Alina D. Handra, Cristian Rada, Crina Barb

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 13, 2 August 2021, Page 92-103

This paper wishes to illustrate the functioning of 400/220 kV Rosiori power substation from National Power Grid – Romania, during the permanent regime and the behaviour of the electric equipment of the power substation regarding this phenomenon. According to the obtained results, we suggest that the power substation functioning of quality parameters, according to the new requirements of ENTSO – E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity. The objectives of the study: each new or upgraded power substation being the critical power infrastructure should be subject to a well-functioning risk assessment, by: simulation of different operating modes, assessment of occupational health and safety risks, assessment of security risks an assessment of reliability parameters, in the context of ensuring safety and security of electricity supply.

Investigation on L-Histidinium Maleate 1.5-Hydrate Crystals for Nonlinear Frequency Conversion

Helen Merina Albert, C. Alosious Gonsago

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 13, 2 August 2021, Page 104-112

L-histidinium maleate 1.5-hydrate (LHM), a new amino acid organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material was synthesized from aqueous solution by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. The solubility of the compound was studied in aqueous solution at different temperatures. The structural arrangement the grown crystal was identified using single crystal XRD and powder XRD studies. The chemical composition of the grown crystal was confirmed by Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX).  The percentage of optical transmittance by the grown crystal was identified by UV–visible spectral study. The nonlinear optical property of the grown material was observed by the powder technique of Kurtz and Perry. The surface morphology of the grown crystal was investigated by HR-SEM analysis. The thermal stability of the grown crystal was ascertained by differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry.

Antimalarial Activity of the Extracts of Vernonia Amygdalina Commonly Used in Traditional Medicine in Nigeria: An in vitro Study

K. K. Sha’a, S. Oguche, I. M. Watila, T. F. Ikpa

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 13, 2 August 2021, Page 113-119

Malaria is a major infectious disease in the tropics and subtropics. P. falciparum resistance to almost all antimalarial drugs has necessitated the search for antimalarial compounds. The antimalarial activities of aqueous and ethanolic crude extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, a plant used by traditional healers to treat malaria and other diseases, were tested in vitro against 14 fresh isolates of P. falciparum from Damboa, Borno State, Nigeria. The extracts were also tested for acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory efficacy. There was a significant inhibition in schizont maturation relative to control (P = 0.05). Ethanolic extract exhibited higher antimalarial activity of 78.10%, IC50 of 11.2 µg/ml and aqueous extract had an activity of 74.02%, IC50 of 13.6 µg/ml. Both extracts showed moderate antimalarial activity. The extracts exhibited negligible toxicity in rats and showed a good measure of anti-inflammatory activity. This finding supports the plant's traditional use in malaria treatment. More research is needed to isolate, identify, and characterise the active principles in the plant.

The article examines the state of aerospace activity, the prospects of development and directions of increasing the competitiveness of aviation, rocket and space technology in the countries of the world and Ukraine in the context of the new industrial revolution and Ukraine’s in-depth integration with the EU. It has been established that today both the aviation industry and the rocket and space complex of Ukraine need to change the priorities of development, reorganization, restructuring. There also exists the need for significant investments in order to modernise the production on the basis of advanced production technologies of the new industrial revolution (Key Enabling Technologies / Advanced Manufacturing) together with converged technologies. It is proved that considering the interests of Ukraine’s national security under conditions of increased military threat, the air-space industry may, after a certain modernisation, play a leading role in the creation of a defence shield of the state. It is recommended that the Consultative working groups of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, academic institutions and independent experts should be involved in forecasting and clarifying the priorities of the development of Ukraine’s aerospace complex in the context of its integration into the world and European aerospace.

The borehole thermal performance prediction is critical in the performance assessment and economical utilization of the ground source heat pump (GSHP). Hence, it is inevitable to evaluate these correlations and reveal their accuracy limits before adapting to the thermal design of the ground heat exchangers. The present article launches an evaluation for the available correlations of the borehole thermal resistance predictions in the direct ground exchange (DX) condenser when it circulates R-410A refrigerant. Eleven elected correlations in the open literature were examined to predict the thermal resistance of vertical single and double U-tube heat exchangers for various geometry configurations. A hypothetical (3.5) kW cooling unit of (3.6) COP was employed to investigate the borehole thermal resistance and depth of the ground copper tubing DX condenser in a single and two-loops design. A large scatter was evident for the borehole thermal resistance and depth as predicted by these correlations. It was as much as double for the examined single and double U-tube geometries. The principal outcome of the present study proved that the utilization of these correlations is only in the preliminary thermal design of the ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). They cannot be adopted for a finalized thermal structure of the borehole without being supported by experimental data due to their predictions' wide range of variations. Many correlations showed good interaction with the borehole configuration, tube diameter (do), tube center-center spacing (Sp), and borehole size (DB). All of the examined models showed that increasing the grout thermal conductivity enhances the thermal performance of the borehole and minimizes the depth for given operating conditions.

Impact of Television Viewing: A Review Article

Nirmali Gogoi, Pyllongiaki Bareh

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 13, 2 August 2021, Page 171-175

Today, television has emerged as the major source of entertainment and learning in our country. It has changed the lifestyle of people and become a major influence on the culture. Some students use Television and an educational tool, on the other hand, some uses it as a leisure tool. In particular, televisions impact on young people has garnered the most attention by academia and has been one area of intense study and debate. In fact, there are thousands of studies about television and its impact on young children and adolescence teenagers. For example, scholars know how many hours of television children and young students’ alike watch each day and how many television sets are in the average household. Moreover, they know where in the household these devices are located and much about children’s access to them. They know the types of programming they view and what kinds of programming different groups prefer. According to recent studies, almost every single student in the world watches television each and every day. Kinds of television programs, especially the serials, film clipping, news and news based programmes, sports and cartoons, affect people irrespective of gender, age and other demographic variables. Many people arises question as to whether television is really beneficial or does it has an actual impact on the viewer. This review article will provide us with an insight to some of the question that arises.

Studies on Proximate Composition, Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Screening of the Methanol and Acetone Extracts of Vitex doniana Fruit Pulp

A. E. Aiwonegbe, J. U. Iyasele, N. O. Izevbuwa

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 13, 2 August 2021, Page 176-184

To determine its biological potentials, the phytochemical components and antibacterial activity of methanolic and acetone extracts of Vitex doniana (Sweet) fruit were investigated. The fruit contains alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, tannins, steroids, and cardiac glycoside, according to the study. The percentage proximate composition of the fruit of the plant were as follows: moisture 10.00%, ash 18.00%, crude fibre 4.50%, crude protein 0.60%, carbohydrate 43.20% and crude lipids 23.70%. The existence of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium was confirmed by elemental analysis. The agar (Mullen-Hinton) diffusion method was used to test the methanolic and acetone extracts of the plant's fruit against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas areuginosa, and Klebsiella pnuemoniae. The zone of inhibition for the methanol extract ranged between 10.50 to 21.00 (mm) for all concentrations (1000, 500 and 250 mg/ml) . While the acetone extract only inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli to 7.50mm at a concentration of 1000mg/ml. The findings suggest that the fruit extracts have antibacterial properties and could be used to treat a variety of diseases and malnutrition.