Editor(s)

Dr. Gnana Sheela K
Professor,
Department of Electrical Communication Engineering, Toc H Institute of Science & Technology, Arakkunnam, Ernakulam, Kerala, India.

ISBN 978-93-91312-70-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91312-78-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/castr/v10

This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include safety factor, Mechanical design, defects and inclusions, Fatigue resistance, Light alloys, Finite Element Method-FEM, Replica method, innovation, reliability, randomness, technology transfer, scientific method, Historical evolution, Numerical models, Experimental procedures, structural health monitoring, crankshaft, High power, Theoretical-Numerical-Experimental procedures, metamorphism, mimicry, hominescence, laws of distribution, discrete and continuous, formulas, tests and check-up, anodic etching, silicon, optical properties, effective media approximation, Boson and Fermion, Higgs Boson theory, conductive coating, electronics, healthcare, opacity, crystallization, aqueous leaf extract, phytochemical analysis, elemental analysis, implementation of Lokpal and Administrative lawlessness, asymptomatic bacteriuria, clinical profile, pregnancy, urine culture, synovial hip joint, hydrodynamic lubrication, gait cycle, electroflocking, short synthetic pile, surface density of the pile coating, control of the conductivity and separability of the pile in production conditions, migratory beekeeper, forage sites, sequential output production, ecosystem pollination services, modelling profitability and sustainability, economic development, agriculture, agricultural output, public expenditure on agriculture, vector autoregression. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology research.

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### Chapters

##### Fail-Safe and Safe-Life Concepts Effects on the Safety Factor in Mechanical Design

Sergio Baragetti

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 1-6
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/2893F

This chapter reports the study of the effects that the Safety Factor has on Fail-Safe and Safe-Life concepts. The study is focused on mechanical design but the same concepts might be applied to other scientific research fields. Fault tree analysis is considered and concept of components put in series or parallel deepened. The discussion develops through reliability, safety and randomness concepts.

##### Study on Materials Defects and Inclusions Effect on Mechanical Components’ Resistance

Sergio Baragetti

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 7-15
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/2894F

In this chapter we discuss the role of defects, inclusions and cracks on the fatigue resistance of mechanical and aeronautical components, even made of high strentght-to-mass ratio materials. Finite element procedures that allow to silulate cracks and defects numerical growth will be described. The replica experimental method will allow to confirm the results.

##### Scientific Research and Innovation Driving Forces: An Advanced Study

Sergio Baragetti

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 16-19
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/2895F

This chapter reports the study of the driving forces acting on scientific research and innovation. Reliability of industrial machines, flying machines and naval equipments rely upon the designer’s capability to assess the role of cracks and defects in the components, and manage them in the life of the mechanical systems. Thus innovation and scientific research are strategic in mehanical design, along with computational mechanics and advance design methods.

##### Studies On ITT: Innovation and Technology Transfer

Sergio Baragetti

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 20-24
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/2896F

In this chapter we discuss the role of Innovation and Technology Transfer in our complex and multidisciplinary world of science and engineering. Some considerations on the role of Universities, Research Centres, Public Institutions, Financial Institutions and Enterprises will be developed.

##### Description on Scientific Research and Method

Sergio Baragetti

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 25-28
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/2897F

This chapter reports a short critical and historical analysis of the scientific method. Concepts coming from the XVII Century will be considered and discussion will proceed through the Centuries until today. The question is: what did change since the XVII Century in scientific research?

##### Management of Cracks and Defects in Mechanical Components

Sergio Baragetti

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 29-36
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/2898F

This chapter reports a survey of the methods that allow assessing structural health monitoring of structural components. This issue is quite relevant in the aeronautical and aerospace sectors, but also in the industrial machines and automotive areas. Numerical models and experimental procedures will be described, even though not too much deepened. Finite Element Modelling (FEM), strain gages and replica method procedures will be reported.

##### Study On the Design of High-Power Engines Crankshafts

Sergio Baragetti

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 37-46
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/2899F

This chapter reports some useful criteria for the design of high-power engine crankshafts. Theoretical, numerical FEM – Finite Element Modelling and experimental procedures will be considered. The comparison among the three approaches (Theoretical, Numerical and Experimental – TNE) will allow the designer to increase confidence during the production phase of the components, and increase reliability and structural health.

##### Study on the Hominescent Body in Michel Serres’ Thinking

Orsola Rignani

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 47-56
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/3019F

This contribution discusses Michel Serres’ idea, expressed in the eighties, of the «reappropriation» of the senses (and body) in the way of aesthetics as a «reunified» discourse on the data of sensations and fine arts, and his idea expressed in the nineties of the metamorphism and mimicry of the body, reading them as emergencies of his recent idea of the new «hominescent» body; in order to focus on the latter meanings and implications. First will be examined, precisely in the horizon of Serres’ philosophy of hominescence, Serresian proposal «to return» to the senses and body in the perspective of aesthetics understood as said. Then will be considered Serres’ theming of body metamorphism and mimicry, within which the senses are considered to act as body’s mimicry control. These steps are intended to shed light on the implications of Serres’ recent idea of the «hominescent» body. The objectives of this study are therefore, first of all, the investigation of the Serresian rethinking of the body through the rediscovery of the senses, and highlighting of bodily metamorphic and mimetic processes; secondly, the delineation of Serresian concept of «hominescent» body/bodily hominescence, which is, so to speak, the perspective/result of this re-evaluation of the body.

##### A Brief Study on More Accurate Appreciation of the Statistical Information

Kirill Voinov

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 57-63
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/10625D

As usually, there are very many situations when a man is clashing with the necessity to treat/process any statistical data (may be, about reliability of technical system, results of investigations or experiments about weather, temperature, pressure, productivity of labour and so on). In addition to that all academics try to determine the right law of distribution with their help to definite mathematical equations/formulas or with the special ways to find the possibility to solve the problem. Such task isn’t mighty easy in many cases. It is needed to know perfectly well the theory of probability, laws of distribution (they are more 30) and criteria (more than 10) to confirm correctly the common conclusion of calculations [1-8,9,10,11,12]. In this article two ways how really we can get the right finish result without any mistake the researcher can receive and more accurate appreciation of the statistical information is given as well.

##### Analysis of Spectral Reflectance of Layers Formed by Anodic Etching of Silicon

Stanislav Jurecka, Martin Králik

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 64-69
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/2413F

Porous silicon structures are used to suppress spectral reflectance in many applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics.
By anodizing p-type silicon substrates, we were able to create porous silicon structures. In the forming method, different etching conditions were applied, including electrical potential, current, and etching duration. Forming conditions influence sample structures. Inhomogeneous structures with different microstructure and optical properties are formed. The optical properties are studied in our approach by implementing the effective media approximation theory in the theoretical model of sample spectral reflectance. From an optimised spectral reflectance model, the thickness of generated layers, dielectric functions, and volume fractions of structural components were retrieved. The microstructure development during sample formation corresponds to the results of optical analysis.

##### Space-time Gets Reversed Only for Fermions where as Space-time is Identical for Bosons: Scientific Explanation

Prasenjit Debnath

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 70-75
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/2475F

In particle physics, there are primarily two sorts of particles. These are bosons and fermions, respectively. Particles are divided into subcategories in both of them. A fermion is a particle that has odd half-integer spin, for example, like $$\frac{1}{2}$$ , $$\frac{3}{2}$$ and so on. Quarks, Leptons, Protons, Neutrons are fermions. Bosons are particles with integer spins such as 0, 1, 2, and so on. For example, Bosons are like Photons, Gluons, W+, W-, Z0 bosons, Higgs bosons, Mesons etc. All matter particles (with mass) are fermions and have a significant amount. All particles that carry force are bosons. In this chapter, I'll illustrate that only fermions interact with space-time and get reversed. In space-time, bosons interact but are not reversed. Anti-particles (fermions) have space-time reversed, but bosons have space-time that is identical. As a result, all matter particles have their anti-particle counterparts, but all force carrying particles do not have their anti-particle counterparts.

##### Conductive Coatings of 2D MXene-in Water for Electronics Applications: A Recent Study

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 76-81
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/9156D

In situ HF etching method was used to prepare the Ti3C2Tx based MXene. Simple procedures such as dip coating, drop casting, and vacuum filtration were used to coat this MXene-in-water formulation on various substrates. The conductivity of the coatings measured with four probe method shows high conductivity and varies (1-50 Scm-1) depending on the method and coating of the thickness. This conductive coatings with MXene-in-water formulation achieved through simple procedures holds promise for electronics, energy storage, and healthcare applications.

##### Study on Titanium Oxide in Ceramics

Cezara Voica

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 82-95
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/9937D

This study presents the experimental works for obtaining ceramic glazes with a quality higher than those applied until now and a complex study of their properties for producing bone china articles.

Starting from the composition of a glossy transparent glaze for bone china, an experimental study on obtaining opaque glazes has been worked out, by using in excess some components able to devitrify the basic glaze. The influences of titanium and calcium oxide and their mixture on the aspect, phase composition and thermal behavior in bone china glaze, have been investigated, with aim at obtaining the opaque crystallized glazes with high aesthetic effect. It has been shown that all the sintered glazes, exhibited a significant crystalline structure, which was confirmed by optical microscopy as well. There are recommended as extremely favorable cumulated of these oxides, summing up to 20%. The products obtained presented proper characteristics under normal thermal treatment conditions. There are surely expensive, but they only can be used for certain products that need a more sophisticated aspect justifying their use.

##### Study on Phytochemical and Elemental Analysis of Acalypha wilkesiana Leaf

H. A. Madziga, S. Sanni, U. K. Sandabe

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 96-101
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/10633D

The study is designed to investigate the phytochemical and elemental constituent of A. wilkesiana obtained from Maiduguri, Nigeria. The Phytochemical examination of A. wilkesiana aqueous leaf extract revealed a significant amount of carbohydrates, tannins, and flavonoids, as well as a moderate quantity of phlobatannins and saponins. A little amount of Terpenes and Steroids, as well as alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. There were no anthraquinone derivatives found. Chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, copper, and manganese were found in substantial amounts in the elemental analysis, but no cadmium or lead were found.

As a result, it may be inferred that A. wilkesiana's aqueous leaf extract includes pharmacologically beneficial active principles constituents. As a result, the aqueous leaf extract may play an important role in both health and disease.

##### The Importance of Establishing a Lokpal in India; Lokpal Vitality in Democracy-Device for Combating Administrative Lawlessness

Shrishaila Mudhol

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 102-107
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/10790D

Corruption is a complex issue that is entwined with bureaucratic rigidity, issues of economic access, and political power; in this sense, the state is the primary promoter of corruption; it cannot be reduced to a question of morality alone, and the existing mechanisms for checking elected and administrative officials have not been effective., as growing instances of corruption cases suggest, and existing CVC-central vigilance commission is designed to inquire into allegations of corruption and the CBI, the premier investigation agency of the country functions under the supervision of the ministry of personnel public grievances (under the prime minister) and As a result, it is not immune to political pressure during investigations; indeed, the CBI's lack of independence and professionalism has frequently been castigated by the Supreme Court in recent times; all of this has necessitated the establishment of Lokpal with its own investigating team as soon as possible. There is a revolution in India, an anti-corruption wave is growing within Indian civil society; in latest years, people from all walks of life have said: enough is enough, and each in their own way is doing something about it; some are taking to the streets, as we have seen the Jan Lokpal movement under the leadership of Anna Hazaare and his team has truly awakened the entire nation about administrative lawlessness. and They demanded that their suggestions be incorporated into the Lokpal bill, and their effort to live a democratic life has received widespread support. Others are fighting this through the courts, while others have turned to the media., but Still, specific measures are required to combat rising corruption in all sectors; strong and stringent laws must be enacted with teeth and power, leaving no room for the guilty to flee; and firm and strong steps must be taken in the implementation of LOKPAL.

##### Determination of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnancy

A. Mohan Kumar, J. Kaur, M. Deb, S. Prateek

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 108-114
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/3027F

Purpose: The study sought to ascertain the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in pregnancy and the clinical profile, causative organisms, and antibiotic resistance pattern.

Methods: The study included 500 pregnant women who came in for regular antenatal care. Clinical information was gathered and recorded in the pretested proforma. The urine culture was performed using standard techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns were established after identifying isolates.

Results: Significant bacteriuria was found in 42 women out of 500. (8.4%). Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated organism (64.3%), followed by Klebsiella spp (11.9%). The most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates were found to be fosfomycin (100%) and nitrofurantion (92.6%).

Antibiotics such as ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and norfloxacin, which were used to treat urinary tract infections (UTI), have shown increased resistance. There was no statistically significant relationship found between the occurrence of bacteriuria and the clinical profile of pregnant women, such as age, trimester, gravidity, and parity status.

Conclusion:  In pregnant women, asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon. To detect and treat it, routine urine cultures and antibiotic susceptibility testing are required. The antibiotics of choice for treating UTI in pregnant women are oral Nitrofurantoin and Fosfomycin.

##### Study on Squeeze Film Characteristics in Synovial Hip Joint

Enas Yahya Abdullah

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 115-128
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/10374D

In this paper general classification of the lubrication regimes in synovial hip joint was given The discussion was focused on two main points, the calculation of film thickness and minimum film thickness for each of the (hydrodynamic lubrication, squeeze film lubrication and, elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication), and the relationship between film thickness and gait cycle (stance phase and swing phase) also and the coefficient friction. Physical properties affecting the film thickness for different types lubrication will be discussed in each lubrication system.

##### Innovative Developments in Electro-Flocking Technology: An Advanced Study

Shlyakhtenko Pavel Grigorievich

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 129-143
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/10525D

In a physically correct study of contact charging and trajectories of movement of short synthetic charged fibers in an inhomogeneous electric field, original results were obtained. Their comprehension led to the creation of a new theory of the formation of pile coverage. The use of the recommendations of this theory made it possible to develop a method for obtaining coatings, the surface density of the oriented pile of which is an order of magnitude higher than the maximum values attainable on the equipment existing in our country and abroad. Fundamentally new methods have also been developed for controlling the conductivity of the pile under conditions that are practically identical to the production conditions in which this parameter is used.

##### Relationship between Profitability and Sustainability in a Sequential Production Context: The Case of Migratory Beekeeper

Luciano Pilati

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 144-152
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/7741D

Plants flower in succession throughout the year and beekeepers can move their colonies from one forage site to another to meet the sequential demand for pollination services and/or to produce honey. A part of the colony’s production time is spent on each forage site in the period when the crop or wild vegetation covering it is in flower. The total period covered by the sequence of sites, including the base site, must be equal to or less than the duration of the honeybee colony’s annual biological cycle. The migratory beekeeper draws up viable sequences of forage sites and calculates their profitability levels. Variations in the profitability of forage sites which alter the composition of the sequence, affecting provision of the non-marketed ecosystem pollination services impact the biodiversity of the pollinated plants with trickle-down effects on sustainability.

In the case of migratory beekeeper, there is, therefore, a sequential relationship between profitability and sustainability.

##### The Impact of Agricultural Output on Economic Development in Nigeria (1986-2014): An Empirical Examination

Abula Matthew, D. Ben Mordecai

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 10, 12 July 2021, Page 153-164
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v10/2069D

This paper empirically examined the impact of agricultural output on economic development in Nigeria using annual time series data spanning 1986 to 2014. Economic development proxied by per capita income (PCI) was explained by agricultural output (AOUT) and public agricultural expenditure (PXA). The contributions of agriculture to economic growth can be examined through the roles of the sector in the economy.  The study employed the Augmented Dickey-Fuller Unit Root test and the Vector Autoregressive model. The result of the multivariate VAR model indicated that most of the lags of the variables are not significant. However, the high level of the R2 and F value in the VAR regression estimates for PCI gave convincing results that collectively all the lagged terms are statistically significant, implying that agriculture plays an important role in Nigeria’s economic development. The variance decomposition analysis revealed that the greater contribution to shocks in economic development apart from feedback shocks was received from shocks to agriculture. The results of the impulse response function in support of the variance decomposition analysis showed that per capita income responded positively to shocks in agricultural output throughout the ten year period, while the response of PCI to shocks in PXA was negative in the first two year period but became positive throughout the last eight periods. We therefore concluded that agriculture is beneficial and plays a significant role in the development process of Nigerian economy. Hence, the government should increase its expenditure on the sector consistently and ensure that Nigerian economy is diversified, in other words, crude oil should not be the mainstay of Nigerian economy. Also, the government of Nigeria should encourage financial institutions to make certain percentage of their total credit facilities available for the agricultural sector in order to enhance food supply, employment generations, poverty reduction, etc.