Editor(s)

Professor,
Department of Organic Geochemistry and Petroleum Geology, Exploration, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Egypt.

ISBN 978-93-91595-92-0 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91595-93-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/cacs/v5

This book covers key areas of chemical science. The contributions by the authors include corrosion inhibitor, CuNps, anodic inhibitor, microwave assisted synthesis, thermostat method, magnetic properties, super paramagnetism,  Unsymmetrical porphyrins, metalloporphyrins, EPR, meso-functionalization, Heterogeneous catalyst, xanthenediones, reusability, silica supported orthophosphoric acid, Impurities, high purity Zr, extraction process, PC88A, D2EHPA, ICP-MS, nano ZrO2, Pectin, natural resources, pectin manufacturing,  extractions, Drill cuttings, bioremediation,  PAH compounds, X-ray agents,  gel contrast media, RE-tantalates, solid solutions. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of chemical science.

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### Chapters

##### Determination of Gomphrena serrata Leaf Extract as Corrosion Inhibitor and Reductant for Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles

S. Vidhya, A. Leema Rose, F. Janeeta Priya

Challenges and Advances in Chemical Science Vol. 5, 14 September 2021, Page 1-11
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacs/v5/4278F

Adapting eco-friendly methodologies is the need of the hour in every field of research. In the present work the potential investigation of Gomphrena serrata leaves was evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor for the mild steel in HCl medium and as a reductant. The corrosive inhibitive activity was found out by identifying the adsorbed layer on the metal surface through electrochemical measurements, SEM and FTIR. From the phytochemical analysis, we found out the G. serrata was enriched with polyphenols which have a very good antioxidant property and it may use as a reducing agent for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The G. serrata as an efficient inhibitor it obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm and served as anodic type inhibitor. The impedance study confirms the formation of thin film on the metal surface through its Cdl and Rct values. The copper nanoparticles and their derivatives have been used as a medicine to prevent infection, leg ulcers etc. G. serrata leaves have good medicinal values, to enhance its medicinal properties it was mediated for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. The CuNps formation was confirmed by SPR bands at 345 nm by microwave method and at 341 nm by thermostat method. The functional groups present in the G. serrata also present in the FTIR spectra of CuNps and it confirms the G. serrata was used as a reducing as well as a capping agent.

##### Studies on Superparamagnetic Behavior of CoFe$$_2$$O$$_4$$/rGO Nanocomposites at Different Temperatures

Amodini Mishra

Challenges and Advances in Chemical Science Vol. 5, 14 September 2021, Page 12-19
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacs/v5/10097D

The source of magnetism lies due to spin and orbital motions of electrons and how the electrons relate with other. Magnetic nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention due to their important properties which differ from those of bulk materials. So, they can be used to make materials and devices with new properties. Magnetic nanoparticles display some explicit properties such as superparamagnetism. Two dimensional (2D) nanosheets such as reduced graphene oxide (rGO) possess unique properties like, high mobility, chemical active, good optically transparent and very high active surface area etc. These important properties make this material an admirable applicant to making nanocomposites with magnetic nanoparticles such as cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4). Decorating CoFe2O4 nanoparticles on rGO will impart the needed magnetic property into nanosheets, making the nanocomposites promising for a variety of fields. This chapter discuss the properties, general methods of preparation and some characteristics of CoFe2O4/rGO nanocomposites that can be effectively used in in different applications.

##### Determining the Synthesis and Characterization of Some Novel Meso Functionalized Unsymmetrical Metalloporphyrins

Challenges and Advances in Chemical Science Vol. 5, 14 September 2021, Page 20-31
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacs/v5/1752C

In this article, we describe the synthesis of meso substituted tetraaryl unsymmetrical metalloporphyrins (A3B). Two common methods used for metalation of porphyrins are the acetate method and dimethyl formamide method. By reacting unsymmetrical porphyrins with metal acetates, new porphyrins with different functionalizations at the meso-position (A3B type) and their cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc complexes were synthesised. UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectra were used to characterise the metalloporphyrins that were synthesised. ESR spectra and magnetic measurements for complexes(1a, 1c and 3c) were used to further investigate the copper complexes 1c and 3c. Similarly, fluorescence spectra were used to study the zinc complexes of 1d and 3d.

##### Study on Synthesis of 1,8-Dioxooctahydroxanthene by Silica Supported Orthophosphoric Acid (H$$_3$$PO$$_4$$•SiO$$_2$$)

Rahul Shankarrao Patil, Ankush V. Mali, Shivaji H. Burungale

Challenges and Advances in Chemical Science Vol. 5, 14 September 2021, Page 32-44
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacs/v5/9876D

Reusability of heterogeneous catalyst provide wide advantages over homogenous catalyst  so that we have developed a novel method of preparation of xanthenediones by condensing aldehyde and dimedone in 2:1 proportion by using silica supported orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4.SiO2) as a catalyst. The developed protocol was scalable, simple and high sensitive to the various substituted aldehydes.

##### Extraction and Separation of Nano-Sized Zirconia from in High Purity ZrO(NO$$_3$$)$$_2$$ Using PC88A, D2EHPA and Determination of Impurities by ICP-MS

Nhuong Chu Manh, N. T. H. Lan, M. X. Truong, D. T. Huong, N. T. T. Loan

Challenges and Advances in Chemical Science Vol. 5, 14 September 2021, Page 45-63
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacs/v5/13031D

Many components of nuclear reactors, particularly fuel cladding tubes, require high purity zirconium (Zr) elements. Because of the influence of the matrix, determining impurities in Zr materials necessitates separation from the Zr matrix. Solvent extraction is a common extraction process that is appropriate for large-scale production. In this chapter, extraction capability of Zr(IV) by 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono 2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) were examined by FT-IR, UV spectra of ZrO(NO3)2 salt, PC88A-toluene solvent, and Zr-PC88A-toluene complex. ZrO2 (obtained from Institute for Technology of Radioactive and Rare Elements - ITRRE) and ZrCl4 (Merck) are transferred to ZrO(NO3)2, after being separated from the Zr matrix, was determined for impurities using internal standard (indium, In) by 50% of PC88A dissolved in toluene. Impurities were separated from the Zr matrix in two steps. First, the Zr matrix and impurities were extracted in 3.0 M HNO3 using 50 percent PC88A/toluene for one cycle. Second, impurities were cleaned in two cycles with 4.0-6.0 M HNO3. According to the findings, approximately 74% of Zr(IV) was separated into the organic phase, while 26% remained in the aqueous phase. The recovery of impurities following separation from the Zr matrix by ICP-MS using an internal standard demonstrated a 95–100% recovery of impurities.The influence of the Zr matrix on ICP-MS element determination is insignificant with the amount of Zr stated. Impurity levels having relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 6.9% and recoveries (Revs) of 88.6–98.8 percent. As a result, the assessment of contaminants is extremely accurate and reliable. Back-extraction of Zr(IV) in organic phase with 1.0 - 1.5 M H2SO4 removed 99.5 percent of the Zr matrix and returned it to the aqueous phase.

After that, after back-extraction, NH3 was added to the solution containing Zr to make Zr(OH)4, which was then desiccated to yield ZrO2. The new ZrO2 product has a spherical nanostructure with diameters of less than 25 nm, which is suitable for applications such as colourant treatment, metal ions in wastewater sources, and the manufacture of anti-corrosion steel, according to X-ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) images. Furthermore, the new ZrO2 product's energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed that it is extremely pure.

##### A Brief Review on Extraction and Use of Pectin from Natural Sources

Selma Yarligan Uysal, Robina Maihan

Challenges and Advances in Chemical Science Vol. 5, 14 September 2021, Page 64-74
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacs/v5/12783D

Pectin of various strengths to gel or stabilize stocks, as well as pectin of various standards or derivatives with simple properties, is in high demand. While pectin is commonly used as a food ingredient in jellies, syrups, and dairy products for its densification, gelling, and emulsifying capabilities, it is also classified as a biodegradable polymer with natural sources, but its supply is limited. To get a significant yield of high-quality pectin, some factors, such as the extraction process requirements, must increase the stability of the reaction by releasing high solvent polymers with negative charges and hydrolyzing the glycoside or ester bond. Therefore, time, temperature, and HNO3 concentration are the autonomous factors. In this review, it is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of pectin research by focusing on recent studies of pectin recovery from plant materials (purification and fractionation) as well as advances in the physical, chemical, and functional properties of pectin.

##### New X-Ray Contrast Agents Based on RE-Tantalates and their Solid Solutions: An Advancement of Research

M. G. Zuev, L. P. Larionov, I. M. Strekalov, E. Yu. Zhuravleva

Challenges and Advances in Chemical Science Vol. 5, 14 September 2021, Page 75-94
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacs/v5/1962C

The aim of this study was to develop new gel X-ray contrast agents (RCA), in which the substances are tantalates of rare-earth elements or solid solutions based thereon in micro and nanosized states. The next aim was to provide an increase in contrast over time, which would improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce radiation exposure to patients. Orthotantalats MTaO4 (M = Y, La, Gd) and solid solutions La1-xGdxTaO4 were considered as such substances. The RCA were examined in vitro and in vivo. When gel lanthanum orthotantalate was used as a RCA for contrast studies of the bile passages, this method exhibited a high resolving power in the examination of the hepatic tree and the gallbladder and in the diagnostics of intracavitory masses in ducts and the gallbladder. In contrast to iodine-containing urografin, this RCA has no negative effect on the mucous tunic of the bile passages of laboratory animals. Using the substitutional solid solutions, one can continuously change the specific effectiveness of RCA by gradual varying of the composition and the average size of the substance particles.