Dr. Ashish Anand
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, GV Montgomery Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.

ISBN 978-93-91312-72-5 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91312-80-0 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/tipr/v7

This book covers key areas of pharmaceutical research. The contributions by the authors include cardiotoxicity, cardiac troponin, cardio protective effects, optic canal, duplication, anatomy, skull, tumour removal, decompression, intravenous errors, wrong dose, wrong medication, health care, non-alcoholic agents, insulin resistance, obesity, farnesoid x receptor, oxidative stress, intestinal microbiome, body mass index, waist hip ratio, ligands, binding affinity, combinatorial protocol, Burden matrix, Sanderson electronegativity, binding affinity, Analgesic agents profiling, inflammatory agents, nociception, pain assessment, tonic and visceral, aseptic process simulation, antidepressant activity, forced swim test, tail suspension test, depression, surveillance, prevention, drug resistance, antibiotic cycling. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of pharmaceutical research.


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Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of telmisartan against 5-FU induced cardiotoxicity in Wister rats.

Methods: Thirty-six Wister rats were randomly divided into six groups: I, negative control receiving normal saline (2 ml/kg) orally for 30 successive days; II, positive control receiving normal saline (2ml/kg/day) orally for 25 days, and subsequently received 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) (20 mg in 2 ml normal saline per kg body weight) once daily by intraperitoneal injection in association with normal saline for a 5 days; III and IV, receiving telmisartan (5mg and 10mg/kg/day) respectively for 30 successive days; V and VI, receiving telmisartan (5 mg and 10 mg/kg/day) orally for 25 days, and subsequently received 5-FU (20 mg in 2ml normal saline per kg body weight) once daily by intraperitoneal injection in association with normal saline for a 5 days respectively.

Results: Prophylactic treatment of telmisartan significantly attenuates the serum cardiac troponin T, aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and alanine.

Aminotransferase (ALT) elevation caused by 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity.

Conclusion: results of the present finding suggest that telmisartan may be a useful modulator in mitigating 5-FU induced cardiotoxicity.

Determination of Duplicated Optic Canals in Eastern Indian Human Skulls from India

Gyanaranjan Nayak, Biswa Bhusan Mohanty, Saurjya Ranjan Das

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 7, 21 June 2021, Page 9-15

The duplication of optic canals is a rare anomaly found in both sexes, all ages and various races.

Objective: The present study was carried out to find the incidence of duplication of optic canal and study its clinical and developmental significance.

Methods: The study included 100 dry human skulls of both the sexes and various age groups. These skulls were studied grossly and morphologically to find out duplication of the optic canals.

Results: Additional optic canals were found in 3 skulls (3% cases). Out of them 2 cases (2%) presented bilateral duplication whereas in only one case (1%) it was unilateral. The larger main canal was in the usual position directed posteromedially upwards and was continuous with the anterolateral end of Sulcus chiasmaticus. The smaller or duplicated canal was inferolateral to the main canal in the lesser wing of sphenoid. The main and accessory canals were separated by bony septa.

Conclusion: Knowledge of additional optic canals is of paramount importance in performing surgical exploration of optic canal during removal of tumours or decompression of optic canals or surgically accessing the cavernous sinus or Sella turcica.

Determining the Intravenous Medication Administration Errors and Trying to Find Solutions

Omar Abdulwahid Salih Al-ani

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 7, 21 June 2021, Page 16-25

Objective: Intravenous errors are one of the most frequent and common medical errors, but no direct causes are found. The theory of human error is the most common expression of errors in hospitals, and this can endanger the lives of patients. Medication errors remain errors and causes of harm to the patient regardless of whether they occur due to negligence, omissions, or lack of education and experience. This research study aims to identify the errors in the vein and try to find solutions to avoid those errors where the study conducted on a sample of hospitals in Baghdad.

Methods: The study was conducted to improve health quality in some hospitals. During the study period, a group of severe cases was detected, which was based on intravenous infusions. Patients' data and information were collected through 5 sources, examined and documented venous errors found, and placed in a standard classification according to an incorrect dose and incorrect medication. The incorrect dose includes the following: overdose, extra dose, under-dose, wrong strength, and wrong form.

Results: During the period of study, a total of 99 cases. Among these cases, 52 incorrect medications include (drug-drug interaction, drug-disease interaction, and not indicated medication) the incorrect dose 42 and route of administration and incorrect rate also take place in mistakes.

Conclusion: Intravenous errors can cause significant harm to patients and healthcare providers, so proper attention paid to them. Several reasons may cause medication errors such as lack of experience and knowledge of health care providers, inaccurate communications that do not explain the drug, and the exact dose. The prescribing errors in the medication or dosage were collected, discussed and clarified so that the risks arising from them were observed so that health care providers and hospital specialists would be alerted and the study would serve as an alarm for health organizations.

Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: A Review

Sandeep Mukherjee

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 7, 21 June 2021, Page 26-40

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a metabolic dysfunction-related liver disease that has become one of the leading causes of cirrhosis and liver transplantation in the United States.Obesity and insulin resistance are the two most common risk factors for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, with patients frequently exhibiting metabolic syndrome symptoms. Patients who are able to modify these risk factors and are recognised early in the course of their disease can experience histological improvement, including fibrosis arrest or improvement.  In addition to the development of cirrhosis and its life-threatening complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma, variceal bleeding, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with coronary artery, carotid artery, and peripheral vascular disease, with coronary artery disease being the most common cause of death. Despite the completion of several clinical trials assessing a variety of drugs targeted at different parts of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development and progression, there is presently no approved treatment for this condition other than risk factor management. However, several promising clinical trials are in progress and the future looks promising. The most recent and salient medical advances in the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis will be discussed in this article.

Indian Black-Berry (Syzygium cumini) Seed Flour in Diabetic Study

E. Lakshmi

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 7, 21 June 2021, Page 41-47

Objective: To optimize recipes incorporating Indian black berry (Syzygium cumini) seed flour in biscuits for its organo-leptic feel and assess its impact on the anthropometric status of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: The study was designed to include 20 Type 2 and 20 normoglycaemic control. Biscuits were prepared using four blends (10 g, 15 g, 20 g and 25 g) of Syzygium cumini seed flour (SCSF) with a control. The diabetic subjects were supplemented with Indian blackberry (Syzygium cumini) seed flour (20 g) biscuits. Nutritional status were assessed like body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR). Results were analysed statistically by two -way anova and paired ‘t’ test.

Results: Statistically there was significant difference (P<0.001) in flavor and taste perception between diabetics and Normoglycemic. The mean fasting and Post prandial glucose level decreased much (P<0.001). There was significant(P<0.001) decrease in the body mass index and waist hip ratio.

CP-MLR Directed QSAR Rationales for the 1-aryl Sulfonyl Tryptamines as 5-HT6 Receptor Ligands: An Advanced Study

Manju Choudhary, Shreekant Deshpande, Brij Kishore Sharma

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 7, 21 June 2021, Page 48-65

A QSAR study has been carried out to rationalize the 5-HT6 receptor binding affinities of the 1-aryl sulfonyl tryptamine derivatives using Dragon descriptors. A higher value of molecular symmetry and topology accounting Randic shape index descriptor PW4 (path/walk 4) would be favorable to improve the binding affinity. Presence of more number of bromine atoms (descriptor nBR) and presence of such structural fragment in which a hydrogen atom attached to sp3 hybridized carbon with no hetero atom rather than one hetero atom attached to next carbon atom (descriptors H-046 and H-052) will be supportive to the activity. The prevalence of atomic properties to explain the binding affinity is evident from the associations of polarizability to the path length 7 of Moran autocorrelation (MATS7p), masses to eigenvalues n.2 and 7 of Burden m atrix (BELm2 and BEHm7), Sanderson electronegativity to highest eigenvalue n.2 Burden matrix (BEHe2) and van der Waals volume to path length 8 of Geary autocorrelation (GATS8v) and charge content in terms of topological and mean topological charge indices (GGI3 and JGI2). The dominance of the information content of the descriptors, emerged in CP-MLR models, has also confirmed by the PLS analysis.

The derived QSAR models and descriptors shared in these models revealed that the substituents of tryptamine moiety have sufficient scope for further modification. The present study has provided structure–activity relationships of the binding affinities of tryptamine derivatives to 5-HT6 receptor in terms of structural requirements 

Neurological Pain Study in Animals with Proposed Analgesic Mechanism Profiles

Chuan Wei Oo, Yean Chun Loh, Mun Fei Yam, Rusliza Basir

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 7, 21 June 2021, Page 66-97

Pain is the most natural sensation in our body that plays a vital protecting role of all organisms against severe harm. It is the most complicated topic in neurological study of all time and yet there has none of scientist clearly justify all the mechanisms mediated by pain receptors. Of course there have been some answers to curbing of pain which is a life-saver in numerous situations - chronic and acute pain conditions alike. This has been explored by scientist using pain-like behavioral study methodologies in concious animals since decades ago to characterize the analgesic profile for pain regulation development. However, widely the methodology is being practiced, there has rarely been a complete review of all these methodology, their benefits and its downside coupled with the mechanism of action that is involved. Thus, this topic solely focused on the complete protocol that is being adapted in each animal’s “pain-like” behavioural study that induced by analgesic agents, the different assessment method used for inflammatory pain and the mechanistic actions underlying each behavioral study methodology. This comprehensive discussion will significantly provide a concise idea and improve our scientists’ understanding towards the pain management.

Study on Designing and Quality Aspects of Aseptic Process Simulation

S. Hemanth Kumar, Teja Sri Maddirala, T. Shailesh, M. P. Gowrav, D. V. Gowda

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 7, 21 June 2021, Page 98-111

Aseptic process simulation is a crucial validation technique carried out before a new product, or aseptic process is introduced in the facility and also to prove at regular intervals that the existing manufacturing operations are carried out in a state of aseptic conditions. This review addresses the nature of the study involved in aseptic process simulation, speed and number of runs, runtime, the atmospheric conditions, line speed, the media used, incubating & analysing media-filled units, data interpretation. It also focuses on worst-case parameters, interventions, case study on interventions and the regulatory aspects concerned with the simulation. Aseptic process simulation involves conducting aseptic production using a sterile growth medium instead of actual drug solution and excipients. The processes involved in aseptic process validation include identifying process mechanisms, variables, and control methods, including product, component, sterilisation of equipment, sanitary facilities, environmental checks, and staff training on gowning procedures.

Phytochemical and Pharmacological Analysis of Commiphora mukul for Anti-depressant Activity in Albino Mice

Vijetha Pendyala, Sarath Nalla

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 7, 21 June 2021, Page 112-118

Depression is a heterogeneous mood disorder that has been classified and treated in variety of ways. Although a number of synthetic drugs are being used as standard treatment for clinically depressed patient, they have adverse effects that can compromise the therapeutic treatment. In the traditional systems of medicine, many plants and formulations have been used to treat depression for thousands of years. Commiphora mukul is a commonly available plant throughout India and it has been claimed in traditional literature to be valuable plant against a wide variety of diseases. Till date no scientific data was available on the antidepressant activity of this plant. So, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Commiphora mukul (Family: Burseraceae), on depression in mice using tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). Hydro-alcoholic, Ethyl acetate and pet ether fractions (50 and100 mg/kg p.o.) of Guggul administered orally for 14 successive days had decreased the immobility periods significantly in a dose-dependent manner in both TST and FST, showing significant antidepressant-like activity. The activities of the fractions were found to be comparable to imipramine in both FST and TST.

In conclusion, our results indicate the potential for use of Commiphora mukul as an adjuvant in the treatment of depression.

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Retrospective Study

C. M. Divyashanthi, S. Adithiyakumar, N. Bharathi

Technological Innovation in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 7, 21 June 2021, Page 119-130

Background: Antimicrobial drugs includes all agents that work against a variety of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Antimicrobial resistance is when bacteria or other microbes become resistant to the effects of a drug after being exposed to them. Bacterial species insusceptible to a particular drug are naturally resistant. Species that were once sensitive but eventually become resistant to it are said to have acquired resistance.

Objective: Many human illnesses are bacterial in origin which can be treated with appropriate antibiotics and selection of these is mostly based on culture and sensitivity. The problem of antimicrobial resistance has burgeoned throughout the world both in inpatients and outpatients. We must work together to preserve the power of antimicrobials so as to use these effectively in treating diseases. The aim of the study is to find out the prevalence of infection and sensitivity pattern among bacterial pathogens in a tertiary care hospital.

Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in Vinayaka Missions Medical College and Hospital, Karaikal, Puducherry (U. T) to study the culture and sensitivity pattern of clinical isolates from blood, urine, sputum, wound, ear/throat swab for one year (June 2012- June 2013). The positive cultures and their antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed under the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). The lab data from Microbiology department were utilized and filled in a proforma and analyzed.

Results: Out of 788 samples, 296 were culture positive. Isolated bacteria were mostly Gram negative organisms (GNO) of which Klebsiella (41.55%) was commonly followed by Pseudomonas (15.20%), Escherichia coli(4.05%) and Proteus (3.71%). Among Gram positive organisms (GPO) Staphylococcus (35.47%) was common. Imipenem (100%), Gentamycin (90.20%), Amikacin (89.14%), were the antimicrobials most sensitive for GNO, while Ceftriaxone (100%), Cefotaxime (100%), Nitrofurantoin(96.15%) and Linezolid(92.13%) were most sensitive for GPO. Widespread resistance to Nalidixic acid (99%), Ampicillin (85.90%), Cefuroxime (75%) is seen in both groups, while Cefazolin(79.25%) and Norfloxacin(83%) was noted for GNO, resistance to Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (81.66%) and Imipenem(55.55%) was noted for GPO.

Conclusion: The technical abilities to detect novel, resistant mechanisms and to overcome the microbial resistance has to be improved. Antibiotic policies agreed among clinicians, microbiologists and pharmacologists will guide good prescribing, provide maximum coverage for treating infections and ensure antibiotic cycling.